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MEANING AND MESSAGE 
OF THE TRADITIONS 



MAULANA MUHAMMAD MANZOOR NCMANI 





























































































Volume Two 







DARUL-1SHAAT 

KARACHI - PAKISTAN 




MEANING AND MESSAGE 
OF THE 

TRADITIONS 

(MA'ARIFUL HADITH) 



Volume Two 
Part III & IV 



By 

Maulana Mohammad Manzoor Nomani 

Translated by Completed & Revised by 

Mohammad Asif Kidwai Rafiq Abdur Rehman 

M.A., Ph.D. 



DEDICATED 

to all those religious brothers who believe 
in the unlettered Prophet, Sayyidina 
Muhammad Arabi HI (to whom be 
ransomed my mother, father, my soul and 
my heart) 

and who believe that their salvation and 
that of all the children of Aadam 
depends on following his guidance and his 
beautiful way of life. 

Hence, they long to gain true awareness of 
his teachings and practices. 

Come! 

Let us purse the path of knowledge and 
imagination and attend the gatherings of 
the Prophet lH and hear his sayings, 

and 

from this spring of light receive guidance 
for our dark hearts. 

The humble sinner 
Muhammad Manzoor Na'umani 



CONTENTS 

PART-III 



1 KITABUT TAHARAH 17 
(The Book of Purification) 

2 The Place of Cleanliness in Islam 19 

3 Cleanliness is a part of Faith 21 

4 Punishment of the Grave Due to Impurity 24 

5 Purification After a Natural Evacaution 27 

6 Purification with Water 28 

7 Where Not to Defacate? 30 

8 Choice of The Place for Urination 3 1 

9 Prayer Before Entering the Lavatory 32 

10 Prayer on Coming out of the Lavatory 34 

11 Virtue of Wudu 35 

12 Sources of Purification from Sins and Forgiveness 35 

1 3 Wudu is the Key of All the Gates of Heaven 3 8 

1 4 Effulgence of Organs of Wudu on Day of Resurrection 39 

15 Complete and Faultless Wudu Despite Inconvenience 39 

16 Solicitude for Wudu is a Sign of Perfection of Faith 40 

1 7 Wudu upon Wudu 4 1 

1 8 Harmful Effects of a Defective Wudu 4 1 

19 Miswak 43 

20 Importance 43 

21 Special Occasions 44 

22 Miswak is the Sunnah of Prophets ((iM-JIj^-jIp) 45 

23 Ten Personal Characteristics 46 

24 Miswak Adds to the Value of Namaz 49 



8 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



25 Wudu 51 

26 No Prayer Without Wudu 5 1 

27 Method 53 

28 Sunnah And Properties 57 

29 Water Should Not be Spent Wastefully 60 

30 Use of Towel or Handkerchief 61 

31 Supplication at the End of Wudu 62 

32 Reciting After Ablution 62 

33 Janabat And Its Ghusl 63 

34 When Ghusl is Obligatory 63 

35 Method 64 

36 Mustahab And Musnoon Ghusl 69 

37 Ghusl of Friday 69 

38 Ghusl After Bathing the Dead Body 7 1 

39 Ghusl of 'Id 72 

40 Tayammum 73 

41 Philosophy of Tayammum 73 

42 The Command 74 

43 KITABUS SALAT 79 
(The Book of Prayers) 

44 Pre-Eminence of Salat 81 



45 Ommission of Prayers in Inimical to Faith and An Act 84 

of Apostasy 

46 Obligation of the Five Daily Prayers and the Promise 87 



of Forgiveness 

47 Source of Forgiveness and Purification 88 

48 The Promise of Forgiveness and Paradise 90 

49 Most Pleasing Deed 91 

50 Hours of Salat 93 

51 Timetable of Daily Prayers 95 

52 The Prophet's Usual Practice and Advice Regarding 100 
the Time for Asr 

53 Maghrib 101 

54 Isha 102 

55 Fajr 104 



56 Offering Prayer Near the Close of the Specified Time 1 06 



Contents 



9 



57 If a Prayer is Missed Due to Forgetting or 107 
Oversleeping 

58 Azan 109 

59 Beginning 109 

60 Teaching of Azan to Abu Mahzurah 114 

61 Principles of Religion Lie in Azan And Iqamah 117 

62 Some Commands and Directives 119 

63 Merit and Pre-Eminence of Azan and Muazzin 122 

64 Responding to Azan and The Supplication Made After 125 
It 

65 Mosques 129 

66 Their Grandeur & Significance. Rights & Proprieties 129 

67 Significance 129 

68 Supplication to be Made on Entering And Coming out 134 

69 of the Mosque 

70 Tahyyatul Masjid 135 

71 Attachment to the Mosque is a Sign of Faith 136 

72 Keeping the Mosques Clean and Supplied with a 136 
Pleasant Odour 

73 Reward on Construction of Mosques 137 

74 Adornment and Embellishment of the Mosques 137 

75 No One Should come to the Mosque After Fating a 138 
Thing Giving out a Disagreeable Smell 

76 Forbidding the Recitation of Poetry and Buying and 139 

77 Selling of Goods in the Mosque 

78 Protection From Little Children and Noise 140 

79 Forbidding of Wordly Talk in the Mosques 140 

80 Presence of Women in the Mosques 141 

81 Congregation 145 

82 Importance 1 46 

83 Superiority and Blessedness 1 50 

84 Full Reward on Intention 1 5 1 

85 When it is Premissible to Say Namaz Individually or at 1 52 
Home 

86 Arrangement of Rows 153 

87 Front Rows to he Completed First 1 56 

88 Superiority of Front Row 156 



10 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



89 Method 157 

90 Imam Should Stand in Middle 158 

91 How Should Muqtadis Stand if There Were only One 158 
or Two of Them? 

92 Women Should Stand Separately and At The Back of 159 
Men and Even Children 

93 Imamat 161 

94 Selection of Imam 161 

95 The Best Among You Should be Made the Imam 1 63 

96 Responsibility of Imam 163 

97 Convenience of Muqtadis 164 

98 Guidance for Muqtadis 1 67 

99 Performance of Prayer 169 

1 00 How Prayer Should be Offered 1 69 

1 0 1 Prayer of the Prophet 1 7 1 

102 Particular Supplication & Methods of God- 173 
Remembrance 

103 Recital of Qur'an in Namaz 179 

104 Rulings of Legist-Doctors on The Question of Recital 181 
of Al-Fatihah 

105 Recital of the Qur'an by the Prophet During Fajr 183 

1 06 During Zuhr And Asr 1 86 

107 During the Maghrib 187 

108 During 'Isha 188 

1 09 During the Namaz of Different Hours 190 

1 1 0 During the Friday Prayers and The Two 'Id Prayers 1 9 1 

1 1 1 Aameen at the End of Surah al-Fatiha 193 

111 Should 'Aameen' be Said with a Loud Voice or in 195 
Silence? 

1 1 2 Rata' Yadayn (Raising Hands) 1 96 

113 Ruku And Sujud 201 

114 Performance of Ruku and Sujud 201 

1 1 5 What is to Be Recited in Ruku and Sajdah? 203 

1 1 6 Qur'an Should not be Recited in Ruku and Sajdah 207 

1 1 7 Quauma and Jalsa 209 

1 18 Q'adah, Tashahhud and Salaam 212 

1 1 9 The Correct Method of Q'adah 2 1 3 



Contents 



1 20 Brevity and Hast in Q'adah-i-Oola 2 1 4 

121 Tashahhud 215 

122 Invocating Blessings on The Prophet iH 219 

The Command in the Qur'an to Invoke Blesings on the 220 

123 Prophet S 

124 Text 220 

125 Meaning of 'Aal' in Durood Sharif 222 

126 Place and Wisdom of Durood in Prayer 224 

127 Supplication After Durood and Before Salaam 224 
128 Salaam Marking the End of Prayer 227 

129 Supplication After Salaam 229 

130 Sunnah And Nawafil Prayer 235 

1 3 1 Sunnat-i-Muakkadah 236 

132 Special Significance of Sunnat of Fajr 237 

133 Superiority of Sunnah and Nawafil at Other Times 238 

134 Witr 240 

135 Recital of Qur'an in Witr 243 

136 QunootofWitr . 244 

137 Two Rak'at Nafl After Witr 246 

138 Qiyam al-Layl or Tahajjud 247 

139 In the Event of Missing Tahajjud 252 

140 Rak'at of Tahajjud 253 

141 Some Other Details 253 

142 Chasht And Ishraq 259 

143 Nafl Prayers on Special Occasions 263 

144 Salat Istighfar 263 

145 Salatul Hajat 264 

146 Salat Istikhara 266 

147 Salatul Tasbih 268 

148 A Special Advantage of Nafl Prayers 272 

149 Special Congregational Prayers Friday and the 273 
Two 'Id 

150 Superiority of Friday 274 

151 Durood Sharif is the Special Prayer Formula of Friday 275 

152 Hour of Exceptional Propitiousness on a Friday 276 

153 Special Significance of Friday Prayer 278 

154 Proprities 279 



12 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



1 55 Clipping the Moustaches and Paring off the Nails 28 1 

156 Wearing Good Clothes 281 

157 Going Early for Prayers Z82 

158 Practice of the Prophet 282 

159 Sunnat Before and After Friday Service 284 

160 Eidul Fitr and Eidul Azha 287 

161 Origin 288 

162 Prayer and Sermon of the Two Eids 289 

163 Without Azan and Iqamat 290 

1 64 No Nafl Rak'at Before or After Eid Prayers 29 1 

165 Time 291 

166 Recital of the Qur'an 293 

1 67 Eid Prayer in the Mosque Due to Rain 294 

1 68 Eating Before or After the Service? 294 

169 Changing of the Route 295 

170 Sadqat uT-Fitr 295 

171 Qurbani 296 

172 Method 298 

173 Instructions Regarding Animals of Qurbani 299 

174 Shares 300 

175 Qurbani After Prayers 301 

176 Superiority of the 'Ashra of Zul Hajjah 302 

1 77 Salat al-Kusoof and Salat al-Istisqa 303 

178 Salat al-Kusoof 303 

179 Salat al-[stisqa 309 . 

180 Namaz-i-Janaza and Other Related Matters 315 

181 Remembrance of Death 316 

1 82 It is Prohibited to Desire or Pray for Death 319 

1 83 Illness is a Blessing and an Atonement for Sins 3 1 9 
1.84 Reward of Deeds of the Days of good Health during 322 

illness 

185 Visiting of the Sick 323 

186 Blowing on the Sick Person and Praying for his 324 
Recovery 

1 87 When Signs of Death Appear 326 

1 88 Things to be Done After Death 328 

189 Bewailing and Breast-Beating 329 



Contents 1 3 

1 90 Tears of Eyes and Grief and Heart 333 

191 Condolence 334 

1 92 Sending Food to the Family of the Deceased 335 

193 Showing Patience at Death 335 

1 94 A Letter of Condolence by the Pophet ll 335 

195 Bathing and Shrouding of the Dead Body 337 

196 Shrouding 339 



197 Following the Funeral Procession and Offering the 341 
Funeral Prayer 

198 Walking at a Brisk pace with the Bier and Need for 342 

199 Dispatch 

200 Funeral Prayer and Solemn Entreaty for the Deceased 343 

201 Propitiousnes of a Large Number of Men Participating 345 



in Funeral Prayer 

202 Burial 347 

203 Graves 350 

204 Visiting the Graves 351 

205 Salutation to Occupiers of Graves 352 

206 Consigning Reward to the Dead ('Isaal Sawab) 353 

PART-IV 

207 Foreword 355 

208 KITABUZ ZAKAH 359 
(The Book of Zakah) 

209 Importance of Zakah 361 

210 Three Aspects 362 

211 Earlier Canonic Laws 363 

212 The Call of Zakah After Faith and Salah 365 

2 1 3 Punishment on Non-Payment of Zakah 367 

214 Purification of Wealth 369 

215 Rules And Regulations 373 

216 Minimum Wealth that Attracts Zakah 373 

2 1 7 Zakah on Goods of Trade 374 

218 Payable at the Expiry of a Year 375 

219 Jewellery 375 



1 4 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 

220 Zakah Can be Paid in Advance 376 

221 Beneficiaries 376 

222 Zakah And the Family of the Prophet 380 

223 When it is Not permitted to Him to Beg and When it is 383 
Disgraceful in Any Case 385 

224 If Begging is unavoidable one should beg from 385 
virtuous men 

225 Place Your Need Before God, Not Men 386 

226 Assurance of Paradise on Abstention from Begging 386 

227 If anything is Given to you Without Solicitation or 386 
Greediness, Take it 

228 Do not Beg as long as you can earn by work or service 387 

229 Meonetary Good-Doing apart from Zakah 389 

230 Charity is enjoined pon all Muslims, Rich or Poor 390 

231 Exhortation to Charity- 391 

232 Only That remains and will be use which is spent in 392 
the Way of Allah 

233 The way of Men of Fa,ith and Trust Concerning 393 
Expenditure in Allah's way 

234 Rich people who do not spend freely in the way of God 394 

235 are the Losers 

236 Auspiciousness of Charity 395 

237 Increase in Wealth 396 

238 Reward on Feeding and Clothing the Needy 396 

239 Even Giving Food and Drink to Animals that Are 397 
Hungry or Thirsty is Charity 

240 Saving Fellowmen from Annoyance or Inconvenience 398 
Gets one to Paradise 

241 When Does Charity Fetch Greater Reward? 399 

242 To Spend on One's Dependents too, is charity 400 

243 Superiority of Spending on Kinsmen 402 

244 Charity on Behalf of Deceased 405 

245 KITABUSSAUM 409 
(The Book of Fasting) 



246 Significance of Fasting 



411 



Contents 



15 



247 Virtue of Ramadan 412 

248 A Sermon of the Prophet at the Arrival of Ramadan 4 1 5 

249 Worth And Recompense 4 1 8 

250 Fasting And Taraweeh 420 

25 1 Intercession by Fast and the Qur'an 42 1 

252 Irreparable Loss 422 

253 Abstention from Sin 422 

254 The Last Ashra and Lailatul Qadr 423 

255 Special Supplication 426 

256 Last Night 426 

257 I'tikaf 427 

258 Usual Practice of the Prophet 428 

259 Sighting of the Moon 431 

260 When to Begin and End the Fasts of Ramadan 432 

261 Proof of the Visibility of Moon Through Report and 433 
Evidence 

262 Prohibition of Fasting on One or Two Days Before the 435 
Commencement of Ramadan 

263 Sahr And Iftari 437 

264 Haste in Iftari Delay in Sahr 438 

265 Prohibition of Saum-Wisal 439 

266 What is Better for Iftar? 441 

267 Supplication of Iftar 441 

268 Reward on Inviting a Fasting Person to Join At 442 
Fast-Breaking Meal 

269 Fasting on A Journey 445 

270 Making Amends for Not Observing an Obligatory Fast 448 

271 Expiation for Missing Fast Without a Cogent Reason 449 

272 By What Things a Fast is Not Impaired or Nullified ' 451 

273 Nafl Fasts 455 

274 ZakahoftheBody 455 

275 Abundance of Supererogatory Fasts in the Month of 455 
Sha'ban 

276 Six Fasts After Ramadan 456 

277 Three Supererogatory Fasts in a Month Are Enough 457 

278 Practice of the Prophet Concerning Three Fasts in a 461 
Month 



16 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



219 Fasts of Ayyam-ul Beed 462 

280 The Fast of Ashurah 463 

281 The Fast of Arafah 466 

282 The Fast of 1 5th of Sha'ban 467 

283 Supererogatory Fasts on Particular Days 468 

284 Days on Which Supererogatory Fasts Are Prescribed 47 1 

285 A Supererogatory Fast Can be Voided 472 

286 KITABUL HAJJ 475 
(The Book ofHajj) 

287 Nature And Objects of The Hajj 477 

288 Obligatoriness and Superiority of the Hajj 479 

289 Miqat Ihram Talbia 487 

290 Miqat 488 

291 The Robe of Ibrahim 490 

292 Taking a Bath Before Ihram 492 

293 Talbiah of Ihram 492 

294 First of Ihram 493 

295 Talbiah Should be Said With a Loud Voice 494 

296 Special Supplication After Talbia 495 

297 Farewell Hajj 497 

298 Details 499 

299 Principal Rituals and Ceremonies of the Hajj 521 

300 Entry to Makkah and the First Tawaf 52 1 

301 The Black Stone 525 

302 Zikr and Supplication in Tawaf 526 

303 Importance of the Halt at Arafat 527 

304 Rami Jamarat 530 

305 Qurbani 532 

306 Tawaf Ziyarat and Tawaf Wada 534 

307 Hugging the Multazam 537 

308 Holy Cities of Makkah and Madinah 539 

309 Samctity of Makkah 539 

310 Glory of Madinah 544 

311 Superiority of Masjid Nabawi 550 

312 Visiting the Grave of the Prophet 555 



KITAB UT-TAHARAH 

(BOOK OF PURIFICATION) 



THE PLACE OF CLEANLINESS IN ISLAM 



Cleanliness and purification, in Islam, is not merely an essential 
condition for the performance of an act of worship like prayer, 
recitation of Qur'an and Tawaf , but as the Qur'an and the 
Traditions tell, it constitutes a permanent department of Faith and 
possess a significance of its own as well. 

It is set forth in the Qur'an: 

Truely Allah loveth those who turn unto Him, and loveth those 
who have a care of claeaness. (Al-Baqarah 2:222) 

Besides, in praise of the residants of Quba, the Qur'an says: 

"Where in are men who love to purify themselves. Allah loves 
the purifiers. " (At-Tawbah 9: 1 08) 

One can imagine from these two verses what importance 
cleanliness enjoys in the Islamic scheme of things. 

In the same way, the first Tradition we are going to quote from 
Sahih Muslim shows that cleanliness is not only a tenet and 
requirement of Islam but, also, forms a principal branch of it. 
Another hadith teams cleanlinesss as a half of faith. 

The mentor of mentors, Shah Waliullah <uA* <5ii h remarks in 
his monumental work, Hujjatullah-il-Baligha : 

"By His special grace, the Almighty has explained to me the 

truth that the path of felicity for giving the call of which the 

O. Circumambulation of the House of K'aba 
©. Vol I, p 53 



20 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



Prophets f^is ^s- were raised up, and which is called 
Shari'ah, consists of many chapters and there are tens and 
thousands of commands under each chapter, all these can be 
assembled, in spite of their vast multiplicity, under the four 
fundamental headings of Taharah , Ikbat , Samaha? , and 
'Adalat 4 . 

Proceeding, he explaines the meaning of each of the titles 
indicated above from which it distinctly follows that the Shari'ah, 
on the whole, is divided into these four parts. 

Here we shall summarise only the part of Shah Waliullah's j 
Up *»t Hujjah in which he expounds the significance of cleanliness. 
A right-minded person, it reads, whose heart is not ruled over by 
bestial urges and filthy propensities feels a peculiar type of 
uneasiness and gloom within himself when he is involved in an 
impurity or seized with a strong desire for defacation or urination 
or has just had sexual intercourse. On the other hand, when he 
comes out of this state i.e., gets done with the urge for a natural 
evacuation and pruifies himself after it, or if he has copulated, 
takes a bath, chages his clothes and applies perfume, the feeling of 
discomfort and depression disappears his cheerfulness returns and 
he is in good spirits again. The former state is called hads (i.e. 
impurity) and the latter, Taharah (i.e. cleanliness). People who 
possess a wholesome disposition and whose natural instincts are 
sound realise clearly the difference between the two states. They 
instinctigely dislike the condition, of impurity and find the other 
one, i.e., of cleanliness and purification agreeable. The state of the 
cleanliness of the human spirit bears a close resemblance to the 
state of the celestial world, i.e., of the angels because they are 
eternally free from animal impurities and remain happy and at ease 
owing to the heavenly state of feeling, and it is for this reason that 
solicitude for perpetuity of cleanliness, to the extent to which it is 
possible, enables the soul to attain angelic heights and profit from 
the celestial wrold through inspiration and revelation. On the 
contrary, when a person is sunk in the state of uncleanliness and 
O. Cleanliness and Purification 
©. Fear of Allah 
©. Generosity 
0. Justice 



Book of Purification 



21 



impurity, he develops a resemblance and affinity with the devils 
and a typical susceptibility is created within him of responding to 
satanic desires and passions 1 . 

It is, thus, evident that cleanliness or purity and uncleanliness 
or impurity are the names of the two states of the soul or moral and 
spiritual being we have just mentioned and what we call as such 
are their causes and origins. The Shari'ah, in fact, deals with them 
and prescribes necessary rules and regulations. Pruification has 
rightly been described as one-fourth of the Shari'ah. 
Shah Waliullah aJLp further, writes: 

"Cleanliness is of three kinds. One. purification from impurity 
(i.e., to attain purity or cleanlines, by taking a bath or 
performing abltuion in states in which they become necessary or 
desirable according to the Shari'ah); two, to cleanse one's body, 
dress or place from an apparent impurity or filth; and, three: to 
remove the dirt or grime that collects in various parts of the 
body, such as, the cleaning of teeth and nostrils, the pairing of 
nails and the removing of the hair below the navel"". 

Among the Traditions we, are now going to discuss a few 
dealing with cleanliness as a whole, which covers all the three 
categories, while the rest are related to a particular category of it or 
the other. 

Cleanliness is A Part of Faith 

ji-j ds. % J^e> hs Sy») J 1 * J 1 * fS j*^ 1 'J> 'j* ( t - TV 1 ) 

jlijj JULl^JIj jjj s jJLaJij J£ji\j oij!«-lJt ^Jg> U jl (j^lfti 

(403/1) It is related by Abu Maalik Al-Ash'ari 4t& that the 
Messenger of Allah lH said: "Cleanliness is a part of Faith. To 
say k -u?Jt "Praise belongs to Allah" fills the scale, to say 
k\ ju_-and .ai-u^Ji 'Glory be to Allah' and Praise belongs to 

O. Hujjah v I, p 54 
Q.Hujjah, Vol I, p 173 



22 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



Allah' fill the space between the heavens and the earth, prayer is 
a light, Sadaqah is a proof (of sincere faith), endurance is a 
shining glory, and the Qur'an is a proof on your behalf or 
against you. All men go out easly and sell themselves, thereby 
setting themselves free or destroying themsleves". 1 (Muslim) 

Commentary: In it cleanliness has been spoken of as Shutrul Iman 
which means half of faith while in another report conveying the 
same subject idea, which has been quoted by Tirmizi, on the 
authority of another Companion, the words Nisful Iman (Half of 
Faith) explicitly occur. In our view, however, what the words Shutr 
and Ms/denote here is that cleanliness is a principal part and most 
significant branch of faith. The lines quoted earlier from Shah 
Waliullah Uf-iiiL^j are so clear that no further elucidation is 
needed. 

It should be remembered that the narrative of Abu Maalik 
Al-Ash'ari is a long one, being the report of one of the Prophet's iH 
sermons. 

The Prophet HI has then spoken of the reward against the 
tasbih (glorifying) and Tahmid (praising) of Allah. Tasbih is to say 
Subhan Allah. It is to exress one's faith in and to bear witness that 
Allah is free from every kind of blemish and is above everything 
that is not in conformity with His divinity. Tahmid is to say 
Al-Hamdu lillah which is to express one's faith in and to bear 
witness that only Alalh is perfect and only He has all the good 
things for which one is praised. The tasbih and tahmid is the 
wazifah 1 of the angels. The Qur'an quotes the angels as saying (We 
Glorify Your Praise.) 

<T • :Y s ^.UA> g^jjnj (Al-Baqarah 2:30) 
Thus, man too may only occupy himself in this best wazifah, 
and sacred task and praise and glorify his and everyone else's 
Creator and Sustiner. It was to exhort us to this task that the 
Messenger of Allah Hi said that one phrase Subhan Allah fills in 
the scale of deeds and if Alhamdu lillah is also recited the light 
from the two illuminates the entire earth and heavens. 

Our senses cannot precieve this illumination but Allah does 
O. Mishkat al-Masabih V!, P 64 
©. Recantation. 



Book of Purification 



23 



disclose it to some of His close slaves sometimes. We must, 
however, sincerely believe in whatever thfe Holy Prophet $H says, 
and we must conduct overselves accordingly. The Messenger of 
Allah 6H next said that prayer is light. Those of the slaves of Allah 
whose prayers are sincere feel the light and blessings within their 
hearts and the result is that they ward away immorality and the 
forbidden things. This is what the Qur'an means to tell us when it 
says: 

(io : n Oj-£yJi) j^liJlj tCijiiJl ,Jpj e jjjjl 

"Surely, assalah, preserves from lewdness and iniquity". 

(Al-Ankabut, 29:45) 

In the heeafter, this light of prayer will brighten and illuminate 
the darkness and accompany the worshipper. The Qur'an says: 

"Their light will run before them and on their right hands." 

(Al-Tahreem,66:8) 

The Prophet Wt then said taht sadaqah, is clear proof, meaning 
that it is evidence of faith without which it is not easy to give 
sadaqah. In the next world, it will be proof of his faith and piety 
and earn him reward. 

The prophet JH then said that the endurance was shinning 
glory. Some scholars suggest that, having spoken of prayer and 
sadaqah, the reference here is to fasting but I feel that the word 
endurance is taken in its original sense and wide meaning. In the 
terminology of the Qur'an and hadith patience encompasses 
'controling temptations and enduring hardships, in the cause of 
Allah'. In this sense, endurance will cover the whole of religious 
life and worship whether prayer, sadaqah, fasting, pilgrimage, 
jihad or facing hardship for the sake of Allah and , at the same 
time, controlling selfish desires and wrong urges. The Prophet Hi 
has called it ( a shining golry) and the Qur'an refers to the light 
of the moon as nur, and of the sun as t^. 

(o; ^ . ^jj) ^»1^J frll^ J ~ o J j < J*^- tjgiJl jkj 

The Prophet m> then said that the Qur'an is a proof in one's 
favour or against. If anyone holds it in respect and obeys it is an 



24 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



evidence for him otherwise it is against him. 

The Prophet Hi concluded his saying with the remark that 
every man in this world no matter how he lives, sells himself 
everyday so that he either earns salvation or destroys himself. If he 
obeys Allah and worships Him then he earns aboundant reward for 
himself ensuring deliverance, but if he obeys his base self and 
neglects his duty to Allah then he destroys himself preparing to go 
to Hell. 

May Allah help us to believe in these facts and to earn from the 
knowledge. 

Punishment of The Grave Due to Impurity. 

(404/2) Abdullah ibn Abbas 4^>has narrated that as the 
Messenger of Allah HH happened to pass by two graves, he 
remarkes: "The two persons who are buried in these graves are 
being punished, and the punishment is not owing to a sin that 
was a difficult matter (i.e., hard to avoid. Both of them, on the 
other hand, are receiving the chastisement for a misdeed from 
which it was quite easy to keep away). The sin of one of them 
was that he never tried to save himself from being soiled with 
urine, and the other used to speak ill of others in their absence." 
The Prophet Hi, then, took a green branch of date-palm, spilt it 
into two and fixed one piece (of it) on each grave. The 
Companions (therepuon) enquired: "O Messenger of Allah 
iHl! Why have you done that?" "It is hoped," replied the 
Prophet, "that the punishment of these persons will be abated till 
such time as the two pieces becom completely dry." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: A doctrinal discussion on the punisment of the 
grave has already been attempted in the preceding chapters. In the 
course of it we also took up the Traditions in which it was revealed 



Book of Purification 



25 



that the sharp cries of agony rising from the graves of those who 
are being punished were heard by all creatures that were around 
save men and jinn. The wisdom of it, too, was explained by us in 
the commentary. A Tradition contained in Sahih Muslim which 
showed how the sacred Prophet Hi became aware of the 
punishment that was being sent down to some of the graves was, 
also, included in it. The incident referred to in the above report is 
of an identical nature. The Lord makes it possible for His 
Messengers f*>LJi ^As- to see things of the unseen world and hear 
sound that are, generally, not seen or heard by mortals like us. 

In this Tradition the Prophet Hi has indicated the specific sins 
and transgressions of the occupiers of the two graves. The fault of 
one of them was that he was given to tale-bearing which is a grave 
moral offence and has been condemned in the Qur'an as a paganish 
habit and a sign of the hyporcrites. It says: 

"Neither obey thou each feeble oath-monger, detractor, spreader 
abroad of slanders. (Al-Qalam68:10-1 1) 

About the other person the Prophet Hi disclosed that 
punishment was being inflicted upon him because he did not take 
proper care to obeserve cleanliness and save himself from being 
polluted with his urine. 

It shows that to protect oneself against the impurity of urine (as 
of other foul and dirty things) i.e., to save one's body or clothes 
from being soiled with them is one of the principal commands of 
Allah and negligence in these matters is a sin of such a high order 
as to entail the chastisement of the grave. 

As for the concluding part of the Tradition indicating that the 
holy Prophet Hi took a green branch of a date-palm and broke it 
into two parts and fixed a piece of it on each of the two graves, it 
has been explained in various ways by the Commentators but, in 
our humble opinion, the most plausible explanation is that the 
Prophet Hi prayed reduction in the punishment of the occupiers 
and he was bidden to do what he did with the assurance that the 
chastisement would remain abated as long as the two pieces did not 
dry up altogether. 



26 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



A long report, appearing at the end of Sahih Muslim, and 
related on the authority of Sayyidina Jabir 4fe, also speaks of two 
graves but it refers to another event. Sayyidina Jabir 4§e> narrates 
that the Messenger of Allah Hi once ordered him to cut two 
branches from two particular trees and to throw them at 
such-and-such a place. He goes on to relate, "I carried out the 
command and when I enquired from the Prophet HI about it he 
said, 'There are two graves over there upon which punishment is 
being sent down. I prayed to God for reduction in the chastisement 
and He granted the prayer to the extent that the punishment would 
stay lowered in degree as long as the branches remained green.' 

Be that as it may, Sayyidina Jabir's «4^& narrative distinctly 
shows that the branches of the trees or their freshness had nothing 
to do with the abatement of chastisement. It had been made known 
by the Lord to the Prophet Hi that as a result of his supplication the 
punishment would be lessened for a certain time. The real things, 
thus, was the prayer of the Prophet Hi and its acceptance. Those 
who seek it a justification for laying flowers on the graves, surely, 
do a great injustice to the spirit of Islam. 

Comentators, also, have raised the point whether the graves 
upon which the sacred Prophet Hi had fixed the branches of the 
date-palms were of Muslims or non-Muslims and referred the view 
that these were of Muslims. An indirect suggestion of it is 
conveyed by the Tradition itself when it tells that the Prophet had 
ascribed their punishment to the habits of backbiting and 
carelessness in purification after passing the urine. Had the graves 
been of the infidels, infidelity or polytheism would have been 
stated as the cause of chastisement. Moreover, a Tradition quoted 
in Musnad Ahmad, on the authority of Sayyidina Abu Hurairah 4|&, 
shows that the graves were situated in Baqui'e and the Prophet HI 
had felt the infliction of punishment on them while passing 
through it and Baqui'e is exclusively the graveyard of Muslims in 
Madinah. 

The moral of the above Tradition is that utmost care should be 
taken to protect oneself from being soiled with urine and abstain 
from vicious and polytheistic habits like backbiting, otherwise the 
chastisement of the grave is certain. 



Book of Purification 



27 



Purification After A Natural Evacuation 

3 S * > & 3 ' 

(405/3) It is related by Abu Hurairah 4^s> that he Mesenger of 
Allah lH said: " I am like a father to you (in the same way as it 
is the duty of a father to teach good manners to his children and 
the proper way in which things are done in life), I tell you that 
when you sit for answering the call of nature, do not face or turn 
your back towards the Qiblah ] ". Abu Hurairah further said, 
"The Prophet ordered (us) to use three stones for cleaning the 
private parts, and he forbade (us) against using a bone or piece 
of dung, and he forbade (us) against cleaning the private parts 
with the right hand." (Ibn Majah and Daarami) 

(^JLj %\ Jui>) j^ii (jiUlp aJ jJi JiS 5UJL (£ . n/O 

^\ j\f?J^ AiiS ^ Jib ^y j La J Li ^1 jl j^o-Jb (>g ?r a . .... t J\ jS Jjj 

3 " 3S 

(406/4) Salman Farsi related to us, "(Some polytheists 
remarked to me by way of a joke or sarcasm) 'Your Prophet ill 
has taught you everything, even the (proper) way of attending 
the call of nature.' I replied: '(Of course), he has taught us 
everything and given necessary instructions, also, regarding 
pruification after defacation. He has advised us never to face the 
Qiblah while urinating or defacating or clean the private parts 
with the right hand or use less than three stones for it or clean 
the private parts with a bone or the dung of an animal (like a 
camel, horse or cow)'." (Muslim) 

. Commentary: Like eating and drinking, defacation and urination, 
also, are essential to a man's life. The Porphet $$k has, therefore, 
indicated precisely what is proper or improper as regards a natural 
®- The Place one turns to when at prayer. 



28 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



evacuation and purificaction after it in the same way as he has done 
about our other needs and functions. 

Four instructions are given by the Prophet ill in the two 
aforementioned Traditions.: 

(i) One should neither sit facing the Qiblah nor with his back 
turned towards it while defacating or urinating. This is the claim 
of reverence for the House of Allah the Ka'bah in Makkah upon us. 
Every civilised person, possessing some awareness of the finer and 
spiritual values of life, avoids sitting with his face or back turned 
towards a holy place or a sacred thing at such a time. 

(ii) The right hand which is, generally, used for eating, drinking 
or writing and two which God has granted greater strength and 
capability than the left should not be employed for cleaning the 
private parts. 

(iii) At least three stones ought to be used for purification after 
defacation as common experience is that complete cleanliness is 
not obtained with a lesser number of them. If, however, anyone 
requires more than three stories he is free to do so. 

It should be noted that stones are specifically mentioned in the 
Traditions concerning purification for the simple reaon that it was 
the usual practice among the Arabs during those days. Otherwise, 
there is nothing peculiar with the stones. Other articles that can 
serve the prupose, and it is also not improper to put them to such a 
use, can be freely employed. 

(iv) The bone or dried-up dung of an animal must not be used 
for purification after answering the call of nature. The Prophet $H 
took pains to prohibit the use of such things plainly because in the 
older days, the Arabs, sometimes took resort to them for cleaning 
the private parts after easing themselves. 

Purification With Water 

fr*>UJi jfr \i\ p^j JU ^Ji £lf Jll YJSjk {J\ ( i . v/o) 

(407/5) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4& "When the Messenger 
of Allah Hi went for answering the call of nature, I used to 



Book of Purification 



29 



carry water for him in a Tur (tumbler) or Rakoh (a small ' 
water-skin). He washed his private parts with it and then, 
rubbed his hands on the ground, and, after it, I brought another 
vesself of water and he performed wudu with it." (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: It shows that the sacred Prophet iH used to wash 
his private parts after cleaning them with the stones, and, then, 
rubbed his hands on the ground after which he washed them again, 
and performed the wudu. 

It, again, appears from this Tradition that it, usually fell to the 
blessed lot of Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah to carry water for the 
sacred Prophet Hi to perform istinja 1 . From another report we 
learn that Sayyidina Anas also, sometimes carried out this duty. 

It, also, tells us that the usual practice of the Prophet Hi was to 
perform wudu after istinja. Sometimes, in order to indicate that it 
was only desirable and not obligatory, he used to forgo it. Thus, it 
is mentioned in Ibn Majah and Abu Dawood, on the authority of 
Sayyidah Aysha & that once, as the Prophet HI had made 
water and cleaned himself, Sayyidina Umar 4^> brought water for 
wudu. The Prophet HI, asked him, "What is it, Umar? Why have 
you brought the water?" "I have brought it so that you may perform 
wudu", replied Sayyidina Umar 4^>. "It is not necessary for me", 
observed the Prophet HI, "to perform wudu everytime I pass urine. 
If I did so regularly it would become a law for the ummah" 2 . 

It is, further, apparent from the above that the holy Prophet Hi, 
occasionally, refrained from doing what was preferable in order to 
demonstrate the real nature of an issue or principle by his conduct 
and save the ummah from misunderstanding or unnecessary 
hardship. 

®- Meaning pruification after a natural evacuation 
®- Meaning the Muslim community. 



30 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



(408/6) Abu Ayyub Ansari, Jabir and Anas said that when 
this verse was reaveled: 

Wherein are men who love to pruify themselves, Allah loves the 
pruifiers. (Al-Tawbah 9:108) 

The Messenger of Allah HI said, "Allah has praised you, 
Ansari, for purification. What does your pruification consist 
of?" They replied, "We perform ablution for prayer, wash 
ourselves after seminal emission and cleanse ourselves with 
water." He remarke." That is it! so. keep on doing it."(lbn Majah) 

Commnetary: Many of the Arabs cleansed themselves only with 
stone after defacation. According to Sayyidina Ali their diet 
was such that their digestion was good so that their defacation was 
dry like that of camels. Hence, they did not need to wash with 
water so they used only stones. But, the Ansari were used to water 
also. The Qur'an praised them for their pruification and the Prophet 
ill instructed them to continue to practice that habit. He himself 
was already used to doing that. The Qur'an and the Messenger of 
Allah Hi teach the Muslims to adopt this practice which is a sign 
of love for purification. 

Where Not toDefacate? 

(409/7) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4#b that the Messenger of 
Allah Hi said: "Save yoruselves from two things which invite 
the curse of Allah." What are those things?" enquired the 
Companions \^>. The Prophet replied: "One is to defacate on the 
thorough fare and the other is to do so at a shady place. "(Muslim) 

Commnetary: If a person defacates in a street or a shady place 
where people sit for repose or shelter from sun it will, naturally, be 
a source of general inconveince and people will curse him for it. 

In another Tradition quoted in Abu Dawood, on the authority 
of Sayyidina Mu'ar, a third place is mentioned, in addition to these, 



Book of Purification 



31 



namely, Maward, which means places where water is found and 
people frequent them because of it. 

What really, is intended to convey here is that should a person 
feel the urge to defacate when he is away from home he should 
look for a place which people do not frequent or through which 
they do not pass habitually, so that, no annoyance or discomfort is 
causeed to them. 

jikii yj\ \h j d*% -jtr ji ^ & ( t\ . /a) 

(Jjlijjlsljj) 

(410/8) Jabir 4sk> has related that it was the practice of the 
Messenger of Allah iH that when he had to go out of doors for 
easing himself he went to a place where he could not be seen by 
anyone." (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: Modesty and good manners demand that a man 
should satisfy his natural urges of that kind in such a way that he is 
not seen by anyone though he has to go a long way for it. 

Choice Of The Place For Urination 

j)3 $ iSi jii fi jii f^r j> it*s Jti SjZ. & 

(41 1/9) Abu Musa Ash'ari 4#b has narrated "(Once I was in the 
company of the Messenger of Allah that he felt the need to 
urinate. He went to a soft low ground under a wall and 
discharged the urine there. After it, he observed: 'When anyone 
of you has the need to urinate, he should seek a "suitable place 
for it." (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: It shows that one should sit for urination at a place 
which was secluded and there was no danger of his getting soild 
with urine, and the direction in which he sat, also, was not 
inappropriate. 



32 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



(ijb y\ flljj) <Uo 

(412/10) Abdullah bin Mughaffal «fe has said that the 
Messenger of Allah Hi said, "No one must pass urine where he 
bathes and then wash there or perform ablution for all evil 
promptings come from it." (Abu Davvood) 

Commentary: To do such a thing is very wrong and there are 
doubts of being soiled with urine. It means that if a man urinates in 
a bathroom and then performs ablution or has a bath then there are 
chances of his being soiled with urine. However, if there is a 
separate place in the bathroom or if it is made such a way that 
traces of urine can be washed off by pouring water then it is not 
wrong to use it for that. 

pLj Jji^ Jti Jll ^'j^ & 'J- ( t\ Y7 \\ ) 

(^L-j ji-. a jb jjt j^>) jk?: Ij. '^&S Q'£>_ y 

(413/1 1) It is reported by Abdullah bin Sarjis 4fe> that the 
Mesenger of Allah said, "None of you must pass urine in a 
(snake's) hole." (Abu Dawood. Nasa'i) 

Commentary: Often these holes are haunts of reptiles which will 
be troubled unnecessarily. There will also be the risk of being 
attacked by a venemous snake if it is inside. 

Prayer Before Entering The Lavatory 

(4*-b> jjI j 5 jb y\ »\ j j) (^J&xJfj 

(414/12) It is related by Zayd bin Arqam <^> that the Messenger 



of Allah i§§^ said: "Wicked creatures like the devils haunt the 
places that are used for anwering the Call of Nature. Thus, when 
anyone goes to the lavatory, he should first make the prayer: 

"O Lord! I seek refuge in Thee from the wicked devils, both 
male and female". (Ibn Majah and Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: In the same way as the angels have a special 



Book of Purification 



33 



association with the places that are clean and holy and where the 
Names, Praises and the Attributes of Allah are recited and worship 
is offered, filthy and repellently dirty places hold a peculiar 
attraction for wicked creatures like the devils. The Prophet H, 
hence, advised his followers that when they had to go to a privy for 
answering the call of nature they should beg for the protection of 
Allah against the mischief of the evil spirits before stepping into it. 
With us the case is that we neither feel the presence or descension 
of the angles at places of worship nor the existence of the devils at 
unclean places. But the sacred Prophet Hi has informed us about it 
and some bondsmen of Allah, also, occasionally, precieve such 
things, by His grace, which leads to an advancement in their faith. 

^ \i\ ^Lj jU> 6lf cJlS lijlP (t \ o/\ r) 

(415/13) Sayyidah Ayshah *»» ^ > said that when the Prophet 
Hi came out of the privy He said (Grant your 

forgiveness). (Tirmizi, Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: Many reasons have been suggested for seeking 
forgiveness of Allah after relieving oneself. Until one empties one's 
bowels he feels uneasy but once he relieves himself he has a sense 
of relief. It is the same thing with pious men that they are 
concerned with, relieving themselves of one burden of sin. Thus, 
the Prophet iH when he relieved himself prayed to Allah to forgive 
him the sins and purify and cleanse his soul and relieve him of the 
burden of sin. 

There is the question why he sought forgiveness when he as 
innocent of sin and was also assured in Surah al-Fath 

That Allah may forgive you of your sin that which is past and 
that which is to come, and may perfect His favour unto you, and 
may guide you on a right path. (Al-Fath, 48:2) 

We will answer this question in the Book of Prayer. 



34 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



Prayer on Coming Out of The Lavatory 

(416/14) Abu Zarr Ghiffari 4k> has narrated that, "When the 
Messenger of Allah ^ came out of the lavatory, after answering 
the call of nature, he used to say: 

Akhamdulilla hil lazi Azhaba 'Anni Al-Azae wa 'Afaaani 
(Praise be to Allah Who relieved me of the faeces and gave 
health). (Tirmizi and Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: Sayyidah Ayshah \#s- had said in the earlier 

hadith that the Prophet III made the supplication j*** when 
coming out of the privy and here Abu Zarr 4^s> has mentioned 
another prayer. The Prophet iil may be alternating between the two 
prayers making that supplication sometimes and this one 
sometimes. But Allah knows best. 



VIRTUE OF WUDU 



In the preceding Chapter we had reffered to Shah Waliullah's 
Up in h^-j observation that right-minded persons whose spirituality 
has not been blunted by surrendering thoughtlessly to beastly urges 
experience a feeling of filthiness and a sort of gloom and dullness 
within themselves in the state of Hads, i.e., when their wudu has 
been void due to a natural evacuation or some other reason. It gives 
place to a sense of spiritual cleanliness and effulgence after they 
have performed wudu. Herein lies the chief purpose and 
significance of wudu, and it is because of it that it has been made a 
pre-requisite of offering up prayer, or, in other words, of making 
one's special presence in the Court of the Almighty. A part from it, 
Allah has also vested it with a unique auspiciousness. The sacred 
Prophet m has delineated the virtues of wudu in the same way as 
he has indicated the method of performing it and laid down its 
rules and properties for the ummah. 

Source of Purification From Sins And Forgiveness 

jf^iJ 6X^Jr alilk^- c*fry>- typ'^S ^Sti U?j3 ^>>j 

(jtJL-o j t5 jbUi «ij j) a jL&l CfJxj 

(417/15) It is realted by Uthman 4#b that the Messenger of Allah 
Hi said: "Whoever performed wudu and performed it well (i.e., 
according to the prescribed rules) all his sins will go out, even 
from under his nails." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commnetary: It shows that anyone who performs wudu properly 
(i.e., as taught by the Prophet iH and in conformity with his own 
regular practice) and with the object of attaining purity not only 
will the dirt and grime be washed away from his body and the state 



36 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



of inner uncleanliness called Hadis disappear, but the filthiness of 
the sins will also be removed from him, owing to its 
auspiciousness and besides purification from Hads, he will be 
cleansed of his sins as well. 

i&jj (ii 4S11 JJp &\ Sys J 1 * 5 jo* ^ <S* a/\ "i) 



4lU-j J— £ frUJi jiaS g> j\ tUJl fiiJj If-Jiaj 5^ 

(418/16) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4fe that the Messenger of 
Allah ^ said: "When a Muslim bondsman performs wudu and, 
during it, washes his face and pours water over it, all the sins he 
has committed with the eyes are removed from his face (i.e., are 
washed away) with the water; after it, when he washed his 
hands, all the sins he has committed with the hands are washed 
away from them; and, after it, when he washes his feet all the 
sins he has committed with the feet (i.e., by using them for that 
purpose) go out of them till by the time he has finished wudu he 
becomes completely pruified from sin." (Muslim) 

Commentary: A few points need to be clarified with reference to 
the above Traditions: 

(i) In both of these Traditions the going out or washing away of 
the sins with the water used for wudu has been mentioned though 
the sins do not possess a visble or external impurity that can be 
removecd by the use Of water. Some commentators have explained 
it by saying that going out of sins simply signifies pardon and 
forgiveness while others hold that when a person commits a sin its 
unholy effects settle, at first, on the limbs with which he 
prepetrates it, and, then, in his heart. Afterwards, as in obedience to 
the command of Allah and in order to purify himself, he performs 
wudu the foulness of the mideeds he has been guilty of and the 
filthines that has come to defile and contaminate his limbs as a 
result of it is washed away and the transgression are forgiven by 



Book of Purification 



37 



Allah. We, however, believe that the latter view conveys more 
accurately the sense and significance of the report. 

(ii) In Abu Hurairah's narrative, only the removal of the sins of 
the eyes is mentioned in connection with the washing of the face in 
wudu though there are other organs, too, of the face, like the mouth 
and the tongue, and some sins are solely related to them. This is so 
because all the organs of ablution have not been enumerated in this 
Tradition, and the eyes, hands and feet have been referred to by the 
Prophet Hi, only by way of an. Illustration. In another hadith, the 
other organs of the face are also mentioned. 

(iii) It is stated in the Qur'an as well that good and virtuous 
deeds possess the quality of destroying evil deeds and blotting out 
their traces: 

(Verily, good deed annul ill deeds (Hud, 11:114) 

In the Traditions, the Prophet lH has specifically mentioned 
that such-and-such a good deed nullifies sins, leads to forgiveness 
or becomes an atonement for them. A few of such Traditions have 
already been discussed in the earlier volume and more will be taken 
up later under various headings. In some of the Traditions, the 
Prophet Hi has also made it clear that only minor transgressions 
are forgiven owing the blessedness of virtuous acts, and, on the 
basis, of it, Ahl-us-sunnah x hold that cleansing and purification 
from smaller misdeeds alone takes place through the 
auspiciousness of virtuous deeds. In the Qur'an, too, it is set forth: 

If ye avoid the great (things) which ye are forbidden, We will 
remit from you your (minor) evil deeds. (Al-Nisaa4:31) 

Anyway, only minor sins are meant when it is said in these 
Traditions that they are washed away when one performs Wudu 
properly. As for the major transgressions, these are a very serious 
matter and can be nullified only by the means of sincere repetance. 



©• People of the Sunnah and the way of companions functioning as a body. 



38 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



Wudu is The Key of All The Gates of Heaven 

(419/17) It is related by Umar bin Khattab 4e> that the 
Messenger of Allah ^§1 said: "whoever performs wudu and a 
complete wudu, and, after it, says: Ash-hadu an laa ilaaha 
il-lal-laah wa ash-hadu an-na Mohammadan 'abduhu wa 
rasooluh (1 attest that there is no god save Allah and that 
Muhammad lH is His bondsmand and Messenger), all the eight 
gates of Heaven will open for him and he will be able to enter it 
by whatever gate he likes." (Muslim) 

Commentary: Only the organs of ablution are, apparently, cleaned 
when one performs wudu. The faithful bondsman, as such, feels 
that though he has washed those organs in compliance with the 
command of Allah, the real impurity is that of the imperfection of 
faith, want of sincerity in action and evilness of conduct. When, 
with this awareness, the bondsman affirms his faith by reciting the 
Confessional Formula of unalloyed loyatly to Allah and implict 
adherance to the Prophet iH, Allah grants him complete 
forgiveness and all the gates of Paradise opens for him. 

In another version of the same Tradition and quoted, also, in 
Sahih Muslim the words of the Comfessional formula are given as 
follows: 

Ash-hadu an laa ilaaha il-lal-laahu wahdahu laa sharika lahu 
wa ash-hadu an-na Mohammadan 'abduhu wa rasooluh (I attest 
that there is no god save Allah, One and without a partner, and I 
attest that Muhammad m is His bondsman and Prophet). In yet 
another version, quoted in Tirmizi, he following words are added 
after the Formula: 

Allahummaj 'alni minat-tawwabeena waj' aim minal 
muta-tahhireen (O God! Make me one from among those who 
repent for their sins and from among those who keep themselves 
pure). 



Book of Purification 



39 



Effulgence of Organs of 
Wudu on Day of Resurrection 

J ^ jlsvll 41 Jj) J*4^ « j* 

(420/1 8) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4fe> that the Messenger of 
Allah Hi said: "When my followers will be summoned on the 
Day of Resurrection, their faces, hands and feet will be radiant 
with the effects of wudu. Thus, whoever (of you) can increase 
this radiance and make in perfect, he must do so." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: In this world, the effect of wudu is only this much 
that the face, hands and feet become cleaner, and the enlightened 
ones also derive a special feeling of peace and happiness from it. 
But, as the Prophet Hi has said in this and many other Traditions, a 
propitious effect of it on the Day of Ressurection will be that the 
faces, hands and feet of his followers will give light, which will be 
their distinguishing mark in the Hereafter. 

Moreover the more perfect one's wudu is, the greater will be the 
radiance. The Prophet Hi, therefore, has advised, at the end of the 
narrative, that everyone should strive to the utmost to perfect the 
effulgence by performing wudu throughly and well. 

Complete And Faultless 
Wudu Despite Inconveience 

jtfto i\ ^Lj 4*'& s J^k & ^ ( t y \/ \ i) 

Jt! ill Jj-1ij \j ^ ljJl5 OUfjAJl <U g'jjj GUasJl <u iiljsUj U Jlp 
3'jUaJl jl&silj JjrllJl J\ ik^Jt ojiTj-fijlSUjl Jlp ij&fi £lpl 

(( *JL~. «l jj) ili jJl i&i* f& & ?'jJL^Jl jUu 

(421/19) It is related by Abu Hurayrah ^sb that the Messenger of 
Allah Hi said: "May I tell you three things owing to the 
auspiciousness of which Allah removes sins and causes 
elevation in ranks?" "Do please", replied the Companions 
The Prophet Hi said: "(i) To perform wudu thoroughly despite 



40 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



inconvenience; (ii) To bend one's steps more frequently towards 
the mosque; and (iii) To wait for the next prayer after offering 
one. This is the real Ribat} the true Ribat. v ' (Muslim) 

Commentary: In this Tradition the Prophet £H has laid stress on 
three things and told that these lead to the remission of sins and 
promotion in ranks. 

Firstly, wudu should be performed thourghly and it must not 
be cut short even if, for some reason, it may be a source of 
discomfort. For instance, it is winter and the water is cold or is not 
readily available in sufficent quantity and one has to go some 
distance to fetch it; in such a case to bear the hardship and perform 
the Wudu properly is an act of such a high merit that sins are 
forgiven as a result of it and elevation in ranks takes place. 

Secondly, to go to the mosque regularly for offering up the 
prayers, and, evidently, the farther one lives, the greater will be the 
reward. 

Thirdly, to wait eagerly for the next prayer. This, surely, will 
be the state of the bondsman whose heart derives peace and 
comfort from prayer, and who has been biassed, in some measure, 
with the feeling so eloquently expressed by th Prophet $§1 in these 
few words: "The coolness of my eyes lies in prayer." 

The word ribat occuring in the last sentence of the Tradition 
denotes "The detachment of soldiers stationed at the border for 
defence against an invasion by the enemy." Hence, it, probably, 
shows that these acts serve as defensive installations on the frontier 
against the assault by the devil. 

Solicitude For Wudu is A Sign of Perfection of Faith 

i /«%;*\ pLj ^ JU Jji Sj^j jis jis 5Ujj (i y y/y . > 

(422/20) Thauban 4fe related to us that the Messenger of Allah 
Hi said: "Walk upright; remain steadfast on the Straight Path 
(but this steadfastness being very difficult), you will never be 
able to have a full control over it. (You should, therefore, always 



O. Meaning outpost. 



Book of Purification 



41 



consider yourself at fault and blameworthy). And know well that 
the best deed among all your deeds is prayer (hence, pay the 
greatest attention to it), and only a truthful Believer can take full 
care of witdit." (Muwatta, Musnad Ahmad, Ibn Majah and Daarami) 

Commentary: "Taking full care of wudu", occurring in the above 
Tradition, can mean performing it in the correct manner, as 
required by the sunnah well as remaining permanently in that state. 
Commentators say it signifies both. In any case, the Prophet ill 
has, here, described concern for wudu and its observance as a sign 
of perfection in faith and the way of truthful Believers. 

Wudu Upon Wudu 

(t£ Jl» jsJl elj j) . oL»> jJls- C*sS" ^Js- 

(423/21) It is related by Ibn Umar that the Messenger of 
Allah ^ said: "Whoever performed wudu notwithstanding 
pruity (i.e., although he was with wudu), ten good deeds will be 
written down for him." (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: What it, apparently, denotes is that to perform a 
fresh wudu while the earlier one still holds good should not be 
considered futile. On the other hand, it is such a meritorious act 
that ten good deeds are written in the account of anyone who does so. 

Some of the commentators have expressed the view that it 
appertains to the situation in which a worship for which wudu is 
necessary has been offered up with the earlier abulution. 
Otherwise, a fresh wudu should not be performed by anyone who 
performs wudu but does not offer any worship with it or do 
anything after which the renewal of wudu becomes essential or is 
preferable. 

Harmful Effects of A Defective Wudu 

J~p Jil yl^l Cft&lCf £JJ 'J> Cf- S-^ 1 ^ (i Y t/Y Y) 
ijis a 'jLfi 'JLfi ji-Lrfj <Qp iJJi iJJp Jjt Jj-^j (i-A— >j 



42 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



(424/22) It is related by Shabib bin Abi Rooh, on the authority 
of a Companion $g>, the Messenger of Allah Hi once offered 
the Fajr ] prayer in which, as he began reciting Surah-Ar-Rum, 
he fell in doubt (about its actual wording) and there was an 
interruption. When the prophet is§l had finished the prayer, he 
observed: 'How is it that some people join us in prayer but do 
not carry out purification (i.e., wudu etc) properly? These are 
the men who cause distrubance in our recitation of the Qur'an'." 

(Nasai) 

Commentary: It shows that harmful effects of failure to observe 
cleanliness and perform wudu etc, properly fall even on pure hearts, 
so much so that it can cause distrubance in the recitation of the 
Qur'an. When the blessed heart of the Prophet $H could be affected 
to such an extent by the failings of others, one can imagine its 
effect on commoners like us. But since our hearts have grown 
insensitive owing to persistent negligence we do not feel these 
things. 



O. The early morning prayer 



MISWAK 



One of the things upon which the holy Prophet has laid 
special stress in relation to cleanliness and pruification is Miswak 1 . 
He is even reported to have remarked, once, "but for the fear of 
adding to the hardship of my folowers I would have ordered them 
to use miswak at each prayer time." 

The medical advantages of using miswak regularly and the 
protection it gives against a number of diseases are now common 
knowledge. From the religious point of view, however, its 
importance lies in being highly pleasing to Allah. 

Importance 

(225/23) It is related by Sayyidah Ayshah if* in ^ that the 
Messenger of Allah lH said: "Miswak cleans the mouth 
throughly and is (also) greatly pleasing to the Lord." 

(Daarami and Nasai) 

Commentary: There are two aspects of goodness in every thing: 

one which is beneficial from the worldly point of view and is 

considered agreeable by the people, on the whole, and the other 

which is pleasing to Allah and a source of reward in Hereafter. The 

above Tradition tells that Miswak possesses both the qualities. It 

cleans the mouth and removes bad odour; these are its ready 

material advantages. The other heavenly and eternal benefit is that 

it is a unique means of earning the good pleasure of the Lord. 

1 . A twig or tender shoot of the branch of a tree which was, generally, used by 
the Arabs for brushing the teeth in the olden days and a number of Muslims 
do so even today. 



44 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



Jit 6' Jl3 j&* j ^Ap ill 1 Jjs 3 jj^i ^t ^ (i Yl/Y i) 

(426/24) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4^> that the Messenger of 
Allah i® said: "If I did not fear that my followers would be put 
to much hardship, I would have made it compulsory for them. to 
use miswak at every prayer-time." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: The above Tradition tells that seeing the 
advantages of miswak and the liking Allah has for it, the Prophet 
iil wanted to make it obligatory for the Muslims to use it at every 
prayer-time but if he did not do so it was simply because he felt it 
would add to their diffuculty and many people would not find it 
easy to observe it. 

On further consideration, it, also, is a most effective way of 
persuasion and exhortation. 

frbfU JlS iJJl JU Jjl J_^>3 iiUl ^\ 'J. ( r \ v/ Y o) 

(JU?-l«ljj) 

(227/25) It is related by Abu Umamah that the Messengr of 
Allah ill said: "Whenever Jibril, the Angel of Allah, came to 
me, he invariable told me about miswak. I fear that (as a result 
of constatn exhortation by Jibril) I might abrade the front part of 
my mouth by using miswak all the time." (Musnad Ahmad) 

Commentary: The repeated urging by Jibril was, in fact, at the 
behest of Allah, the idea being that it was particularly essential for 
a person who was constantly in conmunion with Allah and engaged 
in paying homage to Him and to whom His Angel used to come 
frequently and who had made the recitation of the Divine Word 
and its preaching and propagation the sole aim and mission of his 
life that he took exceptional care to keep his mouth clean. It was 
for that reason that the sacred Prophet HI used miswak much and 
often. 



Special Occasions 

JJ &j> *i jJL. j a^p till Jl^> citS LLup 'tf> ( i y a/y n> 



Book of Purification 



45 



(428/26) Sayyidah Ayshah if^AiJi^j related to us that the usual 
practice of the Messenger of Allah was that whenever he 
slept, during the day or the night, on waking from sleep and 
before performing wudu, he used the miswak. (Abu Dawood) 

flS lit &S> JDt Jl> 4Jt ^15 Jl5 ifljJ^- (1Y<\/YV) 

(429/27) Huzaifah narrated that it was the custom of the 
Messenger of Allah all to clean his mouth throughly with 
miswak when he got up in the night for Tahajjud prayer. 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

J^j !j£ jlf ^Js (Si life cJL. Jt5 ^ilA ^Jj-S> ( i r • / Y A) 

(430/28) It is related by Shuraih bin Hani, "(Once) I enquired 
from Sayyidah Ayshah if* *Di what was the first thing the 
Messenger of Allah iH did on returning home from anywhere. 
She replied: 'First of all, he used miswak'." (Muslim) 

Commentary: The above Traditions tell that the Prophet used 
to bursh his teeth with miswak whenever he rose from bed, 
specially at night for Tahajjud. It was, also, the first thing he did 
not coming back from any place. We, thus, learn that miswak is not 
related to wudu alone but it should be used habitually on rising and 
even before wudu if a long time has elapsed since one had cleansed 
the teeth. These reports have led the theologists to conclude that 
though it is commendable and pleasing to Allah to use miswak at 
all times, five occasions specially call for it: (i) on performing 
wudu: (ii) at the time of standing up for prayer (if a long time has 
passed since the last wudu and prayer; (iii) while reciting the 
Qur'an; (iv) on rising from bed; and (v) when bad odour has been 
produced in the mouth or the colour of teeth has changed. 

Miswak is the Sunnah of Prophets ^fe 



46 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



(431/29) Abu Ayyub Ansari 4fe reported that the Messenger of 
Allah Hi said, "Four characteristics pertain to the practices of 
the Messengers f^~S\^ls-\ modesty, use of perfume, use of 
miswak and marriage." (Tirmizi) 

Commnetary: The Holy Prophet Hi exhorted the Ummah to 
observe these four characteristics which pertain to Allah's 
Messengers (»%Ji ^Afi. We have already spoken about modesty in 
the relevant chapter. We shall write on marriage later in this book. 
Use of perfume is indeed a good habit and gives man a particular 
spiritual activity and enlightenment. 

Ten Personal Charateristics 

(432/30) It is related on the authority of Sayyidah Ayshah *iit 
if* that the Mesenger of Allah Hi said: "Ten things are among 
natural acts: cutting (or tirmming) of moustaches; growing of 
beard; brushing of teeth with miswak; snuffing water into the 
nose and cleaning it; washing of phalanges of fingers; plucking 
of the hair of armpits; removal of the hair under the navel; and 
purification with water after a natural evacuation." The narrator, 
Zakaria, tells that his mentor, Saheikh Mus'ab, had mentioned 
only those nine things and said that he had forgotten the tenth, 
but believed that it was the rising of the mouth. (Muslim) 

Commnetay: These ten items have been described in the above 
Tradition as Min-Al-fitrah (meaning among the natural acts) but 
some authorities say that Al fitrah here means the Sunnah, i.e., the 
confirmed practice of the the Messengers fiLJ\ ^Ap and they are 
strengthened in their view by the fact that in Mistakhraj Abu 
Uwanah's account of the Tradition, the word sunnah has been used 
in place of fitrah. According to them, the way of Messengers 
f%-Ji has been characterised as fitrah because it ideally conforms to 



Book of Purification 



47 



nature. Hence, this Tradition would mean that the ten points 
formed a part of the way of life led by the Prophets and 
prescribed by them for their followers. 

Some commentators have, further, helf that Al-fitrah, in it, 
signifies Deen-i-Fitrah (the Natural Religion) i.e., Islam. In the 
Qur'an, Faith has been described as Nature. It is started in 
Surah-i-Rum: 

(X . :r° f j>) ^ ^lli J£& aJJi 

So set thy purpose for religion as a man by nature upright — the 
nature (framed) by Allah — in which He hath created man. 
There is no altering (the laws of) Allah's creation. That is the 
right religion. (Al-Rum 35:30) 

It would, in that case, mean that the ten things are among the 
tenets of the Islamic faith. 

It is, again, suggested that Al-fitrah denotes human nature. The 
above saying would, thus, shows that the ten points conform to the 
instinctive human behaviour as fashioned and designed by Allah. 
Just as it is natural for man to feel attrached to faith, virtue, 
cleanliness and purity, and to find infidelity, lewdness and 
filthiness abhorrent and repulsive, he; also, instinctively likes these 
ten things (provided that his natural inward impulses have not been 
prevented by external influences), and, as all enlightened people 
will agree, the faith and way of life the Prophets f"5LJi bring 
with them is nothing but an authentic and disciplined elucidation 
of human instincts and desires. 

Writes Shah Waliullah *4* *»> "*^-y. "The ten acts which, in fact, 
belong to the realm of purity and cleanliness and attributed to 
Sayyidina Ibrahim 8^1, the founder and progenitor of Millet 
Hanifia 1 , and have, generally, been current in all the Hanafi 
communities. They have believed in them and observed them in 
daily life. For centuries they have been living and dying in 
compliance with these things. That is why, they are called fitrah, 
i.e., Nature and are the regular practices of Millet Hanifi 2 . It is 
O. Meaning a community that is committed exclusively to Allah. 
©. Same is Millet-i-Hanfia. 



48 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



necessary for every community to have some definite and 
well-known characteristics which are so clear that it can be 
recognised through them, and, also, taken to task for negligence in 
their regard so that faithfulness and faithlessenss of the community 
can be determined easily. Morevoer, it is advisable that the 
distinguishing features are such that they are not rare, and are, also, 
manifestly beneficial, and the people's minds accept them 
unreservedly. Allah these aspects are present in these things. One 
should ponder over the following points in order to appreciate its 
meaning: 

"By the growth of the hair that are peculiar to some parts of the 
human body the sound and wholesome nature of a 
cleanliness-loving man of good taste feels the same kind of 
revulsion and uneasiness as in the state of Hadith i.e., when some 
foul matter is discharged from the body. Such is the case with the 
hair growing in the armpit and under the navel. Hence, by 
removing it, a right-minded person feels a sort of relief and 
cheerfulness as if it is a special claim of his nature. The same is 
true of the nails, and the position of the beard is that it 
distinguishes between a grown-up man and a youth and it is the 
pride and ornament of men and marks the completion of their 
manly form and appearance, and to grow it, also, is the confirmed 
practice of the Messengers. It is, therefore, obligatory to grow the 
beard 1 , and to shave it off is the characteristic of non Muslim 
communities, like the fire-worshippers and the Hindus. Moreover, 
as people of lower-rank and having a vulgar taste do not, generally, 
grow the beard, not to grow it is to bring oneself down to their 
level. 

. "And the distinct harm in growing the moustaches and keeping 

them long is that whatever is eaten or drunk comes into contact 

with them if these are long enough to reach the mouth and the way 

of nasal discharge is, also, the same. Cleanliness, therefore, 

demands that moustaches should not be too long and it is for that 

O. In many Traditions the command to grow the beard has been given explicitly 
and in the imperative mood form which the thelogistic have inferred that it is 
essential. But in no Tradition has its length been specified. The jurists, 
however, have concluded through the process of evidence and reasoning that 
it should be grown upto the length of a fist. 



Book of Purification 



49 



reason that one is required to keep them trimmed. The need and 
importance of rinsing the mouth and cleaning the nose with water 
after a natural evacuation and the washing of the phalanges of 
fingers where the grime collects is self-evident from the point of 
view of cleanliness and purification." 1 

In the view of some theologists, the above Tradition, further, 
enuciates the principle that cleanliness of the body, taking cafe of 
one's appearance and keeping away from or getting rid of anything 
that excites the feelings of disgust and aversion is the law of nature 
and the way of the Messangers f*>LJi ^A*. 

This hadith has been narrated by Abdullah bin Zubayr who 
heard it from his aunt Sayyidah Ayshah if* iiii Talqq bin Habib 
transmitted it from him and Mus'ab bin Shaybah reported it from 
him. Zakaria bin Abu Za'idah was his student and he transmitted 
the hadith from him, saying that the hadith from him, he had 
forgotten the tenth characteristic but believed it might be rising the 
mouth. 

Miswak Adds to The Value of Namaz 

J-Uj ills- iJJt jU> Jjt j}^3 jil diis LLn* ^ (i rrvr , \ > 

(433/31) It is related by Sayyidah Ayshah if* A that the 
Messenger of Allah iSl said: "The prayer of which miswak is 
done is seventy times superior to the prayer offered without 
miswak." (Baihaqi) 

Commnetary: In the Arabic language and idom, as we have 
remarked previously, the figure of seventy, like some other figures, 
is sued to denote excess or profusion. Here, too, it has, probably, 
been employed in the same sense. The above Tradition will, thus, 
mean that prayer which is offered after cleaning the teeth with 
miswak is of a much higher value than the one celebrated without it. 

When a bondsman decides to present himself in the audience 
of the King of Kings and to glorify Him and hold communioun 
with Him thourgh prayer and imagines that His Glory and 
O. Hujjat. 



50 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



Magnifience demands that the tongue should be washed with musk 
and rose water before uttering this name, but as, out of Mercy, the 
Lord of Lords has enjoined only the miswak, he is using it, is it not 
fitting that Prayer for which miswak is used with those sentiments 
of reverence and deep tenderness should be those sentiments of 
reverence and deep tenderness should be seventy times, or even 
more, superior to the one offered without it. 

This hadith is also transmitted by Ahmad, Bazzar, Abu Ya'la, 
Ibn Khazimah, Hakim as mentioned in Targhib. Another hadith of 
the same purport is transmitted by Abdullah bin Abbas 4^e> and 
Jabir 



WUDU 



Among the instructions given by the holy Propeht iH concer- 
ning cleanliness and purification there are some like those 
appertaining to ht'mja cleanliness of the body and dress, and purity 
and impurity of water that are of general and all-time application 
and other which are related exclusively to prayer and can be 
described as its pre-requisites. The command of wudu belongs to 
the latter catagory. Says the Qur'an: 

\j?x^Ji\j (jsi^J' ijl («^*J i ^J Sjwdt ^\ lil" 

(i:objjuJi) " o ^Jl j s-y. 

When you rise up for prayer, wash your faces, and your hands 
up to the elbows, and lightly rub your heads and (wash) your 
feet up to the ankles. (Al-Ma'idah 5:6) 

To be with wudu is, thus, an essential condition of this unique 
form of presence in the Court of the Almighty and of holding 
communion with Him. Whoever is not with wudu (i.e., is in the 
state of Hads) must perform ablution before offering up prayer. 

No Prayer Without Wudu 

(434/32) It is related by Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of 
Allah WS> said: "Whoever is not with wudu, his prayer shall not 
be accepted until he performs the wudu." (Bukhari and Muslim) 



52 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part 111 



(435/33) It is related on the authority of Abdullah bin Umar ^> 
that the Messenger of Allah iH said: "No prayer can be 
accepted without purification and no Sadaqah 1 can be accepted 
which is given away from goods that are acquired 
illegitimately." (Muslim) 

. I^jAj j jj^kJ* 

(436/34) It is narrated by Sayyidina Ali that the Messenger 
of Allah iH said: "The key to prayer is purification on (wudu), 
its tahrim (prohibition) is the takbir (that is, when anyone 
begins the prayer with Allahu Akbar the other permitted things 
are forbidden to him, like talking, eating, and drinking etc.). 
And its Tahlil (permission) is to end prayer with as-salamu 
alaykum wa rahmatul Allah (when all these things which he 
was forbidden during prayer become allowed to him). 

(Abu Dawood, Tirmizi, Daarami, Ibn majah.) 

^Ji J-p Jji J jij J 1 * y^r <S* (t rv/ro) 

(-u-p-l ol jj) Jj4^' SjL^Jt £bL j 8 jUiJt 

(437/35) It is related by Jabir that the Messenger of Allah 
ill said: "The key to Heaven is prayer and the key of prayer is 
ablution." (Musnad-i- Ahmad) 

Commnetary: In these two hadith, ablution has been described as 

the key of prayer showing that just as no one can enter a locked 

house without opening the lock with the key so, also, it is not 

possible to gain admission to prayer without wudu. All these 

reports denote, with a slight variation of words, that ablution is a 

necessary of offering prayer worthly of acceptance. Since prayer is 

the highest form of presence before Allah and of paying divine 

honours, respect and regard for it would demand that the command 

to take a bath and wear a good, clean dress was given for every 

prayer but as it would have entailed much hardship, Allah in His 

Infinite Kindness, has enjoined only this much that prayer should 

be offered in clean clothes and with wudu in which all the visible 
O. Charily 



Book of Purification 



53 



organs that have a special place in the physical structure of man 
and can be said to sympolise the whole of the body get washed. 
Moreover, hands, feet, face and head are the parts that, generally, 
remain uncovered, and, hence, these alone are required to be 
washed or rubbed lightly in wudu. 

The bondsmen who normally experience the dullness of spirit 
and uneasiness that is the characteristic of the state of Hadth and 
the feeling of freshness and effulgence which is produced on 
performing the ablution know well why wudu has been prescribed 
as an essential preparation for offering prayer. But this much even 
we, the common people, can realise that it is a solemn act of 
prepartion of presenting oneself in the Court of the Supreme Being. 
People who perform wudu even with this little awareness will, 
Insha Allah, feel a rare joy and effulgence in it. 

Method 

\&'y jiJLij iJJ( ^^JUtf" Jjt J^J ^4*0 ^ lSj-^ 1 

(438/36) It is related by Sayyidina Uthman 4^> that, once, he 
performed wudu in this manner that, first, he poured water over 
the palms of both his hands thrice, and, after it, rinsed his mouth 
■ and washed his nose by snuffing in water, and, then, blowing it 
out. Then, he washed his face thrice, and, after it, washed his 
right arm up to the elbow three times, and, then, in the same 
way, washed his left arm up to the elbow three times. Then, he 
passed his wet hand over his head and washed his right foot up 
to the ankle thrice, and, then, his left foot, in the same way, up 
to the ankle thrice. (After thus performing wudu) he remarked: 
"I saw the Messenger of Allah Hi performing wudu exactly as I 
have done just now, and I heard him say: 'Whoever preforms 



54 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



wudu in this manner and, after it, offers two Raka't^ of praryer 
which remains free from promptings of the self (i.e. during 
which he does not think of anything not related to prayer), all 
his previous sins are forgiven.". (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: The Prophet's iil method of performing Wudu 
described, or, rather, demonstrated by Sayyidina Uthman 4^> here 
is the most perfect way of carrying out ablution. About rinsing the 
mouth and cleaning the nose with water it has not been specified in 
it as to how many times he did that, but in some other accounts of 
the same event it is clearly stated that these, too, were done thrice. 

It is not necessary that the two Rak'at of prayer the offering of 
which with due reservance and humility is mentioned in the above 
narrative are optional prayers but if one is fortunate enough to 
offer, after performing wudu as ordained by Alah, even a Fard 2 or 
Sunnah prayer free from "conversation with the self, i.e., during 
which distracting thoughts do not crowd the mind, he will, Insha 
Allah, gain the forgiveness promised in this report. 

Commentators and godly men with an evolved spiritual 
awareness and insight have remarked that "conversation with the 
self denotes Jhe creeping of stray thoughts into the mind to the 
extent that the heart gets engrossed in them. There is, nevertheless, 
no harm if a doubt or an outside idea crops in the mind at the time 
of prayer but does not absorb the devotee's attention and he tries 
earnestly to shut it out or to drive it away. It happens even to those 
who are perfect in faith. 

ft Ui lift j£ JJii u>jj Qp cJrj JtS llJ- 'Js (r r i/r V) 

i^Vjt ^J> j liii 4-pl j's j liij J-1p j lili j Jjn».'flj» 

(339/37) Abu Haiyyah narrated "I saw Sayyidina Ali 4^b. He 

O. Prayer consists of a number of cyclic parts each ending with two prostrations. 

These parts are known as Raka'ah (pi. Raka't). 
©. Obligatory Prayers. 

©. The kind of prayer the Prophet offered aside of the Obligatory Prayers and 
desired his followers to do the same. 



Book of Purification 



55 



performed wudu in this manner; first, he washed the palms of 
his hands throughly till he had cleansed them completely; then, 
he rinsed his mouth thrice; then, he snuffed water in his nose 
thrice; then he washed his face and both arms (up to the elbows) 
thrice; then he passed his wet hands over the head once; and, 
then, he washed both the feet up to the ankles thrice. After it, he 
got up and drank, in the standing position, the water left in the 
vesse after wudu. Later, when he had completed wudu before us 
in this way, he remarked: 'I thought I would show you how the 
Messenger of Allah iH used to perform wudu." 

(Tirmizi and Nassai) 

Commentary: As we have learnt from the afore-mentioned 
narratives of Sayyidina Uthman and Sayyidna Ali <S^>,. the 
Prophet iil, generally, washed the parts that were to be washed in 
wudu three times, but he did the Masah ] of the head only once. It, 
also, sometimes, happened that he washed the organs of wudu only 
once or twice with the object of indicating that the ablution could 
be performed that way as well. In the terminology of the jurists it is 
called bay fawaz (i.e., to make clear or show publicly the 
permission or lawfulness of a thing). It is, further, possible that the 
Prophet ill, at certain times, did so owing to the sacrcity of water. 
Allah knows best. 

, ., I. , , , it., , 

(440/38) It is related by Abdullah bin Abbas 4§b, "(One day) the 
Messenger of Allah performed wudu by washing the parts 
only once (and) no more." ■ (Bukhari) 

j/ja u>jj j^bj iJJi jjfi & ±£) j> Jji I/- (it\/r<\) 

(441/39) It is related by Abdullah bin Zaid bin 'Asim 

"(Once) the Messenger of Allah HH performed wudu by washing 

the parts twice." (Bukhari) 

Commentary: As for washing the parts only once or twice, the 
Prophet ill did so, as explained earlier, merely to show that wudu 
O. Act of passing wet hands over a part of the body with a view to cleaning it. 



56 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



could, also, be perforjrned like that or else his usual practice was to 
wash the hands, forearms and face and feet thrice, and he taught his 
followers to do the same. It is the better and masnun method of 
performing the ablution. The Tradition that follows elucidates the 
matter. 

J\ l^'J* 0* 4*0 0* S-**-* j> Jj+* J* ( * *Y/ i • ) 

S & * " 

(*srU j ^jSt-Ji ai j j) . jilt j c5JL«j j JLflS iJLa ^^Ip i 1 j j-is 

(442/40) Ami - bin Shu'ayb quoted his father on the authority of 
his grandfather that a nomad Arab came to the propeht Hi and 
asked him about ablution. He demonstrated it to him, 
performing each detail three times (that is, those organs that are 
washed) and then said, "This is how wudu is performed. If 
anyone does more than this, he has done wrong, transgressed 
and done wickedly." (Nasa'i, Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: The Prophet Hi has disallowed anyone to wash any 
part of the body more than three times implying that it is enough to 
obtain cleanliness that one wash his limbs three times. If anyone 
increases the number then he, as it were, suggests amendment to 
the Shari'ah and shows boldness. 

j^iT <ds jltfl U?y jij Lgio Aj ^ ^sJi s-j-^jJl ^jjlfcj cSUsS 3JL?-lj 

(.w*-i ai j j) . tlli^ l s-j-^jj iSj^'j t— Vsl5 U? jj j^j 

(443/41) It is related by Abdullah bin Umar that the 
Messenger of Allah Hi said: "Whoever washes the parts only 
once in wudu, it is the grade of wudu from which there is no 
escape (i.e., no wudu can be performed unless it is done), and 
whoever washes the parts twice will recieve a two fold reward 
(as compared to him who washed the parts one time only), and 
whoever washes the parts thrice (which is better and masnun), 
then it is my wudu and the wudu of the Messengers before me 
(i.e., my method of performing wudu is to wash the parts three 
times over and the Messenger of Allah who were raised up 
earlier, also, did the same)." (Musnad Ahmad) 



Book of Purification 



57 



Commentary: The above Tradition belongs to Musnad Ahmad. 
Another report also in it says "one day the Prophet Hi performed 
wudu before us in which he washed the parts only once and 
observed that it was the wudu of the lowest grade without which no 
one's prayer could find acceptance with Allah; then, he performed 
wudu before us in which he washed the part two times and 
observed that it would fetch twice as much reward as the former 
kind of wudu; and, then, he performed wudu before us in which he 
washed the parts thrice and observed that it was his wudu and the 
wudu of the Messengers f^LJi p^i* who preceded him." This report 
has also been reproduced in Dar Qutni, Baihaqi, Ibn Hibban and 
Ibn Majah. 

Sunnah And Properties 

In wudu, only the four acts mentioned in the verse of Surah 
Al-Maidah we have seen earlier are obligatory, i.e., washing of the 
face, washing of the arms up to the elbows, passing of wet hands 
over the head and washing of the feet upto the ankles. Apart from 
these, the other things the Prophet did or exhorted others to do 
are known as the sunnah 1 and properties of wudu that carry it to 
both inward and outward perfection. These, for instance, are 
washing of the face, arms and feet, not once but thrice, passing the 
fingers through the beard and in between each-other and the toes, 
moving the rings, if it is worn, round the finger so that there 
remains no doubt about the water getting under it, rinsing the 
mouth and snuffing water in the nose, passing wet hands over the 
external and internal parts of the ears and reciting Bismillah at the 
beginning and the Kalima of Affirmation at the end of wudu, and, 
also, the supplication at its conclusion. 

•/j&ij As- iJJt JU> Jjl J^ij JlS JlS J> 'J> (i t t/t T) 

l' s 1» y * s 3^ 3 s s 3 * Jl 

(444/42) It is related by Sa'eed bin Zayd 4^> that the Messenger 
of Allah $$& said: "Whoever performed wudu without taking the 
name of Allah, he performed wudu." (Tirmizi and Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: According to the majority of legistis, wudu which 
O. Meaning acts and observances mentioned by the practice of the Prophet 



58 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



is performed hurrriedly and without taking the name of Allah will 
be defective and lustreless and the forbidding of a defective thing 
by declaring it void is a habitual mode of expression in the 
Traditions. We have had the occasion to discuss the point at some 
length in the Kitab Al-Iman. 

In the Tradition coming immediately after it, it is distinctly 
stated that wudu performed without taking the name of Allah is 
most faulty and imperfect in its inner lusture and effectiveness, 
though not wholly futile. 

"* ' J> ^ 3 <M ' * 3' ^ 3 "* * y 

(445/43) It is related on the authority of Abu Hurayrah <$jk> and 
Ibn Masood 4fe that the Prophet HH said, "Whoever performs 
wudu taking the name of Allah, the wudu purifies his whole 
body, and whoever performs wudu and does not take the name 
of Allah, wudu purifies only the parts washed." (Dar Qutni) 

Commentary: It shows that when wudu is performed with the 
name of Allah, i.e., reciting Bismillah or any other formula of 
God-remembrance, the whole body is pruified and becomes 
radiant, and when it is performed without it, only the parts that are 
washed are purified; in other words, it is a wudu of a very poor 
quality. 

(446/44) It is reported by Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger 
of Allah III said, "O Abu Hurayrah, when you perform ablution 
say <5ti (Bismillah) and Hamdu Lillah). As long as 

you retain the wudu, your guarding angels (who record your 
deeds) will go on writting piety to your credit." (Tabarani). 

Commnetary: This hadith tells us that as long as a person's 
ablution is retained the angels will write down for him pious deed 



Book of Purification 



59 



provided he had recited Bismillah and Al-Hamdulillah while 
performing ablution. 

\i\ <d£ JJf Jjl $ J 1 * 5 jiJ* ^ o* (i t V/l o) 

(447/45) Abu Hurayrah has narrated that the Messenger of 
Allah iH 1 said: "When you wear a dress or perform wudu, begin 
with the organs on the right side of your body." 

(Musnad Ahmad and Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: It tells that when a person puts on clothes, shpes or 
socks he should first on the right side, and if he performs ablution, 
the washing of the parts should also be commenced from the right 
side. 

Jl5 fr^Jt jp tsiS^"' Jj^j b l ^ *jr# <J>. <S* (* t A/i "\) 

UjLfi ^! J t i V' ^ ^JVj j gU^I jjJ J-b*- J i- £r-»l 

(^jSuJl j ijl* jJl j a jb jj! flljj) 

(448/46) Laqeet bin Sabirah related to us that (once) he asked 
the Messenger of Allah lH to tell him about wudu (i.e., 
particular). The Prophet replied: "(One), perform wudu 
throughly and well (i.e., ensuring that nothing is left wanting), 
and, (secondly) pass the fingers in between them and the toes 
while washing them, and, (thirdly), claen the nostrils properly 
by drawing the water deep in them except when you are keeping 
fasting (i.e., do not draw in much water if you are fasting). 

(Abu Dawood, Tirmizi and Nasai) 

d* illi JL> &\ Jjij cJ\j JlS J> ajjaliil (l i ViV) 

( 4*-U jj! jb jjI j i^Jm jill Ol j j) 0 j-Atf*J ^Ufj t^xJjb jJ bt (»JLuj 

(449/47) Mustaurid bin Shaddad 4e^> narrated to us "I saw the 
Messenger of Allah Hi when he performed wudu he used to rub 
the toes (i.e., the space between them) with his little finger." 

(Tirmizi, Abu Dawood and Ibn Majah) 



U>y lil ^L»j kA* <dJl JU? aUi Jls j^jS jp (io ./1A) 



60 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



15O , *^ a J^J ^ *^ tJ lif JbM 

(450/48) Sayyidina Anas -4^> said that when the Messenger of 
Allah Hi performed ablution, he took a handful of water and 
putting it under his chin made it go through hs beard, saying, 
"Thus did my Lord command me.' (Abu Dawood) 

^ifj JL-itj^ £JJ (^J ^ J"? C5^' tJ 1 t/'W*' ( £ 0 ^ ^) 

(451/49) It is related by Abdullah bin Abbas S> "The 
Messenger of Allah i|i performed the masah of his mead (in 
wudu), and, with it, of both his ears (in such a way) that he 
performed the masah of the internal parts of the ears with 
fore-fingers, and of the external parts with both the thumbs." 

fNasai) 

(452/50) Sayyidah Ar-Rubaiyi' bint Mu'awwiz if* in said 
that she saw the Prophet ^ performing ablution and he inserted 
his two wet fingers in his ear-holes when wiping th ears. 

(Abu Dawood, Musnad Ahmad, ibn Majah). 

(A^-U jj! j ^jia jljJl at j j) . 45^1 ^ tlT^ 3jJL^( frjjsj 

(453/51) It is narrated by Abi Raft' "When the Messenger of 
Allah 111 performed wudu, he, also, moved his ring (to ensure 
that water reached the place covered by it as well)." 

(Dar Qutni and Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: In the forgoing ahadith the Prophet £H exhorted his 
companions to observe the etiquettes under which he himself was 
particular about. 



Water Should Not be Spent Wastefully 



Book of Purification 



61 



(A^-Ujjt ■ J^" jfe u^" li\ J 

'a' 

(454/52) Abdullah bin Amr bin Al-'Aas 4p> related to us that 
(once) Sa'd bin Abu Waqas 4|& was performing wudu (and he 
was using water wastefully in it) the Messenger of Allah Hi 
happened to pass by him. (As he saw it), he remarked, Sa'd, 
what extravagance is it (i.e., why are you wasting the water)?" 
'Messenger of Allah 0! replied Sa'd bin ^bi Waqas J&>, 'Can 
there be a wate of water even in wudu? "Yes", said the Propeht 
Hi, "It is wastefulness even though you are performing the 
ablution on the bank of a runnign stream'." 

(Musnad Ahmad and Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: The above tradition denotes that it is among the 
properties of wudu that water is not spent wastefully in it. 

Use of Towel or Handkerchief 

(455/53) It is related on the authority of Mu'az bin Jabal 4^> "I 
saw that when the Messenger of Allah lH performed wudu he 
wiped his face with a corner of his dress." (Tirmizi) 

Commenary: It denotes that, after performing ablution, the holy 
Prophet Hi used to wipe his face with the corner of his clothing 
(mantle etc.,). It is, again, quoted in Tirmizi, on the authority of 
Sayyidah Ayshah, If* k\ that a piece of cloth was kept for the 
Propeht to dry up the parts after ablution. In the narratives of 
some of other Companions, as well, a mention is made of such a 
cloth or handkerchief. 

Taking into account all the reports it would appear that there 
used to be a special piece of cloth like a handkerchief with which 
the Prophet wiped his face, hands, feet and other parts after wudu, 
and, sometimes, he, also, did that with the corner of his garment. 
Allah knows best. 



62 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



Supplication At The End of Wudu 

We have seen a hadith telling us that at the end of wudu we 
must recite the Kalimah Shahadah and make a supplication: 

We have also seen a hadith exhorting us to offer two raka'at 
after that. This will atone for our past sins. Let us see one more 
hadith in this regard. 

Reciting After Ablution 

&s dJuJ* 10 J* J^p U*^- \^ ^ 

^ ^ji <sx& ^rj\ yjj- cJap u jii i^ji ^ ^ij ujc.u.t 

. jtSjbsJifltjj) It5 U?i 

(456/54) It is reported by Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4^£> that one 
day after the Fajr prayer the Messenger of Allah &H said to 
Sayyidina Bilal 4^e>, "Tell me Bilal, of the action that you have 
done since becoming a Muslim which is most calculated to 
cause hope in you, for 1 heard the sound of your sandals in front 
of me in Paradise." Bilal 4il> replied, "I have done no such 
action calculated in my opinion to cause hope than that I have 
never performed ablution at any hour of the night or day without 
immediately praying what was ordained for me to pray." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: The Prophet ^ had heard Sayyidina Bilal's 
footsteps in Paradise in his dream. Hence the question of his going 
to Paradise in this life does not arise. However, the fact that the 
Prophet Hi saw him in his dream in Paradise ensures that 
Sayyidina Bilal 4^> will go to Paradise. In fact, he will enjoy the 
highest rank there. 

Hence, we must offer prayer after performing ablution, even if 
it is the fard, sunnah, or optional prayer. 



JANABAT AND ITS GHUSL 



We have seen how a person with a sound disposition and a 
spiritual outlook feels a sort of gloom and Uneasiness when he 
passes out filhty matter from his body or satisfies a cranal urge 
which is far removed from the celestial aspects of his personality 
and regards himself unwrothy of a sacred act like worship as long 
as he is in that state. Such a condition, which is called Hads, is of 
two kinds, or rather, it has two grades. One is Hads Asghar (i.e., 
minor impurity) for getting rid of which wudu is sufficient, i.e., the 
feeling of depression and filthiness gets removed on performing 
wudu. The other is Hads Akbar (i.e., major impurity) whose effects 
are much deeper and can be nullified only by Ghusl 1 . Defaction, 
urination and passing of flatus belong to the former catagoryof 
Hads while cohabition, menstruation and labour and childbirth 
offer the instances of the latter catagory. 

A right-minded person considers a bath necessry for dispelling 
the feeling of spiritual distress and uncleanliness produced by 
sexual intercourse, menstraution or child-birth and does not regard 
himself or herself to be in a fit state to engage in religious acts, 
such as, prayer and God-remembrance or even to go to a sacred 
place like mosque unless he or she has taken a bath. This is 
required of man by his untainted inward impulse and the Shari'ah 
(i.e., the Islamic Canonic Law), too, has prescribed a bath in such 
circumstances and prohibited its followers from carrying out an act 
of worship or entering a mosque or any other sanctified place 
without ghusl. 

When Ghusl is Obligatory 

O. Ritual washing of the whole body; a bath in common usage. 



64 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



(457/55) It is related by Abdullah bin Umar 4*» that the 

Messenger of Allah iHl said: No menstruating woman or 
l 

Junubi person should recite anything from the Qur'an." (Tirmizi) 

- o^l^ Jb>«JL»Jl J^-t *il .i^-liJl O jIlJl ed!»1 J 

(458/56) It is related by Sayyidah Ayshah i^p ii that the 
Messenger of Allah Hi said: "Turn the direction of these houses 
from the mosque (i.e., shut their doors that open into the 
mosque and open them on the other side) for there is absolutely 
no justification for a menstruating woman or a Junubi to enter 
the mosque (i.e., it is strictly forbidden to them to go into it)." 

(Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: When the Prophet's $jl Mosque was built at first, 
the doors of a large number of neighbouring houses opened in its 
courtyard. After some time the command came that the sanctity of 
the mosque demanded that woman during menses and persons who 
were in the condition of Janabat must not come into it. The 
Prophet ill, thereupon, ordered that the doors of all the houses that 
opened into mosque should be closed and new door made on the 
other side. 

Method 

^i-^J ^J' i^Ui' Alii Jj--J Jl5 Jl3 S^jJa ^» (*o<\/oV) 

(459/57) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4&> that the Messenger of 
Allah HI said: "The effect of janabat is under every hair of the 
body. Thus, the hair should be washed throughly in Ghusl 
Janabat (so that the parts of the body that are covered with hair 
are cleaned and purified), and the part of the skin which is 
visible (i.e., is not covered with hair) should, also, be cleansed 

O. The state of uncleanliness caused by sexual discharge whether as a result of 
copulation or in a dream etc., is called Janabat while a person who is in the 
state is called a Junubi. 



Book of Purification 



65 



and purified properly." (Abu Dawood, Tirmizi and Ibn Majah) 

^ „ $ i £ i $. * * * * 

ifji jXoj ill* *U» J^j J13 J\5 ^ip. (H ./oA) 

(460/58) It is related by Sayyidina Ali that the Messenger of 
Allah Hi said: "Whoever left unwashed even the place equal to 
a hair in the Ghusl of janabat shall receive such-and-such 
punishment of Hell." The narrator, Sayyidina Ali 4fe added 
"owing to this warning of the Prophet lH I became an enemy of 
my hair i.e., made it a principle to shave it off as soon as it' 
started growin)." According to the narrative quoted in Abu 
Dawood, Sayyidina Ali said it thrice. (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: Both of these Traditions show that in the Ghusl of 
Janabat the whole body should be washed in such a way that 
nothing, not even a place equal to a hair, was left out. 

Some commentators have remarked that Sayyidina Ali's 
habitual course of action of having the hair of his head shaved as 
soon as it began to grow long in order to make it easy to take a 
bath signifies that it is also lawful and commendable to have a 
shaven head though the growing of the hair of the head is more 
desirable as was the custom of the sacred Prophet ill and the rest 
of the rightly guided Companions i^>. 

. > f \ i , , - 1 \ . \ >'' ' , 'U f t - 'l * II •» " ' * f ' // (ij < , , r 

'J* ft obi?- dl* j 'J* cM'^J^^ 6' t5'j J*" j*"^' 
((JL«aJ JiilJl j |JLo» j ^ jbUl o\ jj) . Alibi- j J-lkP iX^J? jjLii 

(461/59) It is related by Sayyidah Ayshah if* <3ii that when 
the Messenger of Allah Hi used to take the bath of janabat, he, 
first, washed both the hands, then cleaned the private parts with 
the left hand and poured water over them with the right hand, 
and, then performed wudu as is done for prayer. After it, he took 



66 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part 111 



water (in his hands) and made it reach the roots of the hair (of 
his head and beard) by moving the roots of the hair with his 
fingers till he was sure that the water had got to every place, 
and, then, poured three handfuls of water over his head. He, 
then, poured water all over the body, and, afterwards, washed 
both his feet." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Sj^>2 c~j^ cJiS ij'jiL* IgAte- ji jt* J>\ ( l 1 Y/i • ) 

P ify^ ^J-^ J ^ & j^' 

(462/60) Abdullah bin Abbas 4^> related his aunt (i.e., mother's 
sister), Sayyidah Maimoona if* <3i> had told him "Once I 
placed the water for the Messenger of Allah Hi, first of all, he 
washed his hands twice or thrice, and, then, put his washed 
hand into the vessel which contained the water, and, taking 
water from it, poured it on his private part and washed them 
with the left hand. After it, he rubbed his left hand on the earth 
(and cleaned it properly), and, then poured water over his head 
thrice, and, then, washed the whole body. He, then, moved away 
from that place and washed his feet. Afterwards, I gave him a 
piece of cloth (i. e., a towel or handkerchief) but he returned it." 
(In another account of the same incident appearing in Sahihain\ 
it is stated that instead of using the towel the Prophet removed 
the water from the body with both the hands.) (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: A complete description of the manner in which the 
holy Prophet $m took the bath of janabt is contained in the two 
narratives of Sayyidah Ayshah if* *»i and Sayyidah Maimoona 
if* iii jjjsj. The Prophet iH began the bath with washing his hands 
two or three times (since the hands were going to be used for 
washing the whole body). After it, he cleaned the private parts with 
the left hand and poured water over them with the right hand, and, 
then, rubbed, the left hand over them with the right hand, and, then, 
O. Denoting the two compilations of Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim. 



Book of Purification 



67 



rubbed, the left hand on the earth vigorously and cleansed it by the 
use of water. The Prophet ill, then performed wuclu (during which 
he rinsed the mouth thrice and drew water into the nose, and, thus, 
cleansed the internal parts). He, further, washed every hair of his 
beard by moving his wet fingers through it and making the water 
reach the roots of the hair, and, then, washed the hair of his head in 
the same way. Afterward, he washed the whole body. In the end, he 
withdrew from that place and washed his feet. It was, evidently, the 
most proper method of taking a bath. The Prophet Hi moved aside 
from the place where he was bathing to wash his feet, probably, 
because that place was not covered with concrete. 

(463/61) It is related by Sayyidina Ya'la 4& (Once) the 
Messenger of Allah lH happened to see a man who was bathing 
(naked) in the open. (Soon afterwards, at a suitable time), the 
Prophet lH delivered a sermon from the pulpit in which, as was 
his custom, he first praised Allah, and, then, said: "Allah is 
modest Himself and the one who covers (i.e., hides the shameful 
acts of the bondsmen to disclose which is against modesty) and 
He likes His bondsmen, also, to be modest. His command, 
therefore, is, and I, too, exhort you that when anyone of you 
takes a bath he should screen himself from the people." 

(Abu Dawood and Nasai) 



MUST AH AB AND MUSNOONGHUSL 



The situations in which a bath is enjoined by Shari'ah as a duty 
have been explained and the sayings of the Prophet m pertaining 
to it was discussed in the foregoing pages. Besides, there are some 
other occasions on which the Prophet H has exhorted his 
followers to take a bath but it is not obligatory and belongs to the 
class of Mustahab or Musnoon . 

Ghusl of Friday 

fr£ lit pL>j i& iil jU> & s Jj*j 'y* j\ 'J- ( * 1 */l V) 

((JLu. j c5 >Ul aljj) • ■ • J-r^ i**^J' (P^l 

(464/62) It is related by Abdullah bin Umar 4&> that the 
Messenger of Allah iHl said: "When anyone of you comes for a 
Friday (i.e., for the Friday prayer), he should take a bath (i.e., no 
one should come for the Friday prayer without taking a bath)". 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

fcfad*&\J*&\ J^j Jil JiS s>;> 'J j* (t i o/nr) 

(465/63) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4fe> that the Messenger of 
Allah m said: "It is the claim on a Muslim (i.e., it is required of 
him) to take a bath on one of the seven days of the week (i.e., on 
Friday), and wash the hair of his head and his whole body 
throughly in it." (Bukhari and Msulim) 

Commentary: In both of these reports an exhortratory command is 
contained concerning the Friday ghusl, and in another Tradition 
O Something that is commendable in Islam but not obligatory. 
© Signifying an act or observance confirmed by the practice of the sacred 
Prophet. 



70 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Pari III 



quoted, again, in Sahihain, on the authority of Sayyidina Abu 
Sa'eed Khudri 4fe, the word wajib (meaning necessary, proper or 
expedient) has been preferred, but according to most commentators 
and theologists it does not signify wujub (i.e., compulsion or 
obligatoriness) in the strict sense of the term, but exhortation, as 
shown by the aforementioned narratives of Sayyidina Abdullah bin 
Umar and Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4^>. 

The point has been discussed at length by Sayyidina Abdullah 
bin Abbas 4fe in the reply he gave to the people of Iraq who had 
come to see him. Ikramah 4s£> the celebrated pupil of Abdullah bin 
Abbas has left a detailed account of the conversation that 
passed between them and it is preserved in Sunnan Abu Dawood. It 
reads: 

Some inhabitants of Iraq came to Sayyidina Ibn Abbas 4^> and 
asked, "Is the bath of Friday obligatory in your view?" He replied, 
"I think it is not obligatroy but there is a great deal of cleanliness 
and purification in it and a lot of good for him who takes it. And he 
who does not take a bath (for some reason) on that day (i.e.. 
Friday) will not be committing a sin for it is not compulsory." 
(After it, Sayyidina Ibn Abbas added): "I shall tell you about the 
orgin of the command concerning the bath on a Friday. (The fact is 
that during the early days of Islam) the Muslims were poor and 
hardworking manual labourers. They wore rough clothes made of 
the hair of sheep or camel and carried loads on their back and their 
mosque (i.e., the Mosque of the Prophet), too, was very small. Its 
roof was very low and there was only one thatched shed in the 
whole mosque (on account of which it used to be extremely hot 
and stuffy in it). Thus, when on a Friday, which was a very hot day, 
the Prophet $H came to the mosque from his apartment and the 
condition of the people was that they were prespiring profusely in 
the coarse dresses of Suf and all these things had combined to 
make the atmosphere in the mosque foul and evil smelling, to the 
distress of everyone, he observed: 

"° P e °p |e! when a Frida y & 5ir (Si u?u 

comes you should take a bath ' 

and use a good, sweet-scented J-* 231 <_r^J 'j^^^ 



O. Meaning short, thick hair. 



Book of Purification 



71 



oil and apply a good perfume 




that might be available to you'." ,; " " ' 

(Hazrat Ibn-I-Abbas) went on to say: 

"After it, the period of poverty and starvation came to an end, by 
the grace of God, and He granted prosperity to the Muslims. 
The garments of Suf which produced the bad odour 
disappeared, and the hard work and drudgery ceased, and the 
msoque, also, no longer remained small— extensions were made 
in it — with the result that the disgusting smell that used to 
prevade the atmosphere of the mosque due to the sweating of 
the people became a thing of the past." 

From the above it is clear that the bath of Friday was prescribed 
to Muslims in the earliest phase of Islam owing to the unusual 
circumstances explained by Sayyidina Ibn Abbas. With the change 
in the conditions, the grade of the command did not remain the 
same. There is, nevertheless, purification in the bath of Friday 
which is pleasing to Allah, and, now, it is Musnoon and Mustahab 
to take a bath on Friday. 



(466/64) It is related by Samurah bin Jundub that the Messenger 
of Allah Hi said: "Whoever performs wudu on Friday (i.e., for 
Friday prayers), it is correct and adequate, and whoever takes a 
bath, then to take a bath is better." 

(Msunad Ahmad, Abu Dawood, Tirmizi, Nasai and Daarami) 

(More will be said about the Friday bath during the discussions 
on the Traditions apperatining to the Friday prayers). 



(467/65) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4ae> said that the Messenger 




Ghusl After Bathing The Dead Body 




72 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



of Allah mi said, "Anyone who has washed a dead body must 
bathe himself." 

Only this much is found in Ibn Majah but Musnad Ahmad, 
Tirmizi, and Abu Dawood have added more: "And he who 
carries the dead body must perform ablution." 

Commentary: The scholars suggest that this command is optional, 
there is a possibility that in giving bath to a dead body, he may 
have had drops of water over him. Another hadith in Bayhaqi 
narrated by Abdullah bin Abbas 4fe rejects the obligatory nature of 
this bath. Therefore, the Ulama generally hold that it is merely 
mustahabb to have a bath after bathing the dead. As for performing 
ablution before carrying the dead body, that too is optional. 
Perhaps it may have been suggested to enable preparedness to offer 
the funeral prayer. 

Ghusloi 'Id 

JUi JJfi *JUi J^j £if jii j>\J> J> aJUi jlp ( t i A/it) 

(468/66) Abdulalh bin Abbas 4fe relates that the Messenger of 
Allah Wi used to take a bath on the days of'Idul Fitr X and 'Idul 
Azha . 

Note: To take a bath on 'Idul Fitr and 'Idul 'Azha and to put on 

clean clothes and apply perfume are among the practices that have 

prevalent among the Muslims from the earliest days. The Muslims 

would, evidently, have learnt about them from the Prophet $H but 

the proof of the authenticity of these reports is weak according to 

the canons laid down by the Muslim scholars, the chain of 

narrators of the above Tradition, too, is not wholly reliable. It goes 

to illustrate the truth that there are some narratives whose chain of 

narrators is technically defective but their subject-matter is beyond 

question. Thus, if the chain of narrators of a report is not of the 

required standard but its purport is proved to be correct by 

evidence and reasoning it will be deemed to be authoritative and 

wrothy of acceptance as a genuine and authentic Tradition. 

O & ©. Names of the two annual festivals of Muslims. More will be said about 
them later. 



I A YAM MUM 



Sometimes a person is suffering from some disease or infirmity 
due to which it may be harmful for him to take a bath or perform 
wudu. In the same way, he may, occasioanlly, find himself at a 
place where access cannot be had to water. If, in such 
circumstances, it was allowed to offer prayer without ghusl or 
ablution, people would have grown lerthargic and casual in their 
attitude towards purification, and, what was more, the sense of 
intentness and preparation in regard to the presence in the Court of 
the King of Kings that was felt as a result of the strict observance 
of the religious obligations of ghusl and wudu, and the awareness 
of the sanctity and sublimity of the presence generated by it would 
have lost its keenness. 

Allah, as such, has made Tayammum 1 the substitute of ghusl or 
wudu in such conditions of constraint. Now as a person will do 
tayammum when he is unable to have a bath or perform wudu, no 
harmful effects of the kind indicated above will be produced in his 
heart or mind. 

In plain words, tayammum means to strike the palms of both 
the hands lightly on clean earth, sand, clay or stone (i.e., on 
anything like them that are, genreally, found on the surface of 
earth) and to pass the palms of the hands over the face and the 
forearms with the intention of purification. It is not necessary that 
particles of dust etc., touch or get spread over the arms or face. On 
the contrary, care should be taken that the parts remained free from 
them. 

Philosophy of Tayammum 

Water is used in a bath or ablution. In conditions of contraint or 

O Meaning pruiying before prayer with sand or dust when a person is sick or 
water is not availble. 



74 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Pari HI 



inability, Allah has prescribed tayammum in which dust or stones 
are used. The wisdom of it, according to some authorities, is the 
entire planet inhabited by man consists of two parts, the surface of 
one of which is formed by water and of the other by earth. There is, 
thus, a close relationship between water and earth. Besides, man 
has been created from clay and water. Dust and sand are, further, 
found everywhere excepts, of course, on the sea. Again, to pass the 
hands over the face after touching the earth is a special sign of 
humbleness. Earth being the last resting place of man and everyone 
having to return to dust on day, Tayammum also, reminds us of 
death and the grave. 

The Command 

s *» 6 i» s s s s / s s 

J> &s- iijl jLis aUi J)^3 £• cJli JLAJIp ( i Wl V) 
^IS13 ^ SJS> ^Jaiil J^Jfl\ OlJb jl frtf-3b US' til jt»- fljUdl jJsAj 

cJlSl liolP cJu^ U JJl is'jt{\ \ j& £ {J\ >J\ JrfUll Jfc 

Alii JjJjj jl>-» O^tiJl ^tUJ ^jj-sf l> ^3 oJIj ^yjtlaj 

A-iiip cJUi {J) Jl li fc^y. Jj^ ts*i* fri^J' •i*"' j*j j5-^J' 

(469/67) It is related by Sayyidah Ayshah *»i "We went 
out with the Messenger of Allah lH on one of his journeys 
(according to scholarly investigation it was in connection with 
the Battle of Zaat-ut-Riqa'a) till we reached Al-Baida or 
Zaat-ul-Jaish (both of these places lies between Madinah and 



Book of Purification 



75 



Khaybar) where my necklace (which was really not mine but my 
elder sister Asma's from whom I had borrowed it) broke and fell 
down (and was lost). I informed the Prophet |§l (upon which) 
he halted there to have it searched for and the people who were 
accompanying him, also, made the halt. There being no supply 
of water at that place people went to (my father) Abu Bakr 4fe 
and said: 'Don't you see what your daughter (Ayshah i^p iiii ^j) 
has done? She has forced the Prophet all and all the other 
people (by losing her necklace) to stop at this place though there 
is no water over here nor with the army; Abu Bakr 4^>, 
thereupon, came to me while the Prophet all was asleep and his 
head was resting on my thigh and said: 'You have made Allah's 
Messenger Hi and his Companions t$£> stop at a place where no 
water is to be found and they don't hav a stock of it with them 
either.' My father rebuked me severely and said everything that 
Allah willed and (in anger) he, also, jabbed me in the ribs but I 
did not wince as the Prophet Hi was resting (his head) on my 
thigh (for fear that he might be distrubed in his sleep). So, the 
Propeht III slept on till he woke up in the morning at a place 
and in the cirumstances that no water was available, and, at that 
time, Allah revealed the verse of Tayammum upon which 
everyone performed the tayammum (and prayer was offered 
after it). Usayd bin Hudayr (who was among the Ansars who 
had taken the vow of allegiance at the Porphet's 1§I hand before 
Migration), thereupon, exclaimed: 'O People of Abu Bakr 4fe>! 
The command of tayammum is not the first blessing of yours. 
(Many other blessings have been conferred because of you).' 
Afterwards, as the camel on which I rode was made to rise, the 
necklce was found under it." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: The verse of tayammum Sayyidina Ayshah & 

ifi* has spoken of here, perhaps, denotes the following verse of 

Surah- An-Nisa: 

And if ye are sick (and the use >\ '\z '\ r -„" ''.'.f : \' 

of water is harmful for you) or , ' r,, 

on a journey, or anyone of you j' -^J^ (*-^? ^ 

cometh from the closet, or ye <Y \ ; 'U -Y'"u >' ' -'t 

have had contact with your J v - ~ 

wives, and ye find not water, \yx^J>\$ Llk 1JL*J? VyJ^ci 
then go to clean, high ground 



76 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



and rub your faces and your 
hands with some of it. Allah 
would not place a burden on 




you, but He would purify you and would perfect His grace upon 



The same thing has been said, with a slight variation of words, 
in the second section of Surah Al-Maidah and some authorities 
hold that it "was this verse that was revealed on that occasion. But a 
majority of the commentators assert that the aformentioned verse 
of Surah Al-Nisa was revealed earlier than that of Surah 
Al-Maidah. 



to Umar <?p> and said: " I am in the state of Janabat and no 
water is available. (What am I to do then)?" Upon it Ammar said 
(to Sayyidina Umar *$k>) "Do you not remember that once you 
and I were together on a journey (and it had become necessary 
for both of us to take a bath). You did not pray in that condition 
but I rolled on the ground (and offered prayer), thinking that 
like a bath, the taymmum of Janabat, too, was of the whole 
body. When we returned from the journey 1 told about it to the 
Prophet Hi, and he said: '(It was not, at all, necessary to roll on 
the gorund). For you it would have been sufficient if you did 
like this.' On saying it, the Prophet Wt stroked lightly the earth 
with his hands, and, then, blew off the dust and passed his 
hands over his face and forearms." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: Commnetators have offered various explanations 
for Sayyidina Umar's not offering the prayer on that occasion. 
The most reasonable of these, however, is that, probably, he was 
waiting for water to be found and had some hope that it would be 
found. That is why, he did not think it proper to offer prayer by 



you, that ye may be grateful. 



(Al-Nisaa4:43) 




Book of Purification 



11 



performing tayammum. 

As for Sayyidna Ammar 4&>, he did not know till then that the 
method of tayammum which was performed in the place of the bath 
of janabat was the same as that of tayammum that was done in the 
place of wudu. He, therefore, exercised his own judgement and 
rolled on the ground. But when he related it to the Prophet Hi, he 
corrected him and explained that the two tayammums were 
performed in an indentical way and there was no difference in the 
manner of doing them. 

We, moreover, learn from Sayyidina Ammar's narrative that 
it is not necessaary for the dust to touch the face or hands in 
tayammum. On the contrary, if the dust clung to the hands as a 
result of stroking the earth it should better be blown out. 

JL*JkJi l\ pL>j aJJi JU aJJi Sj^>j JlS JlS 'J> ^ ^ ( 1 v ^ A <\) 
LLalli frLiJl JU>- j lilS ji~>> y^S- tUJl ^ <5}j (frA~LoJt f. jJpj iwJkil 

(471/69) It is related by Abu Zarr Ghiffari 4l> that the 
Messenger of Allah HH said: "Clean earth is the means of 
purification for a Muslim if water is not available even for ten 
years. When he finds water he should pour it over the body, i.e., 
perform wudu or bathe himself with it for there is much good in 
it." (Musnad Ahmad, Tirmizi and Abu Dawood) 

Note: Almost all the legist-doctors are agreed that if a person who 
is obliged to take a bath performs tayammum owing to sickness or 
non-availabily of water, it will be binding upon him to bathe 
himself when the excuse of illness ends or water is found. 

c^is^i jl* j> j tSj-^l [J} 'j* (iVY/Y • ) 

i^j\jsr\j SjJJI C^ 1 (»J <jity Jl*9 u^Jli (*^**'J 

(472/70) Abu Sa'eed Khudri 4^> narrated to us that two 



78 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part HI 



Companions went on a journey. It so happened that the time 
for prayer came and they were without water. So, they both 
offered prayer by doing tayammum with clean earth but water 
was found before the time of prayer had elasped. Upon it, one of 
them offered prayer again after performing wndu while the other 
did not offer prayer for the second time. Afterwards when they 
returned and went to the Prophet Hi, they related the incident to 
him. The Prophet Hi told Companions who had not offered 
prayer again: "You did the right thing and the prayer you had 
offered by doing tayammum will suffice for you. 1 " And to the 
Companion 4g> who had offered prayer once again by 
performing wiidu, Prophet Hi said: "You will get a double 
reward (because the prayer you offered for the second time 
became a superegatory prayer). Allah does not allow a good 
deed to be wasted." (Abu Dawood and Daarami) 



O. According to the Shari'at it is enough to offer prayer by doing tayammum on 
an occasion like that. To offer it again if water is found in time is 

unnecessaary. 



KITABUSSALAH 
(THEBOOKOFPRAYERS) 



^SjJt 'tj&j <-^j£j i-S'*u*tJj ^JJi k_Jou*l^ 



PRE-EMINENCE OF SALAH 

The primary and most natural requirement of believing in what 
the Divine Mesengers f%Ji have taught about the Being and 
Attributes and Unity and Sublimity of Allah is that the bondsman 
seek His good pleasure by making a whole-hearted expression of 
love, loyalty and humbleness and obtain joy and effulgence for his 
soul through His remembrance. This, in sum, is the meaning and 
purpose of salah 1 , and undoubtedly, it is the most perfect means to 
the realisation of this end and object. Hence, the first command, 
after the acknowledgement of faith, in the teachings of all the 
Prophets ^%^i\^is- and in every Divine law is that of prayer, and in 
the last of the Shari'ah 2 (i.e., the Shari'ah brought by the Prophet 
Muhammad m> more emphasis is laid upon it than upon any other 
mode of worship, and its essential requisites, rules and properties 
and divisions and components, as also the things that nullify it or 
make it void, have been described in the greatest detail. 

Says Shah Waliullah <uU in in Higjat, 

"By its grandeur and conformability with human nature and 

intellect prayer occupies a place of special eminence among all 

the forms of worship and it is most popular and widely 

celebrated among those who believe in Allah and perform 

religious s ervice. It is highly efficacious for purification and 

©■ Signifying regular worship in Islam, prayer. Generally the word prayer is 

used for it. 
©. Meaning the Canonic Laws 



82 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



disciplining of the self. The Shari'ah has, thus taken such care 
to set forth its hours, essential factors, stipulations and 
properties as it has not done for any other kind of worship and 
prayer has been declared to be the foremost observance and 
mark of faith because of these distinctive qualities." 1 

In the same book. Shah Waliullah ibt <u*-j observes: 

"The basic constituents of prayer are three: (i) humility of heart 
(spirit) consequet on the feeling of the presence of the Majesty 
and Magnificence of the Lord: (ii) Employment of all the other 
external organs, also, for the affirmation of the Glory and 
Greatness of Allah and the bondsman's servility and 
submission." 

And, again: 

j»ai j <dli >IaL" j y j <*» <tUp i^Ji v-y^M j^j . . . 

"The reality of prayer is made up of three things: (i) calling to 
the mind and reflecting upon the Majesty of Allah; (ii) Some 
prayers and invocations signifying that the submission of the 
bondsman and all his deeds and actions are solely for Allah, and 
he has turned his face, once for all, towards Him, and it is His 
help alone that he seeks in his needs; (iii) A few reverential 
postures like those of ruku 2 and sajdah^. Each of these three 
things supplements the others and serves as exhortation to 
them." 

Shah Waliullah Up i*^ concludes the discussion on prayer 
with these words: 
O. Hujjat, p. 186 
©. Bowing low. 

©. Bending forward in adoration with the forehead placed on the ground. 



Book of Prayers 



83 



O jiT j tilt jjj ^3 Jj>tw?l JLxJl ja C^SCoJ lilj . . . j <U)1 

l$Jt jSlj b$Jb»sl cJUi lit Up> ii ytJl . . . oblk^ <UP 

C>»i.' U— cJlv lilj . . . isJUaJl i—-ii3' 

"The special characteristics of prayer are: (i) It is the ascension 
of the Believers and a special means to the cultivation of 
worthiness for an uninterrupted view of the lustres of Allah with 
which the faithful Believers will be favoured in the Hereafter; 

(ii) It enables a man to gain the Love and Benevolence of Allah: 

(iii) When the bondsman attains the reality of prayer he is 
purified of sins by getting drowned in the waves of the 
affulgence of Allah (in the same way as a soiled and dirty article 
is cleansed when it falls into the waves of a river or iron is made 
pure by casting it into the furnace); (iv) Prayer offered with 
devotion of the heart and purity of intention is most effective for 
overcoming negligence and dispelling unwholesome ideas and 
doubt and misgivings: (v) When prayer was made the regular 
practice of the Ummah, it, apart from other things, afford it 
protection against polytheistic and sinful practices and became a 
religious symbol of the Muslims by which they could easily be 
identified from the apostates; and (vi) the sturcture of prayer is 
the aptest way to subordinate one's inward impulses to the 
guidance of the intellect." 1 

Shah Waliullah <Ai has drawn the above conclusions 
from the Traditions of the sacred Prophet Hi, and he has, also, 
indicated their sources but we have ommited the references as the 
full reports of these sayings are going to be discussed later. 



O. Ibid. Vol.1 PP 72.73 



84 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



Omission of Prayers is Inimical 
To Faith And An Act of Apostasy 

(,JLu. aljj) . . 3 jUiJi Oy" 

(473/1) It is related by Jabir 4fe that the Messenger of Allah H 
said: "Between a bondsman and disbelief there is only the 
giving up of prayer. (Muslim) 

Commentary: It shows that prayer is such a fundamental tenet of 
Islam and is so closely related to the reality of faith that, on leaving 
it out, a bondsman, one would say, ceases to be a Believer. 

jJLj dp ill JU> Jj ( Jj-^j J 1 * J 1 * (iVi/Y) 

jjIj ^jSl-Jlj >w*-t alj j) 

(474/2) It is realted by Abu Buraidah 4^> that the Messenger of 
Allah W> said: "The convenant between me and these people is 
that of prayer (i.e., I take the pledge of prayer from everyone 
who accetps Islam which is a special sign and a basic 
requirement of faith). Thus, whoever gives it up, turns aside (so 
to speak), from the course of Islam and takes to disbelief." 

(Ibn-i-Maja) 

•jijUi. «JJi< 3Jtfi& lg± JiS friijUi 'J} j* (tvo/r) 

>'„'..t*,'f *,'*£.,*>» i \. , ' i - ' - '•{- 

'a ' ' ' ' 

(475/3) Abu Darda 4p> "My friend and beloved (peace and 

blessing of Allah.be upon him) has exhorted me (in these 

terms): 'Do not associate anyone with Allah even if you are cut 

into pieces and roasted on fire, and beware, never omit prayer 

intentionally for whoever, willingly and knowledge, omits 

prayer for him the responsibility that rests with 'Allah regarding 

His truthful and believing bondsmen comes to an end, and, 

(also) take care not to drink (wine) that all for it is the key to 

every evil (thing or act)'. (Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: Just as the subjects have some claims on the 



Book of Prayers 



85 



government under which they live and they are deemed to be 
entitled to them unless they are guilty of a grave crime like treason, 
Allah, too, by His grace, has taken upon Himself the responsibility 
of bestowing some unique rewards and favours upon all the 
Believers and followers of Islam which will be made evident in the 
Hereafter. 

In this Tradition the Prophet $$& has stressed that deliberate and 
wilful neglect of prayer is not merely a sin, like any other sin, but 
an act of open defiance after which a person stops being wrothy of 
Divine Mercy and Benevolence. 

A similar Tradition has, also, been quoted in some 
compilations, on the authority of Ubaidah bin Samit 4^>, the 
concluding words of which in respect of the habitual defaulter of 
prayer are: 



"Whoever intentionally neglects prayer goes out of my fold." 1 
In the above sayings deliberate omission of prayer has been 
characterised as infidelity and egress from the Muslim Millah 
because prayer is such a distinctive sign of faith and exclusive 
practice of Islam that to give it up wilfully would imply, as a matter 
of course, that one had served one's bond of loyalty with Allah's 
hand the Prophet Hi, and ceased to be a Muslim. Particularly, since 
during the glorious days of the Messenger Hi it was beyond 
imagination that anyone who was a Believer and a Muslim could 
be a habitual defaulter of prayer if a person did not offer prayer, it 
was taken for granted, on the whole, that he was not a Muslim. In 
our view, the remark of the celebrated Taba'ee 2 , Abdullah bin 
Shafiq, about the Companions 4g> that: 



Shows that while the holy Companions t$£> believed the 
disregard and neglect of the other tenets like zakah (regular 

O. At-Taghreeb wat-Tarheeb (Adopted from Tabarani) 
©. Meaning a "successor" of the Companions 




"They did not consider the 
persistent neglect of any act 
except prayer to be 
amounting to aspostasy." 




86 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



charity), fasting, Hajj (pilgrimage to Makkah), and Jihad (Holy 
War), and, in the same way, of the commands and injunctions 
concerning social conduct and monetary dealings as merely sinful, 
they held the omission of prayer to be a proof of the repudiation of 
the Islamic faith and severance of ties with the Muslim Millah. But 
Allah knows best. 

Some jurists like Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal have inferred from 
these narratives that a person becomes an infidel and an aspostate 
and forfeits his title to Islam when he habitually leaves out prayer 
to the extent that if he dies in that state his funeral service will not 
be performed and he will not be allowed to be buried in a Muslim 
graveyard. In other words, deliberate neglect of prayer by a Muslim 
is identical to prostrating oneself before an idol or the crucifix or 
offending the honour and dignity of Allah and the Prophet 1§I no 
matter whether he formally changes his creed or not. But many 
theologists say that though deliberate omission of prayer is a 
paganish act for which there is no place in Islam, if a person does 
not offer prayer only due to neglience but has not rejected it in his 
heart and is not guilty of defiance in his creed then, in spite of the 
fact that he is deserving of severest chastisement both in this world 
and the next, his connection with Islam and the Muslim Millah will 
not stand terminated and the law laid down for an apostate will not 
apply to him. In their opinion if the intentional disregard of prayer 
has been denounced as apostasy in these sayings it is simply to 
show that it is a paganish act and this mode of expression has been 
preferred to emphasise the gravity of the offence in the same way 
as a harmful food or medicine is, often, described as poison. 

iii Jlp "J$\ j> 5 yj. j> aji j^p 'j. ( i v 1/ 1 ) 

ob^J j iiUjj j aJ CJlT Jl^ Ujj 5 ^Jid\'jA'J>i iS\ 

(476/4) Abdullah bin Amr bin Al-'Aas 4fe has said that the 
Prophet $H mentioned prayer one day and said, "If anyone 
keeps to it, it will be a light, evidence and salvation for him on 



Book of Prayers 



87 



the Day of Resurrection; but if anyone does not keep to it, it will 
not be for him light, evidence or salvation, and on the Day of 
Resurrection he will be with Qarun, Fir'awn, Hainan and Ubayy 
bin Khalaf." (Ahmad. Darami, Bayhaqi) 

Commentary: Neglect of prayer is that grave crime which will 
make the neglector liable to admittance to Hell where such great 
rebles as Fir'awn, Hainan, Qarun and Ubayy bin Khalaf will be 
consigned. However, all those who are sent to hell will not suffer 
similar punishment just as all prisoners will not face the same 
punishment in the prison. The Qur'an says: 

"Layer upon layer of darknes'. ^ jjS 1**ju OUlfc 



Obligation of The Five Daily Prayers 
And The Promise of Forgiveness 

pUjj <0s- aJJi jLfi Jjl J_^>3 Ji! JlS c^l^di Ji SSUp ^ ( t vv/o) 

(477/5) It isrelated by Ubaidah bin Samit 4fe that the Messenger 
of Allah said: "Allah has prescribed five prayers, whoever 
performs wuchi properly for them and offers them up at the right 
time and carries out ruku and sujood 2 as they ought to be and 
offers them with the feeling of deep reverence, for him it is the 
firm promise of Allah that He will forgive him (his sins), and 
whoever does not do so, for him there is no promise of Allah. 
He will forgive or punish him as He likes." 

(Musnad Ahmad and Abu Davvood) 

Commentary: It shows that a believing person who takes care to 
offer prayer in a fitting manner will, in the first instance, do his 
best not to violate a God-given law and should he ever fall into 
error and commit a sin he will be granted the good fortune to 
repent earnestly for his misdeeds and seek the, forgiveness of Allah 

O An-Nur. 24:40 
© Plural ofSajda 



88 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 

as the common experience is — owing to the propitiousness of 
prayer. Apart from it, prayer will act towards the atonement of his 
sins. It is a propitiatory and purificatory worship of such a high 
order as to arouse the envy of the angels. Forgiveness is, thus, 
assured for those who habitually offer prayer with devotion and 
humility and with a due regard for rules and proprities. As for those 
who neglect prayer, in spite of claiming to be Muslims, the 
Almighty will decide about them as He please. He may punish or 
prardon them. In any case, they are in grave peril and there is no 
assurance of forgiveness for them. 

Source of Forgiveness And Purification 

IS*^ Cyt J** ^-~* J *" ^Ji J* J-;"*-! l -r J ^ ' J& T 

(478/6) It is related on the authority of Abu Hurayrah that, 
one day, the Messenger of Allah iH said to his companions: 
"Tell me, if a stream flows at the door of anyone of you and he 
takes a dip in it five times a day, will any grime be left on his 
body." "No Messenger of Allah Hi!," The Companions c^> 
replied. "No grime will be left." The Prophet, thereupon, 
remarked: "It is the same with the five daily prayers. Allah 
removes sins and impurities through them." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: When a truthful Believer, mentally and spiritually 
aware of the reality of prayer occupies himself with it, his soul so 
to speak, dives deep into the ocean of Divine Power and Majesty, 
and just as a drity garment is washed clean when it is dipped into 
the waves of the river, the rays of Divine Glory washes away all his 
filthiness, and if it is repeated five times a day, not a trace of dirt or 
impurity will be left on him. 

cil#y jjjii kJ£J(i J*^i Jll Ij^> jg~a * j c-i^=d jjj^j . 



Book of Prayers 



89 



(479/7) Abu Zarr ^fe narrated "Once during the cold weather the 
Messenger of Allah ^ went out and the leaves of the trees were 
falling (as it was the autumn). The Prophet m> caught hold of 
two brances of a tree (and shook them) and its leaves began to 
fall suddenly. Addressing me, he said, 'Abu Zarr 4#s>'. 'I am here, 
O Messenger of Allah ', I replied. When a person offers prayer 
solely for the sake of Allah,' said the Prophet, 'his sins fall away 
like these leaves.' (Musnad Ahmad) 

Commnetary: Just as the leaves are dried by the rays of the sun 
and winds, so too the sins and lapses of anyone who prays five 
times a day are dried up by the rays of Divine light and mercy of 
Allah. 

ti£"jhjS\ u^Jii j ejlT Ojj jiJU »»jjiJUl ^ SjliT oils' 

(480/8) It is related by Uthman ^> that the Messenger of Allah 
lH said: "A Muslim who performs wudu properly for a fard 
prayer when the time for it comes, and, then, offers it with 
humbleness and with good ruku and sujood, that prayer will 
become an atonement for his previous sins unless he has been 
guilty of a major transgression, and this propitiousness of prayer 
will reach him forever. (Muslim) 

Commentary: It shows that prayer can become an atonement for 
previous sins and remove the impurity of earlier misdeeds only 
when a person has not committed a grievous sins. The unholy 
effects of a major transgression are so great that sincere repetance 
alone removes them. Allah, however, can wipe them out even 
without a, cause or reason. There is no one to check or restrain 
Him, indeed. 



90 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



The Promise of Forgiveness And Paradise 

(481/9) It is related by Uqbah bin 'Aamir that the Messenger 
of Allah Hi siad: "Paradise shall be granted (as of right) to the 
Muslim bondsman who performs Wudu throughly, and, then, 
stands up before Allah and offers two rak'ats of prayer with 
single-minded devotion." (Muslim) 

Commentray: It tells that even if two Rak'ats are offered earnestly 
and attentively and care is, also, taken to perform the ablution for 
the prayer according the method prescribed by the' sacred Prophet 
Hi. their value is so high in the Judgement of Allah that the 
devotee who is fortunate enough to do so shall be admitted to 
Heaven. 

(482/10) It is related by Zayd bin Khalid Juhani 4& that the 
Messenger of Allah Hi said: "The bondsman who offers two 
rak'ats of prayer in such a way that there is not a trace of 
negligence in it, Allah will forgive all his previous sins in return 
for them." (Musnad Ahmad) 

Commentary: The comments on the forgoing hadith apply here 
too, A SAD COMMENTARY It is very sad that in spite of these 
clear sayings of the Holy Prophet Hi a large number of Muslims 
neglect prayer and deprive themselves of its blessings. 



O. Literally, obligatory. Here is denotes the five daily prayers which are no to be 
missed on any account 



Book of Prayers 



91 



Most Pleasing Deed 

diS pU\'J\'jt Jll & ^ cJfl l«JjJ 3 jLiJl JlS Jjt J\ L±\ JUp^i 

(( »JL- j t$ jU-H »i jj) . J^^al^Ji JlI<S»^ 

(483/1 1) Abdullah bin Mas'ud related to us that he once 
asked the Holy Prophet which act, among all religious 
duties, was most Pleasing to Allah . The Prophet Hi said: 'To 
offer prayer at the right time'. I . then, asked: 'Which act is most 
pleasing (to Him) after it?' To serve one's parents', replied the 
Prophet s&. I, again, asked: "Which act is most pleasing (to 
Him) after it?" To do Jihad in the path of Allah,' came the 
reply." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: The Prophet all has said here that prayer is more 
dear to Allah than even serving parents and engaging in jihad. 
Indeed, such is the station of As-salah. I have writtten a detailed 
account about this in my booklet, Haqiqat-e-Namaz (Urdu). 



HOURS OF SALAT 



The lofty aims, ideals and advantages associated with as-salah 
and the unique joy and satisfaction the fortunate bondsmen of 
Allah derive from it would require that it was enjoined upon them 
as an obligatroy duty to devote most of the hours of the day and 
night, if not the whole lifetime, to its performance. But since Allah, 
in His Infinite Wisdom, has assigned many other duties too, to 
mankind, only five daily prayers have been prescribed and their 
hours have been determined so judiciously that the objects of 
prayer are fulfilled and the other obligations, also, do not suffer 
from negligence. 

The Fajr x prayer is enjoined on waking up in the morning (i. e., 
after dawn and before the rising of the sun) so that the day should 
begin with presence in the celestial Court of the Almighty and the 
renewal of the convenant of sumission and surrender. There is, 
then, no prayer till noon (i.e., till the declining of the sun) in order 
that people attend to their worldly tasks and other responsibilities 
during the long stretch of time. After the interval of half-a-day, the 
prayer of Zuhr 2 is to be offered, and it, too, with the option that 
one can do it at the beginning of the specified time or an hour or so 
later according to the circumstances. Anyhow it is necesary that the 
Zuhr prayer offered after this extended gap so that the period of 
negligence or absence from the Divine Court should not be longer. 
Again, the Asr 3 prayer is to be offered when the evening begins to 
set in so that believing men and women present themselves in the 
Court of Almighty Allah and offer adoring prayer to Him at a time 
when people, generally, lay aside the day's work and take to 
relaxation and entertainment. When the day is done and the sun has 

O. The early morning prayer 
©. The early afternoon prayer 
©. The later afternoon prayer 



94 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



set the Maghrib prayer is performed in order that we, again, adore 
and pay homage to Allah and renew the convenant of servility at 
the end of the day and the beginning of the night. After it, the 
Prayer of Isha" is enjoined so that it is the last act of our daily lite 
and we go to sleep after establishing the contact of humility and 
renewing the compact of faith and bondage with our Master. 

Sufficient latitude has, further, been given for our convenience 
in the hours of the five obligaory prayers. We can offer them at the 
beginning or the middle of the spicified time or towards the end of it. 

As a little thought on this arrangement will show, the intervals 
between the prayers from Zuhr to Isha, are so brief that a faithful 
Believer who is aware of the worth and importance of prayer and 
has experienced the felicity and blessedness that goes along with it 
is obliged to wait anxiously for the 'Asr after the Zuhr for the 
Maghrib after the Asr, and for the Isha after the Maghrib prayer. 
Thus, during all this time, his heart will, so to speak, remain 
oriented tweards Allah and attuned to prayer. The gap between the 
Fajr and Zuhr prayers is to enable the bondsmen to attend to their 
material interests and other needs. The exhortation, however, is 
there for the bondsmen who can manage it to offer, as well, four 
Rak'ats of Chast 3 during the intervening period. Similarly 
considering sleep to be a necessity, no prayer has been prescribed 
for the period between Isha and Fajr and this interval has been 
made the longest. But here, too, the bondsmen have been urged to 
get up and offer a few Rak'ats of Tahajjucf at any time after the 
passage of first half of the night. The Prophet has described 
great virtues in it and he had made such a regular practice of it with 
himself that he did not miss it even when on a journey. 

The exhortatory sayings of the holy Prophet Hi about the 
Chasht and Tahajjud prayers will be taken up at the proper place. 
The introductory remarks, here, have been confined to the five 
daily obligatory prayers. 



O. The evening prayer 

©. The night prayer before one goes to bed. 

©. A supererogatory prayed said during the earlier part of the day. The word 

Chasht denotes the middle hour betweeen sunrise and the meridian. 
O. A supererogatory prayer said during the later part of the night. 



Book of Prayers 



95 



Timetable of The Daily Prayers 

^Ikj ^AaJt o_pUtf> cij Jlii ojlJiJl cij j£ (•^-'J ill 

^JU jkj J«^JiJl cJijiSi ^4^' ajXs*' cJjj JjVt ( _ r xJjt 
J jSh inJL'xij j*s^-iJ( jfln^T ^JU jJuJi SjJLi? cJjj j-A*Jl j^aJxj 

* ✓ * Z , s t ' ^ * * 3 s i' S % 3 ^ s " ' 3 * s f ' 

\y~P t --*^JJ (3***^' hfl...,/ ^JLa jjw-ttJLil C-jlC- (jl t-J jilaJlS jjLp ^^JJ 

(484/12) It is related by Abdullah bin 'Amr bin al 'Aas 4» that 
(once) the Messenger of Allah is§l was asked about the 
(specified) time of prayers upon which he said: 'The time for the 
Fajr prayer lasts till the first edge of the sun appears (i.e., it 
comes to an end when the sun begins to rise in the morning and 
its outer extremity becomes visible on the horizon), and the time 
for Zithr comes when the sun declines towards the West from 
the middle of the sky (i.e., the meridian) and lasts till the time of 
'Asr commences, and the time for 'Asr lasts till the sun turns pale 
and its first edge begins to set, and the time for Maghrib comes 
when the sun sinks below the horizon altogether and lasts till 
the twilight disappears, and the time for Isha lasts upto 
midnight.'" (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: In this Tradition the Prophet Hi has mostly 
mentioned the furthest limit of the hours of prayer-services which 
denotes that the questioner, probably, wanted only to know how far 
did the time for the five daily services extend and up to when could, 
each prayer be offered. The time the prayers began was, perhaps, 
already known to him. 

About the Maghrib prayer it tells that its time remains till the 
twilight disappears. The legist-doctors have differed over the 
significane of 'twilight'. Every one knows that a faint diffused light 
is visible in the west after sunset which disappears after some time 
and a sort of whiteness takes its place. This whitness also fades 
away quickly and it grows dark, According to a majority of the 
authorities, the word 'twilight' siginfies the glow which is seen after 
sunset, and, as such, the time for Maghrib ends and that of Isha 
begins when the glow after sunset and the whiteness that follows 



96 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



are covered by 'twilight'. Thus, horizon ends and darkness spreads. 
It is only then that, according to him, the time for Isha begins. But 
another report, also, attributed to Imam Abu Hanifa conforms to 
the view point of the other doctors and has been upheld by both of 
his celebrated pupils, Imam Abu Yusuf and Imam Muhammad as 
well. In fact, most of the Hanafi authorities have based their 
judgement upon it. 

The time for Isha has been indicated in the above and some 
other narratives as lasting till the midle of the night but from a few 
other sayings it appears that it lasts till the dawn of day. The 
Traditions in which the time for Isha has been specified however, 
have been taken to mean, on the whole, that it is legitimate to offer 
the Isha prayer up to the middle of the night and Mukrooh x after that. 

pL*j aIAp % jLp iui J^'^rj h\ l& ( * A o/ \ r) 

f 6 ^ J 6 3% 3" * " ^ f ' * ^ 

j-wo-lJlj jJa*J\ Jufij l$j ij-j ^\ p^\i ^^JaJb i J>\& 6y>\ ^tiJl 

JjLlil $ Jll 1} l^J. jlill ^Aiil jU>j jdil dii t^-iiU lii frLiJl 
pijl jIj Cij Jll ill Jj^i j Ij Ul Jr^i' Jlii 5 jX^ai' cJj 

(485/13) It is related by Sayyidina Buraidah <i£$b that (once) 
someone enquired from the Messenger of Allah Hi about the 
hours of prayers and the Prophet HH told him to offer prayer 
with him on the two following days (i.e., on that day and the 
next). Then, as soon as the sun declined (after mid-day) the 
Prophet lH ordered Bilal and Bilal gave the Azan 2 . 

O. Any act or thing forbidden not absolutely by the Shari'ah but from which it is 
advisable to abstain. 

© The Summons to prayers, generally proclaimed from the minarets of a 
mosque. 



Book affrayers 



97 



Thereafter, he ordered Bilal 4p> and Bilal 4ee> called the Iqamal 
for Zuhr (and the prayer of Zuhr was observed), and this Azan 
and prayer took place at a time when the sun was quite high, 
clear and bright. Then, immediately after sunset, the Prophet &§l 
ordered Bilal 4fe and Bilal 4|» called upon the Iqamah of 
Maghrib (and the Maghrib prayer was offered). Then, after the 
twilight had disappeared, the Prophet iH ordered Bilal and 
Bilal called the Iqamah of Isha (and the Isha prayer was 
offered). Then, as soon as it was dawn and the night had ended, 
the Prophet l§l ordered Bilal 4fe> and Bilal <i^e> called the Iqamah 
for Fajr (and the Fajr prayer was offered). Afterwards, on the 
day after it, the Prophet ordered Bilal to establish the 
Zuhr prayer when it had become cooler and said that the Zuhr 
(should, today, be delayed) till it was cooler. So, in compliance 
with the Prophet's command, Bilal 4§& called the Iqmamh of 
Zuhr when it had grown cooler and allowed the day was offered 
up pretty late, when the time for it was about to end), and the 
Asr prayer was offered at such a time that though the sun was 
still bright, it was later than on the previous day, and the 
Prophet s|i offered the Maghrib prayer before the fading away 
of the twilight and Isha after one-third of the night has passed/ 
and the prayer of Fajr at the time of Isfar (i.e., when the light of 
day had spread). The Prophet iH?, thereupon, enquired. 'Where 
is the man who wanted to know about the hours of prayer?' 'O 
Messenger of Allah! Here am I', replied the man. 'The time for 
your prayer is between what you saw' " (Muslim) 

Commentary: To make the questioner understand when the hours 
of the five daily prayers began and ended, the holy Prophet ill 
thought it advisable to demonstrate the whole thing by his own 
action. He, therefore, told him to offer prayer with him for two 
days. On the first day . the Prophet iH offered every prayer during 
the early part of the spicified time and on the next delayed it as far 
as it could be done legitimately and explained to the questioner that 
the beginning and the end of the time for each service was when he 
had seen him observing it. 

J&si\ iyji 'J} JLp ^ij Ul Jl5 J>. j£-><^ (1 A VU) 

O. The second call to prayer which is uttered immediately before the begining of 
congregation. 



98 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 

iuI*Ji ^j^-i* fri-Lji ^rji (S' v^^^**^ <5^j v j^J' (.5? 

al^Ull SjJLi* Jsibj IaJLiu dJu^Jlj Igill *jJt fl^j <5^J 

( t5 jlflxJl a(j^) . aUJ\ ^1 jsr^W ^3^3 J^\^ *-*j*d 

(486/14) It is narrated by Sayyar bin Salamah, My father and I 
visited Abu Barzah al-Aslami and my father asked him how the 
Messenger of Allah £H used to observe the prescribed prayer. 
He replied, "He used to pray the Zuhr (noon) prayer (al-hajeer), 
which you call the first, when the sun was past the meridion; he 
would pray the Asr (afternoon) prayer, after which one of us 
would return to his dwelling in the outskirts of Madinah while 
the sun was still bright. (I forget what he said about the 
Maghrib [sunset] prayer); he liked to postpone the Isha (night) 
prayer, which you call al-'atama, objecting to sleeping before it 
or taking after it; and he would turn away from (finish) the Fajr 
(morning) prayer when a man could recognise his neighbour, 
and he would recite from sixty to a hundred verses during it." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: The narrator of the hadith, Sayyar bin Salamah 
forgot what Abu Barzah had said about the time of the Maghrib 
prayer. We know, however, from the other ahadith that the Prophet 
Hi generally offered this prayer at the initial time as the sunset. It 
was only for certain extra ordinary reasons that he sometimes 
delayed it. 

(487/15) It is related by Muhammad bin Amr bin Al-Hasan, the 
grandson of Hasan bin Ali I enquired from Jabir bin 
Abdullah about the prayer of the Messenger of Allah iH> 



Book of Prayers 



99 



(i.e., about their timings) and he replied, "The Prophet offered 
the prayer of Zuhr at midday (as soon as the sun began to 
decline), and of Asr when the sun was still fully alive (i.e., its 
light and heat had not diminished), and Maghrib at sunset, and 
about the Isha service (his custom was to) offer it early (when 
people came in a large number to join the congregation) but late 
when the people were few, and he offered up the prayer of Fajr 
when it was still dark'." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: Form it we learn about Zuhr that Prophet 
offered it up as soon as the sun began to decline but from the other 
reports reproduced below it is clear that he did so on days besides 
the summer. When it was very hot, the Prophet $i used to delay 
the prayer till it became cooler and he has, also, commended it to 
the Ummah. 

(488/16) It is related on the authority of Anas 4fe that it was the 
custom of the Messenger of Allah H that when it was hot he 
delayed the Zuhr prayer until it had grown cooler, and when it 
was winter he offered it early (i.e., at the beginning of the 
specified time)". (Nasai) 

<js juji si . j*>^ $ jMy y j$ ^ ^ 

(489/17) Abi Sa'eed Khudri 4fe narrated that the Messenger of 
Allah said: "When it is too hot, offer Zuhr when it becomes 
cooler for the intensity of heat is from the fury of the fire of 
j_[ e |] " (Bukahri) 

Commentary: There are some apparent causes of what we see and 



Book of Prayers 



113 



reproduced earlier, shows that when the proposal of the bell was 
made the Prophet $i> remarked that it was the thing of the 
Charistians. 

We suppose that the correct explanation of the divergence 
between the two statements is that among the few suggestions 
made to the Prophet iH for summoning the faithful to prayer those 
of hoisting the flag, lighting the fire and blowing the horn were 
rejectd by him outright and that was why one suggestion was made 
quickly after the other. But about the last proposal of ringing the 
bell the Prophet 0 had simply observed that it was the thing of the 
Charistians and said no other word that could be taken for a 
distinct expression of disapproval. 

It is, moreover, quite possible that from the Prophet's lH 



reaction some Companions cjfe> had imagined that he preferred, in 

some degree the idea of the bell and concluded, on the basis of it, 
that the bell would be used till a better method was discovered. 

Be that as it may, in our view Sayyidina Abdullah bin Zayd 4#> 
has used the phrase Amra bin naqoos, in the above Tradition, to 
describe the same situation. Sometimes, the word Amr is also 
employed to denote 'permission' or 'authorisation', numerous 
instances of which can be found in the Qur'an and the Traditions. 

Secondly, in this report, the Kalimas 1 occuring four times in 
the Azan have been mentioned only twice in Iqamah. From 
Sayyidina Anas bin Maalik's «fe> narrative we are going to quote 
later, it, again, appears that these words were to be pronounced 
only once. But in other reports, a few of which will be taken up 
here and about whose genuineness, too, there can be no doubt, it is 
stated that these Kalimas will be said twice in Iqamah as in Azan. 
Some authorities have shown preference for the reports for those 
that want them to be pronounced twice. It is, however, clear that 
the validity of both the forms of Iqamah is undeniable and the 
distinction can only be made on the ground of preference. 



O. A Kalima is a group of words forming a sub-section of a section or 
functioning as a single part of speech. 





114 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part HI 



(505/33) It is reported by Anas bin Malik 4|& that when the 
number of men (coming to prayers at the mosque) increased, 
they discussed ways to summon people which they would 
recognise. The kindling of fire and the ringing of the bell were 
to repeat the (words of) Azan twice and the Iqamah once. 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: This hadith narrates the incident very briefly, even 
omitting the dream of Abdulah bin Zayd 4^>. Such narrtors know 
that listeners are aware of the details or it is not necessary to 
mention them. 

Sayyidina Anas has also said that the words of iqamah be 
called out once. Those scholars who hold that these words are 
called out twice tell us that the words were called out once in the 
initial days of Azan. 

However, after about seven or eight years when they were 
returning from the Battle of Hunayn, the Holy Prophet taught 
Abu Mahzurah 1 4^e> to call out the azan and the iqamah, he asked 
him to repeat the words twice in the iqamah too. Therefore, the 
latter command is preferred. 

I subscribe to the opinion of Shah Walliullah <ul* in as the 
final word when he says that in the same as the various recitations 
of the Qur'an all of which are known to have been taught by the 
Prophet Hi, the words of azan and iqamah too are taught by him 
and therefore, correct and worth observing. 

Teaching of Azan to Abu Mahdoorah 4|s> 

ih\ jLfi aji jjij 'j* Jail jis i'/jX^> 'j. <o . vri) 

<'£\ iiii &\ i ^ri sk\ & jS jis y* p^j 

Jji J^j uUi # Jjt i\ 4)1 i ji JL^ai Jj» oUfM 
J^ii . ill n't ii v 4« jtf ^ J^j 'JuAi # JL^i 

< jjt J>ij ulAi Si A$i>t < J^j uUi # ijii , ill ill «/ 

O. The Urdu book has the name Makhadurah but Sahih Muslim, Abu Dawood, 

the Mishkah have it Mahzurah. 
©. Hujjatul Allah al Baligah , v 1 pl91 



Book of Prayers 



115 



(506/34) Abu Mahzurah 4fe related to us: "The Messenger of 
Allah $H taught me the Azan personally. He told me to say: 
Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar; Ash-hadu Allaa-ilaaha il-lal-laah, 
Ash-hadu al-laa-ilaaha il-lal-laah ; Ash-hadu an-na 
Muhammadar-rasoo-lul-laah, Ash-hadu an-na Muhammadar- 
Rasoo-lul-laah; He then, told me to repeat it: Ash-hadu 
allaa-ilaaha il-lal-laah, Ash-hadu al-laa-ilaaha il-lal-laah; 
Ash-hadu an-na Muhammadar-Rasoo-lul-laah, Ash-hadu anna- 
Muhammadar-Rasoo-lul-laah; Hayya alas-Salaah, Hayya 
alas-Salaah; Hayya alal-falaah, Hayya alal-falaah; Allahu 
Akbar, allahu akbar; laa-ilaaha il-lal-laah. (Muslim) 

<wJL£ Alii- <0Jl jLfi ^1 j! OjjJbU ^jI jfr (o . v/ro) 



Allah agl taught me Azan, 19 Kalimas, and iqamah, 17 
Kalimas." 

(Musnad Ahmad, Tirmizi, Abu Dawood, Nasai, Daarami, and ibn Majah) 
Commentray: Of the two Traditions given above, the former 
contains the full 19 Kalimas of Azan, the four Kalimas of 
Affirmation having occured twice, and the Kalimas of Iqamah are 
17 in it because the Kalimas of Affirmation are not to be repeated. 
The number of Kalimas will, thus, be reduced by four and with the 
addition of the two Kalimas of Qad Qaamalis Salah, qad qaamatis 
salaah, it will come to 17. 

The event of the teaching of Azan by the sacred Prophet $§1 to 
Abu Mahzurah 4^e> took place in Shawwal^ , 8 AH., when the 
Prophet Hi was returning from the battle of Hunayn. The details of 
it, as collected from various sources, will, perhaps, bear 
reproduction. 

When, after the victory of Makkah, the Prophet marched 
with his army towards Hunayn, a number of Makkans he had 



4, JJ) 




O. The tenth month of the Mohammaden year. 



116 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



pardoned and set free accompanied him. Abu Mahzurah 4p>, who 
was a hot-headed young man and had not embraced Islam had, \ 
also, left for Hunayn with nine other like-minded friends. He 
relates "the Messenger of Allah Hi was returning from Hunayn 
when we met him on the way. When the time for prayer came, the 
Muazzin of the Prophet Hi gave the Azan, We hated Azan, (or, , 
rather, the religion of Azan). So, we began to imitate the Azan 
scornfully, and I gave the Azan, like the Muazzin, with a very loud 
voice. As our voice reached the Prophet ill, he sent for us and we 
were produced before him. Tell me, he asked, 'Whose voice among 
you is the loudest'. My friends, thereupon, pointed towards me, and 
it was, also, a fact. The Prophet detained me and ordered the 
rest of us to be released. He, then told me to stand up and give the 
Azan again. My condition, at that time, was such that nothing (in 
the world) was more abhorrent to me than the Prophet HH and the 
Azan he had commanded me to pronounce. My heart, God be our 
refuge, was filled with repugance for him. But I was helples. So I \- 
stood up unwillingly to carry out the command. The Prophet Hi, 
himself, began to teach me the Azan and told me to say: Allahu 

Akbar, Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar (The 

Azan has already been given in Tradition above — Author). When , 
I had finished the Azan, the Porphet iH gave me a purse which 
contained some silver and placed his hands on the front part of my 
head, and, then, he moved his blessed hand over my face and the 
front upper part of my body i.e., chest, heart and liver and, after it, 
lower down up to the navel. He, then, blessed me with these words: 
Barak Allah feeh wa barak Allah alaik (May God bestow blessing 
upon thee)! He made the invocation thrice. (By the blessedness of 
the Prophet's HH prayer and his hand, the curse of infidelity and 
hatred disappeared from my heart and I attained the wealth of Faith 
and love.) I begged him to make me the Muazzin of the mosque of 
Makkah. The Prophet HI replied, 'Go I order you to give Azan in 
the mosque of Makah from now on'." 

It is evident from the above why the Prophet had made Abu 
Mahzurah ^ pronounce the Kalimas of Affirmation, i.e., Ashdu 
al-laa ilaaha illallah and Ash-hadu an-na Mhuammadar rasool 
ul-laah not twice but four times. Till then. Faith had not permeated 



Book of Prayers 



117 



his heart and he had stood up to give the Azan merely under 
compulsion and the two Kalimas of Affirmation were exceedingly 
revolting to him. After Abu Mahzurah had pronounced them once 
the Prophet H told him to repeat them in a full-throated manner. 
We, also, believe that the holy Prophet was imploring Allah 
inwardly, while he was making Abu Mahurah utter the Kalima, to 
instil and infuse them into the heart of the bondsman. Anyway, it is 
not inconceivable that owing to the peculiar case of Abu Mahzurah 
the Prophet HI had made him pronounce those Kalima over a 
second time otherwise from on authentic report does it appear that 
the Prophet ever bade his permanent Muazzin, Bilal 4^>, to say 
them four times each. Similarly, in reliable reports of Abdullah bin 
Zayd's dream the two Kalima of Affirmation occur only twice. 

Neverthless Sayyidina Abu Mahzurah 4|& continued to 
pronounce the aforesaid Kalimas four times over in the Azan in 
Makkah perhaps for the reason that he had been taught that by the 
Prophet H and it was through its propitiousness that the boon and 
blessing of Faith had reached him. Like a true lover, it was his 
heart's desire to give the Azan exactly as the Prophet instructed 
or else he must have known how the Porphet's £H Muazzin, Bilal 
4&>, did it. 

In other Traditions referring to the same incident it is, also, 
stated that Abu Mahzurah never shaved or cut the hair growing just 
above the forehead where the Prophet had been pleased to place 
his hand. Just as it was love's idiosyncrasy, in the same way he 
always gave the Azan by uttering four times both the Kalima of 
Affirmation. The Prophet £§l must have known it but he never 
forbade him which should be enough to leave on one in doubt 
about its allowability. We are again reminded of the suggestion of 
Shah Waliullah <U>* *»' that the different versions of azan and 
iqamah are like the differences in the recital of Qur'an. 

Principles of Religion Lie in Azan & Iqamah 

Apparently, both Azan and iqamah are a means of announcing 
to the faithful that the time for the obligatory prayer was near and 
summoning them to it. Allah however, has inspired such 
comprehensive Kalima for it as are symbolic of the entire spirit of 



118 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part HI 



Faith. The question of the Being and Attributes of Allah forms the 
starting point of the entire religious scheme of things and for the 
proclamation of the Islamic view-point there could be no better and 
more trenchant words than Allah-u-Akbar, Allah-u-Akbar. Then 
comes the creed of Divine Unity which elaborates and brings to 
completion the question Attributes. Nothing could signify it more 
effectively and admirably in a few words than the Kalima of 
Ash-hadu al-laa-ilaaha illAllah-laah. When it has been known, 
positively, that Allah alone is our Lord and Diety and no one aside 
of Him is worthy of worship and submission, the question 
automatically arises from where one can know about the path that 
leads up to Him or the method through which the correct bond of 
servility and obedience is forged. The Kalima of Ash-hadu an-na 
Muhammadar Rasool id-laah provides the aptest answer to it. 
Through Hayya alas Salaah the bondsman is Summoned to prayer 
which is the first step towards Allah and the most sublime way to 
establsih the contact of devotion and obeisance with Him. Next, it 
is proclaimed through Hayya alal-falaah that this is the path of 
success and salvation, and those who will leave it and follow any 
other path shall never attain felicity. It, thus, asserts and makes 
known the doctrine of the Hereafter and in the words that not only 
affirm it but also confront us with the most fundamental problem 
of life. In the end, it is, again, announced through Allahu Akbar, 
Allahu Akbar, Laa ilaaha ill Allah that Allah alone is great, the 
Supreme Being, Unequalled and Unpartnered, and, therefore, it is 
His countenance and good pleasure the seeking of which ought to 
be the aim and object of all our aspirations and endeavours. 

How wonderful, comprehensive and puissant this proclamation 
of the principal tenets of Islam is and how soul-stirring is the 
invitation to it contained in the few, short Kalima of Azan and 
iqamahl This powerful, heart-stirring call of Faith is given from 
every mosque five times a day. 

If we, the Muslims, could only make our children learn the 
Azan by heart, and, also, explain to them its meaning, specially that 
of: 

Ash-hadu an-laa ilaaha illAllah, and; 



Book of Prayers 



119 



jV . ) A 6 . 6 ' * 6'. * ' \\ 

Ash-hadu an-na Muhammadar-rasool ul-laah, 
in relation to the times and the evnironment, they would Insha 
Allah, never fall a prey to an un-Islamic nation or movement. 

Some Commands And Directives 

Uj Jll wjSuilSlj j£ Jjwf'j jJL^-ti O-iil lil j J-ijsi CJil 

( tf ^ at j j) . ^jy ^ V j 

(508/36) It is related by Sayyidina Jabir 4|& that the Messenger 
of Allah ill said to his Muazzin, Bilal "When you give the 
Azan, give it slowly (i.e., by stopping for a few moments and 
taking afresh breath after every Kalima,), and when you call the 
Iqamah, say it flowingly, and let there be such an interval 
between your Azan and Iqamah that a person who is eating may 
finish his meal and a person who has to answer the call of 
nature may ease himself, and do no stand up till you have see 
me." (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: The instructions contained in the above Tradition 
regarding Azan and Iqamah are clear and unambiguous except, of 
course, the last one which says: "And do not stand up till you have 
seen me." Perhaps, people, occasionally, stood up for prayer before 
the Holy Prophet lH had emerged from his apartment, thinking that 
he was about to come to lead the congregation. The Prophet iH 
forbade it and said that the devotees should not stand up until he 
had arrived in the mosque. For the worshippers to stand up 
beforehand was to put themsleves to unnecessary trouble, and, 
then, there was always the possibility of the Prophet Hi being held 
up for some reason and taking a little more time in coming. It 
would, again, not have been pleasing to his modest and 
unassuming nature that the bondmen of Allah waited for him, 
drawn up in ranks. 



120 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



(4^Ujj1«ljj) 

(509/37) It is related by Sa'd 4fe who was appointed the 
Muazzin of the mosque of Quba that the Messenger of Allah Hi 
commanded Bilal to place his fingers in his ears when 
giving the Azan. "In this way", he said to Bilal <i^b, "your voice 
will be stronger." (Ibn-i-Majah) 

4AJ1 Jl*e Jjl J^j l£yS JlS J) jjsi\ J> iUj (o ^ ./rA) 

. '^Ju 5^ <S*j <lp' ^ *ijU» w 5! ^ lA^ ^ 

(510/38) It is related by Ziyad bin Harith 4i& that, once, at the 
time of the Fajr prayers the Messenger of Allah III bade me to 
give Azan which I did. Afterwards, when the time for 
pronouncing Iqamah came, Bilal wanted to say it but the 
Prophet lH said about me, "This Sa'd has given Azan and the 
rule is that whoever gives the Azan should (also) say Iqamah." 

(Tirmizi, Abu Dawood and Ibn Majah) 

. I Jr\ ^'Uijiljfl 0» iil Jjl 

(51 1/39) Uthman bin Abi Al-Aas 4& related "When the 
Messenger of Allah sent me to Taif as the Governer, one of the 
instructions he gave (at the time of my departure) was to 
appoint such a (man as) Muazzin who did not accept a 
remuneration for giving Azan (but did it wholely for the sake of 
Allah and with the object of earning the reward of the 
Hereafter)." (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: Many legist-doctors, including Imam Abu Hanifah, 
have concluded from this Tradition that it is improper to accept 
remuneration for calling the Azan. Others have ascribed the 
insturction contained in it to pitey and devotion. Some latter-day 
jurists of the Hanfi school, also, have held that, in the changed 



Book of Prayers 



121 



conditions of the times, justification can be found for 
remuneration. The dignity and sublimity of acts like Azan and 
Imamat\ anyhow, demand that they should be performed solely for 
the sake of Allah and if it was unavoidable to agree to an 
emolument is ought ot be accepted for the other related duties and 
the matter should be settled explicitly at the time of taking up the 
appointment. 

. aXj^ J-ij' lf*l'y j*Jl j 

(5 1 2/40) It is related by Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of 
Allah Hi said: "Imam 2 is the surety and Muazzin is trustee. O 
Allah! Guide the Imams and forgive the Mi{azzins. 

(Musnad Ahmad, Abu Dawood, Tirmizi and Musnad Shafi'i) 

Commentary: It shows that upon' the Imams rests the 
responsibility of their own prayer as well of those who offer it 
behind them. Their endeavour should, therefore, be to observe 
prayer in the best possible manner, both inwardly and outwardly. 
As for the Muazzin, people rely upon him for Azan and so he 
should discharge the duty with the fullest sense of responsibility by 
giving the Azan at the right time, regardless of his own 
convenience. This hadith mentions the responsibility of both of 
them and the Prophet has prayed for both. 

(tSjUJlaljj) 

(513/41) It is related by Maalik bin Huwayrith 4^> "(Once) I 
went to the Messenger of Allah W> and my cousin (i.e., uncle's 
son), also, was with me. The Prophet Hi said: 'When you are on 
a journey, say Azan and Iqamah for prayer, and the eldest of you 
should act as Imam and lead the service." (Bukahri) 

Commentary: In another version of the same incident, appearing, 

also, in Sahih Bukhari, it is stated that Maalik bin Huwayrith had 

O. Leading the congregational 
©. One who leads congregational 



122 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



gone to the Prophet with some other men of his tribe and stayed 
with him for about twenty days with the object of learning about 
Faith and profiting from his blessed company. The Prophet's 
remark mentioned by Maalik bin Huwayrith was, probably, made 
when he was taking leave of him. Two things have been stressed 
in it: (i) care should be taken to call the Azan and the Iqamah for 
prayer even during a journey, and (ii) the oldest man in the party 
should lead the service. Since from the point of view of Faith and 
its knowledge Maalik bin Huwayrith and his companions were, 
apparently, of the same level and standard and on one enjoyed 
superiority over the other, the Prophet advised that the eldest of 
them should function as the Imam and lead the service. In fact, it is 
the genera] rule for a situation like this. 

Merit And Pre-eminence of 
Azan and Muazzin 

(514/42) Abi Sa'eed al-Khudri 4& had narrated that the 
Messenger of Allah all said: "Within the range of the Muazzin's 
voice, whoever hears him — man, jinn or anything— shall testify 
on his behalf on the Day of Resurrection." (Bukhari) 

Commentary: Allah has granted, in some measure, the awreness- 
of Himself to everything that exists. 

And there is not a thing but hymneth His praise. (Al-Isra'a 17:44) 

Hence, when the Muazzin calls the Azan and proclaims the Glory 
and Greatness of Allah and His Oneness, and the mission of His 
messenger and his Call, all the creatures, along with men and jinn, 
hear it, and they shall testify to it on the Day of Ressurection. 
Indeed, this is an enviable merit of Azan and the Muazzin. 



Book of Prayers 



123 




(515/43) Sayyidina Jabir 4fe has said that the Prophet said, 
"When the devil hears the call of prayer, he flees as far as 



Commentary: Among the creations of Allah some things are not 
tolerated by others. For example, darkness cannot stand the sun. 
Just as the sun rises, darkness disappears. Again, fire is not 
tolerated by cold; for as the fire is kindled, cold disappears. It is 
something like that between the devil and the azan. The Messenger 
of Allah lH has said that as he hears the call to prayer he flees far 
away, say as far as Ar-Rawha is from Madinah. (Talha bin Naff 
who is one of those who have transmitted this hadith from 
Sayyidina Jabir 4fe has said that Ar-Rawha is 36 miles from 
Madinah). 

The gist of the hadith is that the azan is the call to prayer and 
faith. It is much dear to Allah and His pious slaves rush towards 
the mosque on hearing it but it is like an explosive for the devil 
who flees from it on hearing it. 

(jj— • ol jj) . iulaJl ^jj ^/UJl JjJfl tiySyAS 

(516/44) Sayyidina Mu'awiyah 4|b said that he heard the 
Messenger of Allah Hi say, "The mu'azzin will have the longest 
necks on the Day of Resurrection." (Muslim) 

Commentary: That they will have the longest neck is the liternal 
meaning of the hadith but scholars have extended various 
explanations for it. In my opinion it means that they will have their 
heads raised on that day. On the Day of Resurrection , they will be 
on mounds of musk as the next hadith says. This will be their 
distinction that day. 

pUij ^ip *Ul jLp Jjl J)^ Jll JlS jii J> aJJij4p ,/(ow/to) 



Ar-Rawha. 



(Muslim) 



(tSl»jsJl«ljj) 




124 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



(517/45) It is related by Abdullah bin Umar that the Messenger 
of Allah said: "On the Day of Final Resurrection three of (kinds 
of) men will be on mounds of musk: (i) the worthy slave who 
gives the rights of Allah and of his master: (ii) the man who 
leads a party (or community) and they are pleased with him (on 
account of his integrity and good behaviour); and (iii) the 
bondsman who called the Azan five times every day and night." 

(Tirmizi) 

(518/46) It is related by Abdullah bin Abbas 4|g> that the 
Messenger of Allah said: "Freedom from the Fire of Hell is 
written down for the bondsman who calls Azan for seven gears 
for the sake of Allah." (Tirmizi, Abu Dawood, and Ibn Majah) 

5] iUi JIU> 4Jl Jj^j JlS JlS ^bf (o \ <\/.iY) 

(519/47) It is related on the authority of Jabir ^ that the 
Messenger of Allah lH said: "Those who give the Azan and 
those who recite Talbiya^ shall rise from their graves in such a 
state that the graves of Azan will be giving Azan and the reciters 
of Talbiya will be reciting Talbiya." (Tabrani) 

Commentary: The secret of the exceptional virtues of Azan and 
Muazzin lies in the fact that Azan is a distinguishing feature and 
practice of Islam and makes a most eloquent and comprehensive 
call of Faith, and the Muazzin is its giver, and, so to speak, the 
herald and proclaimer of Allah. 

We, alas, have grown heedless of it and the calling of Azan in 
now regarded a lowly profession. May Allah forgive us this sin 
O. Talbiya is the special recital of the pilgrims performing the Hajj or Umra. 
The words of Talbia are: Labbaik ailahumma labbaik; Iabbaik la sharika lak 
labbaik; in-nal hamda wan-nimata laka wal mulk; la shrika lak (O Allah! Here 
I am in your presence! You have no partner! Here I am! All praise is for You 
and from You are all Blessing! To You alone belongs all Power (and Rule)! 
You are without a partner! 



Book of Prayers 



125 



which is common to all of us. And, may He inspire us to repent and 
reform! 

Responding to Azan And The 
Supplication Made After It 

Jil \i\ (^Lij aIc- ill i Jji J^j Jil Jil ^i- ,/(o\ ,/ia) 

# Afii Jil ^ iii ^ ifc ^ A£t jia iJJi Jft iAJi oSJJi 
4JJ1 j^j uUi ifi» jil ^ aji ^ *ji -ji ifii Jil & 
i$ tj j>V jil 5 jUJi > jil ^ <uji j^j Llu; j^it jil 
^ri ilii jil Jul «ii 5^ tj j^' jil Jlp > jil Jj Ajjb ^ 
*il ja Jji vVaJi jil Jji *ji«sT jil ^ri 5iJi ^ri iii jil ^ri 

(520/48) It is related on the authority of Umar 4§b that the 
Messenger of Allah Hi said: "When the Muazzin calls out 
Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, and (in reply to it) one of you 
should say, Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar; and after it, when the 
Muazzin says, Ash-hadu al-laa ilaaha illAllaah, and (in reply to 
it) he, too, must say,, Ash-hadu al-laa ilaaha illAllaah; and after 
it, when the Muazzin calls, Ash-hadu an-na Muhammadar 
Rasoolul-laah, and (in reply to it) he, too, should say, Ash-hadu 
an-na Muhammadar Rasoolul-laah; and after it, when Muazzin 
says, Hayya alas-Salaah, and (in reply of it) he must say, Laa 
hawla wa laa quwwata il-lla bil-laah; and, after it, when the 
Muazzin says, Hayya alal falaah, and (in reply to it) he must 
say, Laa hawla wa laa quwwata il-lla bil-laah; and, after it, 
when the Muazzin says, Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, and (in 
reply to it) he, too, should say, Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, 
and, after it, when the Muazzin says, Laa-ilaaha, il-lal-laah, 
and (in reply of it) he, too must say Laa-ilaaha, il-lal-laah, if all 
this is said from the heart, he shall go to Heaven." (Muslim) 

Commenrtay: As we have seen earlier, there are two aspects of 
Azan. One is that it is the summons to prayers, and the other is that 
it is the call of Faith and a public declaration of Islam. In the 
former case, it is the duty of a Muslim to get ready for observing 
prayer as soon as he hears the Azan and reaches ther mosque in 



126 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



time while, in the latter, he is called upon when he hears it. All the 
Muslims are, thus, to renew the bond and convenant of Faith at the 
time of every Azan. It shows why Azan though, apparently, it is a 
minor effect on the post of the listner. 

CS * / <S ^ J 4V X > ' * fix X ^ s f X > * * 6 , X 6' f s x\ 

(521/49) It is related by Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas 4fe that the 
Messenger of Alalh £H said: "Whoever, on hearing the Azan 
(i.e., when the Azan comes to an end) says: Ash-hadu al-laa 
ilaaha illAUaah wahdahu laa sharika lahu wa ash-hadu an-na 
Muhammadan abduhu wa rasooluhu; raditu bil-laahi rabba wa 
bi Muhammadar rasoola wa bil-lslam-i-deena. (1 affirm that 
there is no god but Allah, One and Unpartnered, and 
Muhammad is His slave and Messenger lH, and I am pleased 
with Allah as Lord, and in Muhammad as Messenger, and in 
Islam as the religion), his sins will be forgiven." (Muslim) 

Commentary: We have spoken on sins being forgiven on doing 
righteous deeds when we discussed the Wudu, the same principle 
applies here. 

Jli j£ pUj aIp jLfi Jji Jjij Jli Jli jte- & (° X Y/° « ) 

AjJLPj ^jjl ijii* UU* Ai*j'j AJLl^iJlj SiLjjJl 0 *U5«ti 

(522/50) It is related by Jabir that the Messenger of Allah 
Hi said: "Whoever will, at the time of hearing Azan, make the 
prayer to Allah: Allahumma rab-ba haathihid-da'wat-it-ta 
-ammati was-salaat-il-qa-imati aati Muhammada nil-waseelata 
wal-fazeelata wab-as-hu muqaman mahmuda nil-lazi wa'a-tahu 
(O God, the Lord of this perfect Call and the long-lasting and 
unchanging prayer, bestow upon Muhammad Hi the place of 
special honour and intercession and elevate him to the place of 



Book of Prayers 



127 



choicest favour and worthiness which You have promised for 
him), that bondsman will be worthy of my intercession on the 
Day of Resurrection." (Bukahri) 

Commentary: In this Tradition we are exhorted to pray for three 
things for the sacred Prophet lH and assured that the bondsmen 
who will act accordingly on hearing the Azan will have a special 
claim to his intercession. These three things are, intercession, 
honour and place of choicest favour and worthiness. In a Tradition 
quoted in Sahih Muslim it is explained about the 'place of 
intercession' that it is a most distinctive station of Divine esteem 
and affection and a rank of unparalleled glory and exaltation in 
Paradise which is going to be conferred upon only one bondsman 
of the Lord, and the 'place of honour' is another name for the same 
way, the 'place of choicest favour and worthiness' implies that one 
who will be honoured with it will be held in high respect by 
everyone and all men will praise and be grateful to him. 

Traditions relating to Intercession have already appeared in the 
earlier part of this book in which it is stated that on the Day of 
Recompense which will be a special occasion for the display of 
Divine Majesty and Splendour, everyone, irrespective of his rank 
or station on the earth, will be seized with fear and anxiety, so 
much so that exalted Prophets f*A-Ji ^As- like Nuh, Ibrahim, Musa 
and Isa will not have the courage to plead with the Almighty. The 
Prophet Muhammad Hi will, then step forward with "I am for it. I 
am for it" on his lips and beseech Allah humbly, first of all, for 
whole mankind that the state of anxious, uncertainty and 
expectation may be ended, the Reckoning done and the Judgement 
pronounced. After it, the door of intercession on behalf of the 
sinners and of their being taken out of Hell will, also, open at his 
request and initiative. As the Prophet himself has said, "I will 
be the first intercessor and my intercession will be accepted in the 
first plac", and, also, "On the Day of Resurrection, the Banner of 
Praise will be in my hand, and Adam, and, in addition to him, all 
the Prophets and Messengers ^"A-Jt j^-U and their followers will be 
under it." This is the place of choicest favour and worthiness' about 
which it has been said to the Prophet HI in the Qur'an: 



128 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



It may be that thy Lord will raise thee to the praised estate 

(Al-Asra' 17:79) 

In fine, the singular rank that has been referred to as 
'Intercession' and 'Honour' in above saying and the praised estate 
mentioned in the Qur'an are going to be bestowed upon the holy 
Prophet. It has been decreed beforehand by Allah and it is out of 
sheer kindness that the Prophet Hi has exhorted us to pray to God 
to raise him to those ranks and station and promised that whoever 
will do so will earn a special claim to his intercession on the Day of 
Reckoning. 

Note: The method of acting on it is that every Kalima of Azan 
should be repeated after the muazzin, as mentioned in the narrative 
of Sayyidina Umar 4§e>, and, afterwards, 

Ash hadu an la' ilaha illal-lah 
uttered, as shown in the report by Sa'd bin Abu Waqas 4$>, and, 
finally, the supplication, 

ii^jji 0 iu; oi ujiiii sjUdij x&\ 5>Ui *x* $\ 

Allahumma rab-ba haazihid-da'wat-it-ta-ammati 
was-salaat-il-qa-imati aati Muhammada nil-waseelata 
wal-fazeelata wab-as-hu muqamam mahmuda nil-lazi 
wa'a-tahu 

made, as indicated in the above saying, for the Prophet 

It is stated by Ibn Hajr in Fath-ul-Bari that in the Tradition 
quoted in Baihaqi, the words, 

In-naka laa tukhliful miyad 
(Verily, you do never break your promise), 

are added at the end of the prayer. 



MOSQUES 



Their Grandeur & Significance, 
Rights & Proprities. 

For the realisation of sublime aims and ideals associated with 
prayer, some of which have been indicated in the preceding 
Chapter with reference of Shah Waliullah fa it is essential 
to give it a collective design and character. In the Islamic Shari'ah, 
the mosque and the congregation have been provided the 
instruments of it, and it is hard to over-emphasise the role these 
two things play in the generation, organisation and protectioin of 
the religious life of Muslims. 

The Prophet HI has, on one hand, taken utmost pains to enjoin 
the observation of prayer with a collective arrangement and given 
stern warnings of punishment to those who act otherwise, and, on 
the other, laid an exceptional stress or the significance of the 
mosques and called them the Houss of Allah, next in importance 
only to the Ka'bah. He has made them the spiritual centres of the 
Ummah, and, explaining their glory and preciousness in the sight 
of Allah, urged upon his followers that wherever they are, and at 
whatever time, their hearts and souls should remain attached to 
them. Besides, the Prophet m> has, also, taught us the rights of 
mosques and etiquettes to be observed there. 

Significance 

(523/51) It is related by Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of 
Allah !m said: "The parts of land dearest to Allah are the 



I 



1 30 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 

mosques and the most hateful, the market-places." (Muslim) 

Commentary: Human life has two aspects. One is angelic and 
spiritual which is the clestial and the refined aspect and the other is 
material and bestial which is the terrestrial and the vulgar one. The 
angelic and spiritual aspect calls for virtuous deeds like Divine 
Worship and God-remembrance through which its disciplining and 
evolution takes place and a man becomes worthy of the good grace 
of Allah. The foremost centres of these acts are the mosques where 
divine honours are paid to Allah all the time and owing to which 
they bear a close association with the Bayt Allah I House of Allah. 
In cities and other human dwellings, the most pleasing to God, at 
all events, are mosques. 

On the contrary, the market-places, by their very nature, are 
related to the material urges of man, and, in them, he generally 
grows negligent of his duty to Allah. On account of this apathy and 
abundance of sin and immorality, their atmosphere, on whole, is 
unhealthy and spiritually harmful. The markets are, therefore, the 
most detestable of all the places in the judgement of Allah. 

The sustance of this Tradition is that the Believers should feel 
more attached to the mosques and go to the baaars only when it is 
necessary, taking care to protect themselves against the evils that 
are commonly associated with them, such as, falsehood and deceit. 
With in these limits, it is quite permissible to go to the 
market-places and engage in buying and selling goods for which 
people meet there. The Prophet £H, indeed, has given the glad 
tidings of Paradise to those who carry on trade with honesty and 
due regard of the God-Given laws. It is like this that though the 
lavatory is, basically, a most abominable place, one cannot refuse 
to have anything to do with it. The bondsman, in fact, earns the 
Divine reward, in good measure if he is heedful of the commands 
of the Shari'ah and abides by the confirmed practice of the Prophet 
$jl while going to the toilet for answering the call of nature. 

ail Site 'J Lii oli 3 Ji^ ftfl <&> H\ Jfc tfjiji 'J> & 

^ IjUij Ji^rYj <0\ iyu Sua ^yf- til Oj«i«L«Jb jlii £15 JjTjJ 



Book of Prayers 1 3 1 

ill^j jl^J J^jj ^i! J 1 ^ J 1 ** - J S— <£»'i Sl^il 4sp£ 

(524/52) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4^> that the Messenger 
iH of Allah said: "There are seven kind sof men whom Allah 
will accord a place under the shadow of His Mercy on the Day, 
on which there will be no other shadow than that of His Mercy 
the ruler who ruled with justice, (ii) the young man who 
grew up in worship (i.e. was worshipful in childhood as well as 
in yough and the desires and impulses that were peculiar to 
young age did not distract him); (iii) the truthful Believer whose 
condition was that even when he went out of the mosque his 
heart was attached to it (and felt restless) till he returned; (iv) 
the two persons who loved each-other for the sake of Allah and 
remained united on it and parted (from one another) on it (i.e. 
the affection between whom was not conditional on presence, as 
the case, on the whole, was with the worldly people but they 
loved each other for the sake of Allah while they were together 
as well as out of one another's sight)' (v) the bondsman who 
wept when he remembered Allah in solidute, (vi) the man whom 
a beautiful, wealthy and respectable woman invited to sin but he 
said: 'I fear Allah, and, (therefore), I cannot proceed towards 
what is prohibited'; and (vii) the person who spent in the way of 
Allah and did it so secretly that his left hand did not- know what 
he gave away with the right hand or to whom it was given." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: In it the glad tidings of the shadow of Divine mercy 
have been given, in the third place, to the bondsman whose heart 
dwells in the mosque even when he is away from it. May Allah 
cause us to be one of the servents. Aameenl 

IjLp ja &s> JiJl JUf 4JJ1 J^»3 Jls JlS SjJji ^jl,/ (o\o/o r) 

. £13 ji \& ulr iLy 1 ja tiy ti rfji XfA £15 $ jj^jlJi J\ 

(525/53) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger 
Hi of Allah said: "If anyone goes out in the morning or in 
evening to the mosque, Allah will prepare for him his food in 



132 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 

Paradise as often as he goes out in the morning or in the 
evening." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: As many times as a worshipper goes to the Mosque 
in the morning or in the evening, or during the day, the Kind Lord 
looks at him as His dear guest and each time as feast is arranged 
for him. He will find it on reaching there. We cannot imagine what 
reception is arranged for us there. Kanz al-A 'mal quotes Abdullah 
bin Abbas on the authority of Tareekh Hakim as narrating this 
hadith. 

"Mosques are houses of Allah. 3 , , t , j, 
The Believers who come there O^J^ 1 J 
are visitors (and guests) of ^ ^jj, U ^ 
Allah. If anyone comes to meet ** - 
someone then he must honour d ji'jfjri 
and serve the visitor." i j> JUjJijjT) 

The ahadith of Tareekh Hakim are weak in the sight of scholars 
of hadith but the subject of the foregoing extract corresponds to the 
above hadith of Abu Hurayrah 4<k> Hence, it is quoted here. 1 

9 jU> jfLtj ds> ilJl JL> Jjl Jj^j 5 jdj* ^ O* (° Y n/o *) 

J^t-lill ^1 £^sS- jjj fr ^S***"** '-J'jJ ti\ i^xJlij lii^ 

JJ? j^fUl fcLii ^aU ^Ap Jloj a&%}\ Jjj ^ JU» lit* Jii^- 
. 5^L£jr£ilU 5'jJL> ^9 ^ JU-I J) ji tj iii-jl ( ^ilt a^p 

(526/54) It is related by Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of 
Allah iH said: "(The reward on) offering prayer 
congregational ly in the mosque in twjenty-five times as much as 
on saying it at home or in the market-placed and it is so because 
when the bondsman goes to the mosque, after performing wudu 
properly, and there is no other object of his going except (the 
offering up) prayer, he is elevated by one rank at each step and 



O. Kanzal-A'mal has another hadith on this topic from Ibn Mas'ud *»i iS » i on 
the authority of Mu'ajjam Tabarani. " 



Book of Prayers 



133 



one sin of his forgiven. Moreover, when he offers the prayer, 
the angles continuously pray for mercy and benevolence on his 
behalf as long as he remains at his place. The supplication of the 
angles is: "Our Lord! Bestow your special grace upon this 
bondsman, bestow upon him Your mercy. And all the time 
anyone waits (in the mosque) for prayer, in the sight of Allah 
and in His reckoning, he is as if engaged in prayer." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: In another version of the same Tradition the 
supplication of the angles is mentioned with the addition that 'O 
God! Forgive this bondsman his sins and accept his repentance. It 
is also stated that the angles will continue to supplicate for him 
until he causes pain to anyone through his arm or tongue or his 
wudu is voided. 

(527/55) Uthman bin Maz'oon narates that once he said to 
the Prophet "O Messenger of Allah! Please grant me 
permission to adopt monasticism." The Prophet Hi replied: 
"Monasticism for my followers lies in sitting in the mosque and 
waiting for prayer to begin." (Sharah-as-Sunnah) 

Commentary: Sometimes the Companions felt like withdrawing 
from the world and giving up its pleasures and they sought the 
Prophet's $m advice about it. The inclinatio of Sayyidina Uthman 
bin Maz'oom, too, was very strong towards the monastic way of 
life and, once, he said several things like that to Prophet, the last of 
which was that he might be permitted to take up monsticism so that 
he could lead the life of a hermit. The above Tradition shows that 
the spiritual aims and the gains of the Hereafter for which 
monasticism was practised by the ancient communities could be 
attained by the Muslims by sitting in the mosque and waiting for 
prayer. As a matter of fact, to sit in the mosque and wait for prayer 
is a kind of I'tikaf . 

O. Retiring to the mosque for sometime. In Ramazan, the I'tikaf in the last days 
is a collective obligation on every neighbourhood. 



134 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



(528/56) It is related by Buridah 4^> that the Messenger of Allah 
said: "To those who go to the mosques in darkness, give the 
glad tidings that (in return for it) perfect light will be granted to 
them on the Day of Resurrection." (Tirmizi Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: To go the mosque regularly for prayer in the 
darkness of the night takes a lot of effort and is a sign of sincere 
devotion to Allah. Whoever does so has been given the good 
tidings by Allah, through the Prophet iH that in the darkness of the 
Day of Resurrection perfect light will be made available to him. 

Supplication to be Made on Entering 
and Coming Out of the Mosque 

J>i \i\ ds. iJJl jU 4Jl J^3 Jl! Jil x~^\ 'Jfr ^ (o Y <\/o v) 
Jilii ^S^j C>\y\ £ g£\ JjQi lsrs-Ui ^JU-i 

(529/57) It is related by Abu Usad Sa'adi that the Messenger of 
Allah HI said: "When anyone of you enters a mosque he should 
supplicate Allah: Allahummafatah li abwaaba rahmatika (O 
Allah, open the gates of your mercy for me), and when he comes 
out of it, he should supplicate: Allahumma asaluka min fadlika 
(O Allah, I beseech You for Your grace)." (Muslim) 

Commentary: In the Qur'an and the traditions, generally the world 
Rahmah (i.e. grace) is used for heavenly rewards of the Hereafter 
and Fadl (i.e. grace) for earthly blessings like sustenance. The 
Prophet all has, therefore, exhorted us to beseech the Lord for the 
opening of the gates of mercy as we go into the mosque, for it is 
the place for seeking religious and spiritual benefits and blessings 
of the hereafter and for His grace i.e. abundance in the material 
things of life as we leave it for it is the proper thing for the world 
outside the mosque. The Real object of it all it is the bondsman 
should not become negligent while going into the mosque or 
coming out of it but on both the occassions his thoughts should be 



Book of Prayers 



135 



directed towards Allah like a beggar. 

Tahayyatul Masjid 

(l^Lw> jtSjWJlstjj) . tjdfH J' J4* Js 5 *^" J £-^s^ ^fJLj^S 

(530/58) It is related by Abu Qatadah 4s> that the Messenger of 
Allah all said: "When anyone of you enters the mosque he 
should offer two raka'at prayer before he sits down." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: The mosques bear a close association with Allah. It 
is for this reason that they are known as the Houses of Allah. It is 
thus, among the proprieties of coming to the mosque that one 
should offer two raka'at prayer before sitting down. It is, so to 
stay, the act of salutation in the Court of Almighty. This prayer on 
account of it, is called Tahayyatul Masjid (i.e. Salutation to the 
Mosque). According to most of the authorities, however, this 
command belongs to the category of supererogatory acts the 
performance of which is meritorious but ommission is not sinful. 

Note: It is distinctly stated in the above Tradition that the two 
rak'at should be offered before one sits in the mosque. But it has 
been seen that some people, first, deliberately sit down in the 
mosque, on entering it, and then get up and offer the Tahayyatul 
Masjid. Allah alone knows how and when this erroneous practice 
began. We learn from Mulla Ali Qari that it existed even in his 
time, i.e. four hundred years ago. 

jdilV (i- j ill I jU \ $ JlS t-£JU ^(or\/°<\) 

(531/59) It is related by Ka'ab bin Maalik 4fe 'the practice of the 
Messenger of Allah was that when he returned from a 
journey, he entered Madinah during the day-light, at the time of 
Chasht, and the first thing he did was to go to the mosque 
where he offered two raka'at prayer and then sat down (for some 
time)." (Bukhari and Muslim) 



136 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



Commentary: In some other Traditions it is mentioned in detail 
that when the Prophet qgl returned from a journey he, generally, 
made the last halt in the vicinity of Madinah owing to which 
people knew where he was staying and they came to him in the 
morning. Early on the next morning he would leave for Madinah, 
reaching there after the light of day had spread. He would then, go 
straight to the mosque, or, in other words, pay the tribute of 
submission in the court of the King of Kings before meeting the 
members of his family. He sat in the mosque fro some time and 
met the people who came to see him. 

Attachment to The Mosque is a Sign of Faith 

(532/60) It is related by Abu Sa'eed Khudri 4& that the 
Messenger of Allah said: "When you see that a person is 
attached to the mosque and looks after it(devotedly), give the 
testimony of Faith for him because Allah says that only they 
frequent His mosques and keep them filled who believe in Him 
and the Last Day." (Tirmizi, Ibn-e-Majah and Daarmi) 

Commentary: The mosque is the place of worship and a symbol 
of Faith. Sincere attachment to it, care and concern for its 
maintenance and anxiety to see it humming with worship and 
God-remembrance are, thus, the signs of true Faith. 

Keeping the Mosques Clean and 
Supplied with a Pleasant Odour 

(533/61) It is related by Sayyidah Ayshah if* ii that the 
Messenger of Allah Wi gave the order for the construction of 
mosques in mohallas (i.e. quarters or paths) of the town, and he 
gave the order for keeping them clean and pleasantly smelling. 

(Abu Dawood, Tirmizi and Ibn-e-Majah) 



Book of Prayers 



137 



Commentary: It shows that if the different quarters of a town are 
wide apart, as it was in Madinah, mosques should be built in them 
according to need. The mosques should, further be kept free from 
dirt and supplied with perfume. 

Reward on Construction of Mosques 

tip Jus J^iij Jli Jl5 ilp i)Jl <S&** <S* (°V1/VY) 

(j^JLw» j i£ jbtJl at j j) iyfJl buj '<d <UJt ^ iJj^-li 4JJ ^ (i-^J 

(534/62) It is related by Uthman that the Messenger of Allah 
Hi said: "Whoever builds a mosque for Allah (i.e. solely for His 
pleasure and with the aims of earning the Diving reward), Allah 
will have a mansion built for him in Paradise. "(Bukhari & Muslim) 

Commentary: It occurs repeatedly in the Qur'an and the 
Traditions that the recompense in the Hereafter will be 
proportionate to the deed. The grant of a mansion in the Paradise to 
anyone who builds a mosque should, therefore, seen natural. 

Adornment and Embellishment of the Mosque 

(535/63) It is related by Abdullah bin Abbas 4^. that the 
Messenger of Allah Hi said: "I have not been commanded to 
build tall and imposing mosques." (After narrating it, Abdullah 
bin Abbas added by way of a prophecy): "Surely, you will begin 
decorating your mosques as the Jews and Christians have 
decorated their places of worship." (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: Its purport is that outward splendour and 
ornamentation is not desirable for the mosques. The emphasis 
ought to be on simplicity. As for the prediction made by Sayyidina 
Abdullah bin Abbas 4^> he would have, evidently, learnt about it 
from the sacred Prophet iHl some time or the other. The following 
saying of the Prophet Hi has, further, been quoted in Ibn-e-Majah 
on the authority of Abdullah bin Abbas himself. 



138 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



"I am seeing that at a time X^LLa '■ 'S JLs-j *t\ \ 

(when I will not be present in , ' ? , j 

your midst) you, too, will make ^j^' ^'r* ^ 
your mosques as grand and ^z. , 

imposing as the Jews have ' ~ ' ' J ' 
made their synagogues and the . l^j^jUflJl 

Christians their churches." (AjrLl ^ jv**5\ y£) 

It is, also, prossible that Sayyidina Abdullah bin Abbas 4^>, who 
lived for eight years after the death of the Prophet sfe, had made 
the prophecy on the basis of the direction of and the speed with 
which transformation had begus to take place in the mental 
character and way of life of the Muslims. Anyway, whatever the 
ground, the prediction has proved literally true. In some parts of 
our own country mosques are found which surpass even the 
churches and synogogues in grandeur. 

j $ ^ s 

(536/64) It is related by Anas 4§h that the Messenger of Allah 
£H said: "One of the protents of the Hour (of Doom) is that 
people will begin to excel one another (in the construction of) 
mosques." (Abu Dawood, Nasai, Daarmi and Ibn-e-Majah) 

Commentary: Among the protents of the Day of Ressurrection 
there are some which will occur just on the eve of it, such as, the 
appearance of Dajjal and the rising of the sun in the west and 
others that will become evident some time before it. The evils and 
calamities the Prophet lH has forecast as the precursors of the Last 
Day belong to the latter category and the keen-ness to surpass one 
another in the erection'of mosques is some of them. 

No one Should Come to the Mosque After 
Eating a Thing Giving out a Disagreeable Smell 

M ' ' 



Book of Prayers 



139 



(537/65) It is related by Jabir 4p> that the Messenger of Allah 
said: "Whoever eats of this evil-smelling plant (i.e. onion or 
garlic) should not come to our mosques for what is disagreeable 
to men is, also, disagreeable to angles." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: The religious significance of the mosques and the 
unique association they bear with Allah demands, among other 
things, that these should be protected from every kind of foul 
odour. Since onion and garlic posses a sort of unpleasant smell — 
and during the time of the Prophet HI people often ate them raw — 
it was commanded by him that no one should come to the mosque 
after eating them and the reason he gave for it was that anything 
that was hurtful to men was hurtful to the angles of Allah as well, 
and, as the angles visit the mosques often and join men, 
particularly in prayer it is essential that distress is not caused to the 
holy and distinguished visitors by a thing like foul smell. 

Another Tradition referring to the same incident and quoted in 
Abu Dawood, on the authority of Mu'awiya bin Qurrah, tells that 
the Prophet $§1 distinctly mentioned onion and garlic as the thing 
people should avoid eating when they came to the mosque. It is, 
further, stated that if anyone wanted to eat them he should have 
them cooked so that their unpleasant smell was destroyed. 

Though only onion and garlic are spoken of in this report, it, 
obviously, applies to all foul-smelling articles of food, or, rather, to 
everything repulsive to the people of good taste. 

Forbidding The Recitation of Poetry and 
Buying and Selling of Goods in The Mosque 

JJfi 4JU1 Jj^3 Jl5 'J> *L>> ^ y^-i J> j jls> (o r A/1 1) 

(538/66) Amr bin Shu'ayb reported on the authority of his father 
Shu'ayb that his grand father said that the Messenger of Allah 
lUl forbade the recitation of poetry and the purchase and sale of 
goods in the mosque, and he, also forbade the sitting of people 
in circles in the mosques, on a Friday, before the 
commencement of the prayers. (Abu Dawood and Tirmizi) 



140 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



Commentary: The sanctity of the mosques, again, requires that 
these should not be used for activities which though legitimate in 
themselves, are not closely related to Faith and worship, as for 
instance, the holding of a poetic symposium and the carrying out of 
trade. As for the last part of the above Tradition, concerning a 
Friday, it, apparently, shows that people who reached the mosque 
before time, which has of course, been urged in the Traditions, 
should occupy themselves with prayer and God-remembrance till 
the start of the service instead of becoming separate circles. 

Protection From Little Children and Noise 

p&ft* (*^**!J ^ ^T?3 ji^si^* J j»5 

(539/67) It is related by Wathilah bin al-Asqa' that the 
Messenger of Allah JH said: "Keep away from your mosques 
your little children and the lunatics, and, in the same wya, keep 
away from the mosques your buying and selling, and your 
mutual quarrels, and your hubbub, and (your) inflicting penalty 
(for a transgression of the law of Allah), and drawing swords. 
(Nothing of the sort should be done within the precints of the 
mosques as all this is inimical to their sanctity and reverence)." 

(Ibn-e-Maajah) 

Forbidding of Wordly Talk in The Mosques 

(S ji i 6 \ J * * if * 0 3 

<0£- iih JU> 4JJ1 jti jtl *>Lj^ cr^ s cf (° * ,/1A ) 
y\ j± ^JjtUJ 'J> ffc,**- IS*') J* 'Jk 

(540/68) It is related, in the nature of Mursal, 1 by Hasan Basri 
that the Messenger of Allah lH said: 'A time will come when 
the conversation of the people in the mosques will centre around 
their wordly affairs. You must not sit with such people. Allah 

O. A Tradition which is related by a Taba'ee without giving the name of the 
companion through whom it had reached him is called Mursal in the special 
terminology of Islam. 



Book of Prayers 



141 



has nothing to do with them." (Baihaqi) 

Commentary: The mosque being the House of Allah it is in the 
fitness of the things that nothing was said there which was not 
aimed at the propitiation of Allah or related to Him in any other 
way. Social and collective problems of the Muslims can, of course, 
be discussed in the mosques but due regard must be shown in it, 
also, to proprieties, and everything that is done must be within the 
frame work of Divine guidance. 

Presence of Women in the Mosques 

^jSLmI til fJLtj kS* till jLe> ^ I Jll Jll j^i jil ^ (o i ^A<\) 

(541/69) It is related by Abdullah bin Umar that the 
Messenger of Allah fill said: "When your wives ask you for 
permission to go to the mosque, give it to them." 

(Bukhari And Muslim) 

t}*uJ V jiJLlij ^Ip <dll JUo aUi J}--j Jll J 14 jjI (o t y/V . ) 

(542/70) Abdullah bin Umar 4fe related to us that the 
Messenger of Allah W° said: "Do not stop your women from 
going to the mosques, but it is better for them in their homes." 

(Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: During the lifetime of the Prophet all, when he 
personally led all the five daily services, many pious and 
right-minded ladies wanted to be allowed to offer up at least the 
two nightly prayers of Is ha and Fajr behind him though the 
Prophet $$& had repeatedly made it clear that it was better and more 
meritorious for women to offer prayers at home. But some people 
did not permit their wives to go to the mosque. It was, however, 
not due to any misgiving or fear of mischief as the moral and social 
stands in the Muslim society were very high at that time but a sense 
of pride which was wholly un-Islamic. Hence, the Prophet $H felt 
that if women asked for permission to go to the mosque in the 
night it should be given to them but to the women, themselves, he 
always advised that it was better to offer Prayer at home. 



142 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 




(543/71) Narrated Umm-e-Humayd Sa'idiyah wife of Abu 
Humayd Sa'idi that once she went to the Messenger of Allah iH 
and said: "I wish that I offered prayer (congregationally) with 
you in the mosque." "I know", replied the Prophet Hi, "that you 
want very much to offer prayer with me (i.e. behind me in 
congregation), but the principles of the Shari'ah is that the 
prayer you offer in the inner part of your house is superior to the 
prayer you offer in the outer verandah of it, and the prayer you 
offer in the outer courtyard of your house is superior to the 
prayer you offer in the mosque of your tribe (which is nearer to 
your house), and the prayer you offer in the mosque of your 
tribe is superior to the prayer you offer in my mosque." 

(Kanzul 'Amaal with reference to Musnad-e-Ahmad) 

Commentary: From many other Traditions, too, it appears that the 
Prophet Wf often explained the above position to women as regards 
the offering of prayer in the mosque. Yet, many ladies ardently 
desired that though it was better in the judgement of the Lord for 
them to offer prayer at home, they might be allowed to go to the 
mosque, atleast in the night, and offer it behind the Prophet lH and 
since the underlying sentiment was that of true religious devotion 
to the Prophet iH and there was no apprehension of mischief 
during those days, the sacred Prophet i§£ advised the Companions 



to allow their wives to go to the mosque at night if they wanted 
to do so. Anyhow, this command was given at a time when there 
was no fear of an unwanted thing taking place if the women went 
out and it was disliked by some Companions only because of a 
false sense of vanity or natural inclination. But as the state of the 
society underwent a change and social and moral evils crept into it, 




Book of Prayers 



143 



it no longer remained desirable 1 . What no less a person than 
Sayyidah Ayshah iisi had to say about it is given in the next 
Tradition. 

(544/72) It is related that Sayyidah Ayshah Jii^j said: 
"Were the Messenger of Allah ill to see the things women have 
now acquired (in their conduct and deportment), he would have 
forbidden them from going to the mosque in the same way as 
the women of Bani Israel had been forbidden (to go to their 
places of worship) during the days of the earlier Prophets." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: This observation was made by Sayyidah Ayshah 
M in her time (after the passing away of the holy Prophet 
ill), and for this reason, according to Shah Waliullah ^ <3n j, 
the Companions 4k generally, had come to hold that women 
should no longer be permitted to go to the mosque. With the rapid 
transformation of social values in the succeeding generations and 
in the context of our mournful moral degeneration it is now 
absolutely out of the question. 



O. Comments on the above narratives are adapted from Shah Waliullah's Hujjat, 
Vol. II, p26. 



CONGREGATION 



We have seen how as-salah (prayer) is not merely an obligatory 
mode of worship but also a sign and symbol of Islam. To observe it 
is a proof of one's wholehearted allegiance to Islam and its 
omission denotes indifference to Faith and an attitude of 
inattention and unconcern towards Allah and the Prophet It 
was, therefore, essential to have an arrangement that enabled 
everyone to offer prayer openly and for all to see. The Prophet iH, 
consequently , prescribed the method of congregation and made it 
compulsory for every Muslim who was not ill or had any other 
valid excuse to offer prayer individually or at home. We believe, 
the real wisdom behind the insitution of congregational prayer is 
that the Muslims, in that way, were subjected to supervision and 
superintendence five times a day. Moreover, our everyday 
experience is that many Muslims who offer prayer regularly, thanks 
to congregational service, would not have maintained such 
regularity without it. 

The institution of congregational prayer moreover, is a unique 
informal plan for the religious instruction of Muslims and offers 
them a wonderful oppertunity to come into contact with one 
another and know about each-other's welfare regularly. 

The atmosphere of worship, devotness and repentance that 
pervades the mosques and the effect it produces in the hearts, the 
bestowal of Divine favours that takes place when the hearts of the 
bondsmen of different religious and spiritual levels turn in unison 
towards Allah, and the company of the angels with which the 
devotees are blessed in congregational prayer, as a number of the 
Traditions tell, are, again, the singular advantages of the system of 
congregation. 

Besides, it can be most helpful in the promotion of the sense of 



146 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



the solidarity and cooperation among the Muslims. It should not be 
difficult for any one to appreciate, in the modern times, the 
tremendous social and other benefits to which the five daily 
get-togethers in the mosques of the locality and the greater weekly 
congregation in the central mosque of the town on Fridays and 
even greater congregations of the 'Eids, twice in a year, can be put. 

Be that as it may, it is owing to these blessing and advantages 
that everyone is requied to offer prayers congregationally unles 
there is a genuine excuse like illness, and as long as the teachings 
of the Prophet ill were sincerely observed, every Muslim, with the 
exception of the sick and the hypocrites, took care to offer prayers 
congregationally, and negligence concerning it was, commonly, 
considered to be a sign of hypocrisy. 

Importance 

*i\ OjUJl jP ud*4 Uj laatj JL2J JtS 0*( oi 



(545/73) Abdullah bin Mas'ud ^fc related to us "I have seen 
ourselves (i.e., the Muslims) in the state that he who did not 
offer prayer in congregation was either a hypocrite whose 
hypocrisy was not hidden from anyone or an unfrortunate sick 
invalid (who could not come to the mosque owing to illness), 
and even some sick people came to the mosque, supported by 

two men, and joined the congregation" After it, Abdullah 

bin Mas'ud 4&> said, "The Messenger of Allah iH has imparted 
to us the knowledge of Sunan Huda (i.e., of the things of Faith 
and Shari'ah on which our guidance and felicity are dependent 
or with which they are related) and one of these Sunan Huda is 
the offering of prayers in congregation in a mosque where Azan 
is called. 






Book of Prayers 



147 



In another version of the same Tradition Abdullah bin Mas'ud 
is stated to have said: "O Muslims! Allah has prescribed 
Sunan Huda for your Prophet (i.e., enjoined upon him acts that 
are capaple of taking one to the place of propinquity and good 
pleasure of Allah) and to offer the five daily prayers in 
congregation in the mosque in one of them. You will forsake 
the way of the Prophet if you will start offering prayer at 
home and away from the congregation like this man (the 
reference is to some particular person who lived in those days), 
and if you forsook the way of the Prophet Hi, be sure you will 
forsake the path of Guidance and fall in the abyss of 
destruction." (Muslim) 

Commentary: We are told by an illustrious Companion 4s> of the 
Prophet Sayyidina Abdulah bin Mas'ud 4^£>, that offering of all 
the five daily prayers in congregation is among the Prophet's $§l 
teachings that are popularly known as Sunan Huda. In other words, 
it is a part of his more important precepts with which the guidance 
of the Ummah is closely connected. 

Sayyidina Abdullah bin Mas'ud further, said that to omit 
the congregation and offer prayer at home is to stray away from the 
path of the Prophet $|, and that during the earliest days of Islam, 
which was the finest imaginable phase of the Ummah, everyone 
except the sick and the hypocrites offered prayer with the 
congregation and even the invalids came to the mosque, supported 
by others, to participate. 

It is clear from the above Tradition that n the opinion of 
Sayyidina Abdullah bin Mas'ud ^ and the general body of the 
Companions the position of congregation is similar to that of an 
obligatory duty. Thus, those who draw the inference from the term, 
Sunan Huda, that according to the jurisprudential usage 
congregation is no more than a Sunnah have, perhaps, not kept the 
whole of Abdullah bin Mas'ud 4fe narrative in mind. 

* , « ' ^ e i * ' ' ' ' ' > ' 

i'jL* j^L-j ^Ap <UJ( Juip Jls JlS Yjijt l£ tf> (o i n/V i) 

yj U*jrt U$JU o^iLw jJj tLS-Jij J* J^ 1 



148 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



(546/74) It is related by Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of 
Allah s& said: "No Prayer is more heavy on the hypocrites than 
Fajr and Isha, and if they knew what reward awaited them 
against these prayers, and what blessings, they would join them 
even if they had to drag themselves on their knees (i.e., they 
would come to the mosque crawling along the ground if they 
could not walk due to illness). I, sometimes, feel like asking the 
Muazzin to call the Iqamah, and, then, appointing someone to 
lead the prayers in my place, take a torch in my hand and set fire 
to the houses of the people who did not come out of their homes 
for joining the congregation even after hearing the Azan." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: An equally awe-inspiring Tradition has been 
quoted in Ibn Majah, on the authority of Sayyidina Usama 4^>. It 
reads: 



"People must give up the habit 
of staying away from 
congegation otherwise I shall ^j-j jS^- Vjt apU^JI 



burn down their houses." ^ ju*Ji yg) 

Whether the wilful defaulters of congregation against whom 
the Prophet has expresed such a strong indignation be the 
hypocrites of belief or action, this warning is about the act of 
omitting the congregtion. This has led some authorities of old, 
including Imam Ahmad Hanbal, to believe that it is obligatory for 
an able-bodied person to offer prayers with congregation. In other 
words, as the offering of prayer is a religious duty so, also, is the 
offering of it with congregation and he who neglects congegation, 
neglects a fundamental religious obligation. But the doctors of the 
Hanafi school have, after examining the relevant Traditions, 

i * 

concluded that it belongs to the class of Wajib, not Fard, and the 
remark of the sacred Prophet $| contained in the above narrative is 
in the nature of a warning and admonition. 

&S> iJUl JU? 4Ul Jj^j JlS Jl3 ^»L£ JA (oiV/Vo) 

O. Meaning a thing requisite or proper to be done. 



Book of Prayers 



149 



(547/75) It is related by Abdullah bin Abbas 4^> that' the 
Messenger of Allah HH said: "Whoever hears the call of the 
Muazzin for prayer with congregation and there is no genuine 
excuse for him for not responding to it (i.e., of not joining the 
congregation, and, in spite of it, he prays individually), prayer of 
his shall not find acceptance with Allah." (Upon it), some 
Companions 4&> said: Messenger of Allah Hi what can be a 
genuine excuse?" "Danger to life or property or sickness," 
replied the Prophet lH. (Abu Dawood and Daarami) 

Commentary: In it, too, a severe warning is administered to those 
who stay away from congregation. Some ancient legists have held, 
on the basis of it, that like wudu, congregation, also, is among the 
essential conditions of prayer and the prayer of anyone who offers 
it individually without a valid reason is as good as unoffered. But it 
is not the veiw of the majority of the doctors of Islamic 
jurisprudence. According to them, such a prayer is discharged but 
it is of a very poor quality, the reward on which is little and the real 
aim of seeking the countenance of Allah remains unfulfilled. This, 
in their view, is the meaning of not finding accpetance with Allah. 
Anyhow, the truth is that the omission of congregation without a 
cogent excuse is most improper. 

'ja U a2p aJJi jU Jjl Jl! Jll frli jlJl ^ (o i a/VI) 



Badiyah} and they do not offer prayer in congregational form 
then Satan will, surely, obtain control over them. You should, 
therefore, make it obligatory for yourselves to observe 
congregation. The wolf devours only the sheep that strays away 



Commentary: It shows that if only three praying persons live 

O. Denoting the forest in which there is no permanent habitaion but someone 
may have stayed in it for sometime. 




from the flocks. 



(Musnad Ahmad, Abu Dawood and Nasai) 



150 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



somewhere they should offer prayer congregationally or else they 
will fall an easy prey to the machinations of the devil 

Superiority And Blessedness 

5jU> ^L>j JJJl JU Jjl Jji^ Jtf JlS 'j^i- J>\ (o £ <\/W) 

(j«JL^« j i£ jbtJi ol j j) . 4?- ji jj jJLp j i'jLfi J-iaiJ 

(549/77) It is related by Abdullah bin Umar 4& that the 
Messenger of Allah said: "To offer prayers with the 
congregation is twenty-seven times more meritorious than to 
offer it alone." (Bukahri and Muslim) 

Commentary: Just as there is a difference of grade and degree in 
the properties of the things of the material world, and their worth 
and utility varies in accordance with it, our deeds, too, belong to 
various grades and standards the detailed knowledge is which is 
possessed only by Allah. When the Prophet 0 tells about an act 
that it is superior to such-and-such an act by so many degrees he 
does so on the basis of the knowledge vouchsafed to him by the 
Almighty. Thus, the observation made in the above Tradition about 
prayer observed with the congregation to be twenty-seven times 
more deserving of Divine reward than the one said individually is a 
truth inspired by Allah to the Prophet £H and conveyed by him to 
his followers. It is, now, the duty of the faithful bondsmen that, 
believing wholeheartedly in its varacity, they take care always to 
offer prayer with the congregation. 

It, also, shows incidentally, that a prayer offered singly is not 
lost altogether but is of a lesser grade by twenty-seven times which, 
clearly, is a matter of great sorow and misfortune in itself. 

Jj JU & ^JL-j iJJl jU Jj' i^j J 1 * J 1 * jf> 0* (° 0 • /V A) 
i l\y CsS" j^t Sj^sJt lijj <3s*o> 

(550/78) It is related by Anas 4^> that the Messenger of Allah 
lH said: "Whoever offers every prayer for forty days like this 
that even the first Takbir^ is not missed by him, freedom from 



O. Meaning Allahu Akbar 



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151 



two things is decreed for him: the Fire of Hell and hypocrisy." 

(Tirmizi) 

Commentary: It tells that to offer prayers for full forty days with 
such regularity that not even the first Takbir omitted is so pleasing 
to Allah that it can be taken for granted about him that his heart is 
not tained with hypocrisy and he is the dweller of Paradise of such 
a class that he shall never know what the Fire of Hell is. If we form 
a sincere intention to do it then surely Allah will make it easy for 
us. 

We, further, learn from it that to do a virtuous thing 
consistently for forty days possesses a usefulness and efficacy of its 
own. 

Full Reward on Intention 

j* & ^ 'j^* ^ J*^ 1 £}j P * t'j&'j cr**& ^j 3 

(,yl~dl j jjb jjI otjj) . Uii j»Ajj5rl J* cJ^J'i JflAU *i <\A j*B*-J 

(551/79) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4& that the Messenger of 
Allah Hi said: "Whoever performed wudu and performed it 
well, and, then, went to the mosque (with the intention of 
offering prayer congregational ly), but on reaching there found 
that the people had already offered the congregational prayer, 
Allah would bestow upon him the same reward as upon those 
who participated in the congregation and there would be no 
reduction in their reward as well." (Abu Dawood and Nasai) 

Commentary: It shows that if a person who takes due care to offer 
prayer congregationally goes to the mosque to say the prayers in 
congregation, after performing the ablution properly, and finds that 
the prayer was over, he will, as a result of his intention and 
preparation for offering the prayers congregationally, receive, in 
full, the reward promised on the congregation as he had not missed 
it deliberately but owing to some error like misclaculation of time. 



152 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



When it is Premissible to Say 
Namaz Individually or At Home 

• Jt ^j^y J J 3 * 3*f. ^ ^! $y&'y&. 

(552/80) Abdullah bin Umar 4^s> has narrated that one night 
when it was very cold and a strong breeze was blowing he 
called the Azan, and, then, callled, out, "Oh people! offer 
prayers in your houses." He said further, "It was the custom of 
the Prophet iH that when it was very cold in the night and rain 
as falling he ordered the Muazzin also to announce to the people 
to offer prayers at home." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: In it, it is said about the weather that when it is 
unusually inclement, cold and stormy. In the same way, when it is 
raining so heavily that there is the danger of getting wet in going to 
the mosque or the path is slippery or under water or covered with 
mud, one can offer prayers at home. It is not necessary, then, to go 
to the mosque for the congregation. 

pj*>j aIAp 4JJ1 Jjl J_^»j JlS JtS^U J> JjU^J^ (oor/A^) 

J*wu "ij *Li*Jb t jOjld SjUaJl C-*Jl J J&-\ frLlP tit 

(553/81) It is related by Abdullah bin Umar that the 
Messenger of Allah Hi said: "When the meal of the night is laid 
for anyone of you and the worshippers stand up for the prayers 
(in the mosque), he should, first, eat his meal and refrain from 
hurrying till he has eaten." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: Commentators are agreed that the aforesaid 
command applies to the situation in which a man is feeling hungry 
and the food has been served for him. If, in such a case, he is 
commanded to leave the meal and hurry to the mosque it is quite 
possible that his heart would remain attached to the food while he 
was saying the prayers. The Divine Law and commonsense both 
demand that, in circumstances like these, a man, first, has his meal, 



Book of Prayers 



153 



and, then, offers prayers. 

It is mentioned about the narrator himself, in Bukhari as well as 
Muslim, in connection with the above Tradition, that, sometimes, it 
happpened that as the meal was laid before him, the congregation 
stood up in the mosque. He, then, would not leave the food and 
rush to the mosque but finish it. Since the mosque was very close 
to his house, he could hear the recital as he went on with the meal. 

JU Jjl Jjij cJUi cJll 1$ If* aJJI ^3 aiolP (° ° t/A Y) 

((^ a, jj) 

(554/82) Sayyidah Ayshah i^*- said that she heard the 

Messenger of Allah all say, "Prayer is not to be offered when 
food is served, or when calls of nature prevent it." (Muslim) 

-dp JJJI JU> Jul cJLw JV5 ^jl ^P (ooo/Ar) 

(555/83) It is narrated by Abdullah bin Arqam 4^> that he heard 
the Messenger of Allah iH say: "When the congregation stands 
up and anyone of you has the need to answer the call of nature, 
he should, first, get done with it." 

(Tirmizi, Muwatta, Abu Dawood and Nasai) 

Commentary: The above Traditions go to show how Shari'ah 
makes allowance for the needs and difficulties of the people. 
He has not laid upon you any ^ ^ x J^U 
impendiment in religion. ' y' 

(Al-Hajj:22,78) (YAiU.gfJl) . 

Arrangement of Rows 

For the congregation of prayers the Prophet lH> has decreed that 
the devotees should stand, side by side, in rows. No better and 
more dignified arrangement could be imagined for collective 
worship like prayer. The Prophet $gl has urged that the rows must 
be perfectly straight with no one being ahead or in the rear even by 
an inch. The front row should be completed before the second is 



r 



1 54 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 

formed behind it. Eminent and responsible members of the 
community and men of learning and understanding should try to 
secure a place in the front rows, nearer to the Imam 1 , and small 
children should stand in the rear, and if ladies were participating in 
the congregation, they should from the last row, at the back of all 
the male worshippers. The Imam is to stand in the centre, in front 
of everyone. 

The aim of it all is to make the congregation flawless and more 
beneficial. The Prophet iH gave due attention to these things and, 
also, exhorted the Urnmah to be particular about them. 
Occasionally, he would speak of the divine reward that was 
promised on observing these directions and warn those who 
disregarded them of severe chastisement in the life to come. 

(556/84) It is related by Anas ^Hk> that he Messenger of Allah Hi 
said: "Oh people! Keep the rows straight and orderly in prayer 
for keeping the rows straight and in order is a part of observing 
prayer properly." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: In another report quoted in Abu Dawood etc., again 
on the authority of Sayyidina Anas it is stated, "When the 
Prophet Hife stood up to lead the service he would, first, turn his 
face towards the right and tell the people: 'Stand abreast and make 
the rows straight,' and, then, towrards the left and tell the people: 
'Stand abreast and make the rows straight.' From other reports, 
too,it appears that the Prophet H used, often, to exhort the people 
to take care of the rows in prayer, specially at the time he stood up 
to lead the congregation. 

P <U£- LJUp 03 bl t£\ j ^iJLflJI Igj {£y~J WIS jtr Li yup t£y~i 
Jlii uLa)( {y» d'jX^p yJrj y&j &\ ^ is*" f ^ ^*Jd J^ - 



O . One who leads the service 



Book of Prayers 



155 



(557/85) An-Nu'man bin Bashir 4ip> has said, "The Messenger of 
Allah ill used to straighten our rows as if he were trying to 
make them as straight as arrows until he saw that we had 
learned it from him. One day he came out, stood up, and was 
just about to say Allahu Akbar when he saw a man whose chest 
projected from the row, so he said, 'Servants of Allah, you must 
straighten your rows, or Allah will certainly put your faces in 
contrary directions.' " (Muslim) 

Commentary: The words as straight as arrows in the hadith may 
be understood if we bear in mind the Arab practice of keeping their 
arrows absolutely straight when they went to hunt or waged a war. 
Thus this came to be used in their language as an example. The 
narrator emphasises that the Prophet £H made then straighten their 
rows to such an extent tha they did not dis-allign even by a fraction 
of an inch. With regular emphasis, itcame naturally to the 
worshippers and they stood straight in the rows. However, when 
once someone made a mistake, the Propet m repriminded him 
severely and remarked that Allah will cause them to differ if they 
did not keep their rows straight. This warning is found in a number 
of ahadith. There is a definite relatedon between the carelessness 
and the punishment but, as in all other things, we have become 
negligent in observing this command too. 

<JlL»*23 \ yk&ti *i j 1 j Jjij 5 jJjaJl ^ LlSfLi ^JLjj 
(,*L~Jl el jj) 

(558/86) Abu Mas'ud Ansari related that in prayer (i.e., 
when the devotees stood up for the congregational prayer the 
Messenger of Allah ill used to pat us on the shoulders an say: 
"Get abreast and do not be dissimilar (i.e., ahead of or behind 
one another) lest, God forbid, your hearts get separated." He 
would, also, say: "Nearest to me (in congretaion) should be 
those who are men of knowledge and wisdom, then those who 
are next to them, and, then, those who are next to them (in 
knowledge and wisdom)." (Muslim) 



156 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



Commentary: Besides the orderliness of the rows, the Prophet HI 
instructed that closest to him, in the congregation, should stand 
those whom Allah had distinguished for learning and 
understanding, after them those who belonged to the second grade 
of it, and,after them, those who belonged to the third grade. Apart 
from being natural, from the point of view of training and 
instruction, too, the arrangement that people of good and 
outstanding capabilities should, grade by grade, be in the forward 
part of the congregation and nearer to the Prophet £H is most 
desirable. 



ji\ 9ljj) . Ljjiii lili SjJjaJl ill* bl \&'yup 

(559/87) Nu'man bin Bashir 4^ narrates that it was the practice 
of the Prophet Hi was that when he stood up to lead the 
congregation he whould, first, have the rows arranged in proper 
order and say Takbir (only) when the rows had become straight 
and orderly. (Abu Dawood) 



Front Rows to Be Completed First 

U^ai\jLs\ iJJl JJfi Jit J 1 * tT^ J* '/A A) 

(560/88) It is related by Anas 4^> that the Messenger of Allah 
lH said: "Oh people! First complete the front row, then the row 
next to it so that if there is an insufficiency it should be in the 
last row. " (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: It shows that worshippers should not stand in the 
rear row until the front row had been filled up. In that way, the 
front row would be complete and whatever deficiency there was 
would be in the rear. 

Superiority of Front Row 

an l\ ^L>j ilji jU Jjt j_p3 ji5 jil liui ^ (o i \ m<\) 



Book of Prayers 



157 



(561/89) It is related by Abu Umamah that the Messenger of 
Allah III said: "Allah shows mercy to the first row and His 
angels make supplication of mercy for it." Some Companions 
said: "O Messenger of Allah! And for the second row also?" 
The Prophet iH said again: "Allah shows mercy to the first row 
and the angels make supplication of mercy for it." 'It was, once 
more, enquired from him: "And for the second row also?" The 
Prophet repeated what he had said earlier," It was, once again, 
asked: "And for the second row also?" The Prophet gave the 
same reply (for the third time). The Companions, again, said: 
"O Messenger of Allah! And for the second row also?" At that 
(i.e., the fourth) time, the Prophet Hi replied: "And for the 
people of the second row also." (Abu Dawood) 

Commentray: It shows that the people of the front row are 
deserving of the special grace of the Lord and invocations of the 
angels, and though those of the second row, too, have a share in 
them, they are far behind. Or, in other words, although, in our sight 
the difference between the first and second rows is very little, in 
the judgement of Allah it is great. The seeker of Divine mercy 
should, therefore, take pains to find a place in the first row, the 
only way to which is that he reached the mosque early. 

In another saying, quoted in Bukhari and Muslim, it is stated 
that "If people knew what reward there is on standing in the first 
row and how are they going to be requitted (in the Hereafter), there 
would take place such a tussle among them that, ultimately, lot 
would have to be drawn." May Allah grant us belief in these facts! 
Aameenl 

Method 



158 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



(562/90) It is related on the authority of Abu Maalik Al-Ash'ari 
•4fe> that he asked: "May I tell you about the prayer of the 
Prophet lH?" He, then, said: "He would established prayer. He, 
first, formed the rows of men, and, behind them, the rows of 
children, and, then, led the congregation. Afterwards, the 
Prophet £H remarked: 'This is the method of the prayers of my 
followers'." (Abu Dawood) 

Commentray: It denotes that the correct and Musnoon} way is 
that the rows of men were in front and the children stood in a 
separate row behind them. From the Traditions to be taken up later 
it will appear that if women, too, are participating in the 
congregation they should stand even in the rear of the children. 

Imam Should Stand in The Middle 

(563/91) It is stated by Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of 
Allah ilH said: "Oh people! Take the Imam in your middle (i.e., 
arrange the rows in such a way that the Imam stood between the 
tow ends of the front row), and fill up the gaps in the rows." 

(Abu Dawood) 

How Should Muqtadis 2 Stand if There 
Were Only One or Two of Them? 

> s w s i iS i > s S 

Oi*j ^L>j &s- iM\ JL> aUi J^j ^15 jfa ^ (o-\ t/<\ Y) 

^ p *~t*i o* (j^^i ^ ist/^ ^ ^y^- O* 

luJL J>13 ^jLp <dJ( ^^L^ aJJi Jj-^j j£ ^154 J^jjusj- 

«' jj) . Uil3l LaSJLs UIa^- 

(564/92) Jabir 4^£> narrated that "(Once) as the Messenger of 
Allah 0m stood up for prayer (i.e., began to offer it up) I arrived 
and (after the formualtion of intention) stood to his left. The 
Prophet Hi, then, grasped my arm and guiding me past his back 
made me stand to his right side. In the meantime, Jabbar bin 

O. Signifying an act or observance confirmed by the practice of the sacred 
Prophet 

©. Meaning those offering up prayers behind the Imam. 



Book of Prayers 



159 



Sakhr 4p> (also) came and stood on his left. The Prophet 
therupon, directed both of us to the rear by holding our arms 
and made us stand behind (himself)." (Muslim) 

Commentary: This hadith tells us that if there is only one Muqtadi 
he should stand on the right side of the Imam, and in case he stands 
to the left on the Imam by mistake, the Imam should bring him to 
his right, and in case another Muqtadi came and joins the 
congregation, the Imam should stand in front with both the 
Muqtadis forming a row in the rear. It is disallowed to stand alone 
behind the rows. 

.5'jJLaJi $ o'j*\& ojJ-j uwjJi uA*- ^L<4 

(565/93) Sayyidina Wabisah bin Ma'bad ^ has said that the 
Messenger of Allah III saw a man praying alone behind the row 
and ordered him to repeat his prayer.(Ahmad, Tirmizi, Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: To pray alone behind a row of worshippers is 
contrary to the spirit of congregation and colectiveness. It is so 
much disliked that the Prophet £H asked the man to repeat his 
prayer. 

Observation: If anyone arrives at the mosque and finds the last 
row full and has no one else to stand with him in the next row then 
he must pull one of the men from that row to stand with him. 
However, he must do it only if he is confident that the man he is 
pulling will respond. If he does not find anyone likely to submit to 
his pull then he must, for necessity, stand alone in the last row. 

Women Should Stand Separately And at 
The Back of Men And Even Children. 

A^Ip 4JJI JJp ^Jl JflJU iki J> cJU» Jll jJ\ (o *n/<U) 

(566/94) Sayyidina Anas ^> said: "I offered prayer behind the 
Prophet ijl in my house, and with me was my brother, Yatim 1 

O. According to some authorities Yatim was not the name but the title of one of 
the brothers of Sayyidina Anas ^ 



1 60 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 

(i.e., we both formed a row behind the Prophet), and our 
mother, Umm Sulaym, stood at the back of both of us. "(Muslim) 

Commentary: It shows that though only one woman was 
participating in the service, she should stand in the rear, apart from 
men and children, so much so that even if her own children were 
forming the fornt row she must not stand with them but at their 
back. 

It is stated in another account of the same incident that the 
Prophet ill himself had made Umm Sulaym stand in the rear. 

These ahadith emphasise that women should stand in the last 
rows even behind young children. If a woman is alone, she must 
even then stand behind the men and children on her own. 



IMAM AT 

Among all the religious acts the foremost place is occupied by 
prayer. In islam its position is akin to that of the heart in the body. 
The Imamat 1 of prayer too is a most important religious fuction 
and it entails a heavy responsibility. In a way, it denotes the 
deputyship of the Prophet Hi. It is, therefore, essential that one 
who is most suited among the devotees participating in the 
congregation is appointed as the Imam. The criterion of it can, 
naturally, be relative propinquity with the Prophet Hi and an inner 
resemblance with him. In other words, he should have taken a 
share in the Prophet's all spiritual heritage and since the Qur'an is 
of paramount importance in that legcy, he ought to have, after 
having been blessed with true Faith, cultivated a special fondness 
and inclination for it, learnt it by heart, understood its message and 
injunctions and translated its teachings into practice. Should, 
however, all the worshippers be of equal merit and stature, 
preference will be given to him who possesses a greater knowledge 
of the Sunnah and the Shari'ah because after the Qur'an comes the 
Sunnah, and suppose that in this respect, too, there is nothing to 
mark out anyone among the participants the choice will fall on him 
who is distinguished for religious virtues like piety and good 
morals, and if ,even then, no one can be singled out, the oldest man 
in the congregation shall lead it for seniority in age, also, is a 
universally accepted mark of superiority. 

Selection of Imam 

s J» tS i< J s / s s * s y s 

faUti tS'y<& i\'J& J> 6^ *JJ» ols£l ^\'J\ f jilt ^ jjLj 
O. The act of conducting the service. 



162 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



(567/95) It is related on the authority of Abu Mas'ud Ansari 4^> 
that the Messenger of Allah iHl said: "He should lead the 
congregation who reads the Book of Allah (i.e., the Qur'an) 
much among them, and if all of them be equal then he who 
possesses a greater knowledge of the Sunnah and the Shari'ah, 
and if all be equal in this respect, also, then he who may have 
been the first to Migrate (among them), and if all be equal in it 
as well (i.e., the time of their migration is the same) then he who 
is senior in age. And no one should act as anyone's Imam in his 
area (or territory) of leadership and authority or sit, without his 
permission, in his special place of sitting in his house." (Muslim) 

Commentary: The reading of the Qur'an mentioned in the above 
Tradition should not be taken in the literal sense. Here it does not 
merely signify the recitation of the Qur'an or the learning of the 
whole of it by heart, but along with it, a deep understanding of the 
Holy Book and an exceptional attachment to it as well. Thus, the 
import of this Tradition will be that he is more worthy and 
qualified to be chosen as Imam who enjoys superiority over others 
in the knowledge of the Qur'an as well as devotion to it. In the 
Prophet's $H time it was considered to be the greatest religious 
distinction and the more a person was noted for familiarity with the 
Qur'an the more was he recognised as the bearer and trustee of the 
glorious heritage of the Prophet III. 

The next standard of superiority was the knowledge of the 
Sunnah and the Shari'ah and whoever possessed the knowledge of 
Qur'an and the Sunnah, also acted upon them as there was no 
question of knowledge without practice during those days. 

The third was precedence in Hijrah, i.e., migration from 
Makkah to Madinah. But it was peculiar to the circumatahces 
prevailing at that time. Later, it ceased to operate and the legists of 
Islam corrrectly prescribed piety and good-doing in its place. 

The last determining factor was seniority in age. If no one was 
worthier and superior, judged by the first three standards, the 
oldest member of the congregation was to lead it. 



Book of Prayers 



163 



Two other instructions have been given at the end of the 
Tradition. One is that when a person happens to be in anyone else's 
sphere of Imamat and authority, he should not act as an Imam but 
offers his prayers behind him. It is a different matter that the latter 
insisted on it. Secondly, if a person goes to anyone's house, he 
should avoid sitting at his place or on his seat. The wisdom of 
these exhortations is self-evident. 

The Best Among You Should Be Made The Imam 

(568/96) It is realted by Abdullah bin Umar 4§& that the 
Messenger of Allah iHl said: "Make them the Imam who are the 
best and worthiest of you because they are your representatives 
in the august presence of your Lord and Master." 

(Dar Qutni and Baihaqi) 

Commentary: The Imam acts as the representatives of the whole 
of the congregation before the Almighty. It is, therefore, the duty of 
the congregation to appoint the best of its members to the high 
office of Imamat. 

In his lifetime the Prophet ^ himself used to lead the 
congregation, but when, during his last illness, he was rendered 
unable to perform the duty he ordered that Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4^e> 
should act as the Imam who was the worthiest member of the 
community from the point of view of the knowledge and practice 
of Faith. 

Unfortunately, greivous indifference was shown, in the 
succeeding eras, to this important directive and Sunnah of he 
sacred Prophet $jl with the result that the entire design and 
organisation of the Ummah was thrown into disorder. 

Responsibility of Imam 

Z i i. \ > , * , , 1 

pLoj illi JU> All! J^/, Jis Jis ^J. J* (o -\ <\l<\ V) 



164 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



(269/97) It is related by Abdullah bin Umar 4^> that the 
Messenger of Allah iH said: "Whoever acts as the Imam of the 
congregation should fear Allah and believe that he is 
responsible, also, for the prayer (of the Muqtadis) and will be 
questioned about it. If he has led the prayer well, he will get the 
reward equal to the total reward of the Muqtadis and no 
redution will be made in their reward, and should there be a 
fault in the prayer, he alone, will be called to acount." (Tabarani) 

Convenience of Muqtadis 

( pL~j> j ij jUJl aljj) . t-LiiU J jku^* frr^4 i*^**-*"' ^J*? 

(570/98) It is related by Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of 
Allah III said: "When anyone of you stands up as the Imam to 
lead the prayers, he should keep it light (i.e., avoid making it too 
long) because there are sick and old and infirm people, too, 
among the Muqtadis (for whom a prolonged prayer might be a 
source of hardship), and when anyone of you offers his own 
prayers singly, he may lengthen it as much as he likes." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: Some Companions who led the prayer in the 
mosques of their localities or tribes used to lengthen prayers out of 
religious fervour. Owing to it, much hardship was, sometimes, 
caused to the participants who were old, sick or tired. The sacred 
Prophet !H, thus, often discouraged the practice. What the above 
Tradition, however, denotes is that the Imam should remember that 
there might be a sick or aged person among the worshippers and 
refrain from making the prayers too long and not only should 
smaller verses be recited but also the Tasbih 1 must be recited not 



O. The act of praising the Lord by repeating the formulas of Subhana Rabbi 
yal-Azeem and Subhana Ribbiyal-a' ala. 



Book of Prayers 



165 



more than thrice in Ruku 1 and Sajda 2 . The moderate prayers the 
Prophet himself led serve as a perfect model for us and the 
significance of these instructions should be understood in that 
light. 

JlS # I'jklS y\ J'j^\ JlS {J\ J> ^4* (o V \/<\ £ \) 

Lj J4kj it* JsH otiiit s'^Uc y-U *tf ^ All I J^j li AJJl j 
Aiojj <U» ll&p JUsl AiaP-j^o jJJUjj aILp <lU( LS JLi? <dJ( J J** 1 J 3 ^ 
U»-*JaJ' jiS jj^JLS j-LJl) t5 Jw?w j^jlS tX^* j**^ til J 13 (*-* 

(571/99) Qays bin Abi Haazim said that Abu Mas'ud Ansari 4|& 
told him that (once) a person said to the Prophet HI, "O 
Messenger of Allah! I swear by Allah that I do not attached the 
morning service because of such-and-such a man (and am 
compelled to offer prayer alone). He Keeps us very long (which 
is beyond my endurnce)." The narrator of the Tradition, Abu 
Mas'ud Ansari 4ti>, went on to add that he had never seen the 
Prophet Hi more angry. He delivered a sermon that day. The 
Prophet Hi, in the course of the sermon, said: "There are some 
among you who drive (the bondsmen of the Lord) away (by 
their wrongful behaviour). It is incumbent upon whoever of you 
became the Imam of the people and led them in prayer to make 
it short (i.e., refrain from prolonging it excessively because 
among them there are, also, the sick and the aged and those who 
have some business to attend." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentray: The Companions against whom the complaint was 
made was Ubayy bin Ka'b. A similar incident in respect of 
Sayyidina Mu'az 4& is reported in Bukhari and Muslim. It is stated 
that he was in the habit of delaying the Isha prayers. One day, as 
usual, he began the prayer late and started reciting the surah? al 
Baqarah. One of the Muqtadis, who was feeling tired after the 
day's work, disassociated himself from the prayer and offered his 

O. Bowing low in prayer with the hands resting on the knees. 

©. Prostrating in such a way that the forehead and the nasal bone as well as the 

knees and the toes of both the feet touch the ground. 
©. Meaning a Chapter of the Qur'an. 



166 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



prayers seperately and went away. When the matter was brought to 
the notice of the Prophet £§l, he admonished Sayyidina Mu'az 4§&, 
and said: "O Mu'az! Do you want to bring harm to the people and 
involve them in mischief?" He, then, told to recite the Surahs 
Wash-shams-i-wad-duhaha, Wal-ayl-i-iza Yaghshaha, and 
Wad-duha wal-layl-i-iza Saja in prayer. 

Sf^l^j^iJJl jU Jjl Jjij Jll Jl5 3ib5^I^P(oYY/^ • <) 

(t5 jbUl a\ <tfl^j Ail U^-j 5jLs> ^« j^IpI 

(572/100) It is related by Abu Qatadah Ansari that the 
Messenger of Allah $H said: "Sometimes it happens that I begin 
the prayer and 1 have the intention of prolonging it to some 
extent, but, then, I hear a child crying I cut short my prayer for I 
know how worried the mother would be on hearing it crying." 

(Bukhari) 

Commentary: Believing that the child's mother too would be in 
the congregation, the Prophet Hi respected her emotions and 
shortened his prayers when a child cried. 

(573/101) Sayyidina Anas 4^b said "I never prayed behind an 
Imam who was more brief and more perfect than the Prophet 
HH. If he heard a child crying while leading the congregation, he 
cut it short for fear that the morther would be worried (and her 
prayer would be affected by it)." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: The guiding principle for the Imam is indicated in 
the above Tradition. His prayer should be brief but, at the same 
time, perfect and every part of it should be completed and every act 
carried out properly and in accordance with the confirmed practice 
of the Prophet S. 



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167 



Guidance for Muqtadis 

(574/102) It is related by Abu Hurayrah <?§s> that the Messenger 
of Allah III said: "O people! Do not try to go ahead of the 
Imam. (On the other hand, follow him closely and carefully). 
Say Allahu Akbar when he says Allahu Akbar, and say Aameen\ 
when he says Walad dhalleen, and perform ruku when he 
performs ruku, and say Allaahumma Rabbana lakal Hamd when 
he says Sami Allahu liman Hamidah." (Bukhari) 

Commentary: What it shows, briefly, is that the Muqtadis should 
follow the Imam strictly in all the essential and obligatory factors 
of prayer and never try to surpass him. 

3 3 3 s 

(575/103) It is related by Ali and Mu'az bin Jabal u^ii^jthat 
the Messenger of Allah ^ said: "When anyone of you comes 
for prayers and no matter in what state the Imam is (i.e., 
whether he is in the state of qayam 1 , ruku or sajda), he should 
do as the Imam is doing." (Tirmizi) 

lit pL,j ilJ' fU» J'j^tj Jl5 JlS 5jJj» ^1 (ov V> • t) 

' . J* * ' ' '. * ' ' f 3 ' * 3 & *' - .3* 3 3**3 3 > * 3 ' s .., . (5 . J 3^' 

4*5 juiji' J 3 j ljJj»t-il3 A jspuo 6jJLa)' j^sisr 

(ijb^laljj) OjJLaJI Ojil Ii3 

(576/104) It is related by Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger 
of Allah issH said: "When you come for prayer and find us in 
sajda, join in the sajda and make no count of it, and whoever 
gains the ruku with the Imam, gained the prayer (i.e., that Rak'at 

of it)." (Abu Dawood) 

O. The posture of standing erect in Namaz with the arms folded below the navel. 



1 68 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 

Commentary: It denotes that if the Muqtadis join the Imam in 
ruku it is equal to participation in the whole of the rak'at, but if he 
joins only in sajda, it will not serve for the rak'at but he will be 
recompensed fully for the sajda. The sajda, however, will not be 
counted. 



PERFORMANCE OF PRAYER 
How prayer should be offered 

^ Z r * 6* i ^ ✓ ^ * •* ^ * ' s -<Z s * ^ s > ^ % s ^ 

jute j»j dj 1 ^ 1 ^SSji'jLls Ujlyl p ^I£s JJis-^t 

i^s»- £S ji ^ IJt?-L«i jiahf j^s*- Aj*t— »i pi Uj13 c£ js~*J ^jSS" £3ji ^ U5 I j 

l# 3^U> Jflii Jill jtf (Ufll ^ ji jtf a? j j ^? j) 

(577/105) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4fe that (once) the 
Messenger of Allah s|l was sitting in the mosque and a man 
came in and offered prayers. Afterwards, he came to the Prophet 
!§l and saluted him. The Prophet lH returned the salutation and 
remarked: "Go and offer the prayer again. You have not offered 
it properly." He went back and repeated the prayers again and 
returned to the Prophet iH, and saluted him. The Prophet lH, 
returning the salutation, and once again remarked: "Go and offer 
the prayers again. You have not said it properly". After 
repeating the prayers for the third (on the fourth) time, the man 
said to the Prophet ill: "Messenger of Allah $H teach me." The 
Prophet Hi replied: "When you decide to pray, first perform 
wudu throughly and well, then turn to Qiblah, then begin with 
Takbir Tahrima ] . After that recitesome part of the Qur'an which 
O. Meaning Allahu Akbar 



170 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



you know and can recite easily. (In other Traditions relating to 
the same incident it is stated that He told the questioner, 
specifically, to recite Sura Fateha and whatever he liked, in 
addition to it). Then, after the recital, perform ruku till you are 
still and at ease in ruku. then, arise from ruku till you stand 
erect. Then, perform the sajda till you are still and at ease in 
Sajda. Then, arise til you sit up comfortably. (According to 
another narrator, the Prophet, instead of it, said: 'Then arise till 
you stand erect). Then, do like that throughout the prayer (i.e., 
in every Rak'at carry out all acts like ruku, sujud^, Qauma 2 and 
Jalsa 3 in a clam and collected manner)." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: The incident mentioned above related to Khallad 
bin Rafi' the brother of the well-known Companion, Rifaah bin 
Rafi' 4fe. According to Nasai, he had offered two Rak'ats in the 
Prophet's mosque and some other commentators have suggested 
that these were Tahiyyat-ul-Masjid which Khallad, had offered 
rather hurriedly, and, he was reproached by the Prophet and told to 
offer them again. 

It shows that the Prophet did not plainly tell Khallad bin Rafi', 
at the first time, what was wrong with his prayer and how it was to 
offered correctly, but at the third or furth time, and, then, at his 
own request. It was, probably, for the simple reason that a lesson 
imparted in such a manner suffices for a lifetime and gets talked 
about among others as well. 

The Prophet *H did not teach him what to recite in the different 
positions because he was aware of that. His mistake was that he 
hurried through his postures. 

As for the difference in the two versions, the concluding part of 
the hadith some ulama suggest that one should sit down a while 
before standing up from the sajdah. They consider the first version 
correct; others prefer the second version. 

The practical teaching imparted in the above Tradition is that 
prayer sould be offered in a calm and composed manner and if it is 
offered hurriedly and without making the necessary pauses and 
carrying out the various acts properly it may be as good as unoffered 
O. Plural of Sajda 

©. The posture of standing for Ruku in Prayer 

©. The act of sitting between two Sajdas in Prayers. 



Book of Prayers 



171 



Prayer of The Prophet sil 

pL*j aJ£ <dJl ^^U? J_^3 5lT cJl3 i-iilp (ova/ ^ . t) 

^jT^Jl i>? J £?3 '^i 5^3 jli (S^J ^3*^ (*^3 *~"'*3 u^ 5 -*-* 

iU-j J^J j^*^.) J^i (S^J l-Jlsf 1 lSj^ 

^iLUb 3'jJL^aJl ji^siJ £-^1! tr 1 ^! ^'3^ <Ar^ 

(578/106) Sayyidah Aysha i^p in narrated that the 
Messenger of Allah Hi menced his prayers with Takbir and the 
recital with Al-hamdu Hllilaahi Rabil AalameenK and while 
performing ruku he neither raised his head' upwards nor bent it 
downwards but kept it in the middle position (i.e., in line with 
the waist), and when he raised the head from ruku he did not go 
into sajda till he had stood erect, and when he raised the head 
from sajda, he did not perform the second sajda until he had sat 
upright, and he recited At-Tahiyyatu after every two rak'ats, and, 
at that time, he flattened the left foot under him and kept the 
right foot in the upright position, and he forbade Uqbatish 
Shaytan (sitting like the Devil), and he, also, forbade that a man 
sat (in Sajda) with his forearms (i.e., parts of arms between 
elbow and wrist) placed on the ground like the animals, and he 
brought the prayer to an end by saying As-salamu 'Alaikum wa 
rahmatullah" (Muslim) 

Commentary: Prayer is a worship of a very high order. For it such 
forms and postures of qayam, qaood , ruku and sujood have been 
prescribed as constitue the finest marks and expressions of 
adoration and humbleness, and all the unbecoming manners of 
holding the body that are indicative of vanity, awakwardness or 
indifference, or bear a resemblance with the lowly creatures have 
been, particularly, forbidden. The Holy Prophet has, 
accordingly, ordered us not to sit in Sajda with forearms spread on 
O. The Opening chapter of the Qur'an, popularly known as Sura-i-iFatiha. 
©. Denoting the posture of sitting in Namaz. 



172 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



the ground as the dongs and wolves do or in the manner which, in 
this Tradition, hs been described as Uqbatish Shaytan, and, in 
another, as Aq'aa-al-kalb. 

Commentators have differed in their explanations of eh two 
terms. In our humble view, however, they denote sitting on the 
heels with the feet held upright on the toes and since this posture 
gives the impression of haste and exggerated selfesteem and only 
the knees touch the ground and it is the way dogs and wolves and 
other wild animals, generally, sit, the Porphet iH took special care 
to forbid against sitting like that in prayer. 

It is to be remembered that such a manner of sitting is 
disallowed only one is not constrained to do so owing to a disease 
or deformity. It is narrated by Sayyidina Abdullah bin Umar 4|s> 
that, sometimes, he used to sit like that on account of a painful 
ailment in his feet. Similarly, the version of Sayyidina Abdullah bin 
Abbas describes this style as the practice of the "your Prophet". 
Perhaps he may have sat down in that manner on account of some 
difficulty. 

Jjl J^j ulxjji 'ja jOi 'J> JUS <JA£[1}\ XJJ- ^)\ If (oVI/l . V) 



company of the Companions mp that among them he was the 
best versed in the way the Messenger of Allah iH prayed. He 
said, "I saw when he said the takbeer he placed his hands 
opposite his shoulders, when he bowed into the ruku' he rested 
his hands on his knees and bent his back; when he raised his 
head he stood erect with his spine straight; when he prostrated 
himself he placed his arms so that they were not spread out and 
the fingers were not drawn in and the points of his toes were 




Book of Prayers 



173 



facing the qiblah; when he sat up at the end of the two rak'at he 
sat on his left foot and raised the right; and when he sat up after 
the last raka'ah he put forward the left foot, raised the other, 
and sat on his hips." (known as tawarruk). (Bukhari) 

Commentary: This hadith speaks of the Prophet iHl raising his 
hands upto the shoulders at the first Takbeer. But, the hadith 
narrated by Maalik bin Huwayrith 4^> transmitted by Bukhari and 
Muslim tells us that he raised the hands upto his earlobes. There is 
no contradiction in the too. When the hands are raised to the ears, 
the arms are against the shoulders and we can describe that as 
raising hands to the ears. 

Abu Dawood has transmitted a hadith narrated by Wa'il bin 
Hujr 4fe that makes the issue very clear. 

He raised his hands so high 

that they were in line with the Jlj»t» 

shoulders while the thumbs V" , - > s' 

aligned with the ears. ^ ^ 

Abu Humayd has said about the Prophet's Hi last sitting which 
is known as t-ijjJ {tawarruk). However, we have read the hadith 
narrated by Sayyidah Ayshah <&i reproduced earlier that he 
sat in the last sitting in the same posture as described by Abu 
Humayd Sa'idi 4^> for the first sitting which is known as iftirash. 

Some scholars have suggested that the Prophet Hi sat in 
exactly the same manner as described by Sayyidah Ayshah aJUi 

but he may have been constrained to adopt the style described 
as tawarruk for convenience. But other Ulama hold the opposite 
view. We might say that both methods were observed. 

Particular Supplications & 
Methods of God-remembrance. 

The inner feeling of earnestness and deep devotion that runs 
through the prayer-formulas through which the Prophet Hi used to 
revere and adore the Lord during the various parts or acts of Namaz 
like qayam, ruku and sujood, and the entreaties he made in them, 
from the essence of Namaz. The sayings we are now going to 
discuss should be read from the point of view and the endeavour 
should be to produce the same emotional and spitirual state of 



174 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



feeling because it is the characteristic legacy of the holy 
ProphetiH. 

si ^ i i* > s / s / / 

^15 j IpIj J^3l Jll ? J_^5jli ^jj jlSssll jIj tJ&lSwl 
US' Ulla^xJl ^» ^ifti j^Ul (_J jiUJlj (3 j-i^' ^ OJLpU Ui (^Ulk^ 
3^1 tj ^iillj frUJb tiblk^ j^JJl ^jUl ^« JjaJ^I 4^ 

(580/108) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger 
of Allah iH used to observe a period of silence between the 
takbeer and the recitation of the Qur'an, so he asked him, 
"Messenger of Allah for whom 1 would give my father and 
mother as ransom, what do you say during your period of 
silence between the takbeer and the recitation?" He said that he 
made the supplication: 

j^JJl *_j jiUJ'j Jj jJUJ( oJLpU US 1 " <j\j\&- ^> JUli 

"O Allah, remove my lapses far from me as You have removed 
the east far from the west. O Allah, purify me from lapses as a 
white garment is purified from filth. O Allah, wash away my 
sins with water, snow and hail." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: The Prophet iHH was innocent and free from sins 
and lapses, yet he held fear within himself 

This was also the supplication the Prophet ^ made sometimes 
after the takbeer and before al-Fatiha. 

i_5sU^i( u-S'jUjj c.S'jUAjj (t^JJ' c_5CiU»bl*«> Jl3 ^ast 

(581/109) Sayyidah Ayshah L^iii^j related that when the 
Messenger of Allah iH began (to offer) prayer he first glorified 



Book of Prayers 



175 



the Lord in these words: 

*Ji V j ^JUjj cXiJ-t Jfftjj JT-u^j j^lli JSjy^i 

Subhaanakal-laa-humma wa bihamdika wa tabarakasmuka wa 
ta'ala jadduka wa la ilaaha ghairuka. 

(O Allah, with Your glorification and your praise; blessed is 
Your Name; and there is no God save You). 

(Tirmizi and Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: Hafiz Mujjahuddin Ibn Taymiyas writes in 
Muntaqa about Sayyidina Abu Bakr on the authority of 
Sunnan Saeed bin Mansur, and about Sayyidina Umar 4§& on the 
authority of Sahih Muslim, and about Sayyidina Uthman 4^a> and 
Sayyidina Abdullah bin Mas'ud 4&>, on the authority of Qutni, that 
they began their Salah with Subhaanakal-laa-humma wa 

bihamdika and, then goes on to observe that it appears from 

it that the Prophet iH, usually, recited this short prayer after Takbir 
in prayer. It, therefore, enjoys preference over all the other prayers 
of adoration mentioned in the Traditions with relation to the 
commencement of the prayer though there is no harm in reciting 
the other proven hymns, as for instance, the one occurring in the 
next Tradition related on the authority of Sayyidina Ali 4fe. 

bt^j^'itt! jU^lo^ Jtf J* (oAY/U «) 

£j\yJL\\'j£ JjjJJ iL&rj JtS fj j!f 5jL> j\ ^ 

Oj ^Jli-» j (J^u> J 'jfy*^ J i^J^' Sl-J^C ^ li 'ar i " 

^il ci^rj ^-i; c.ifc JTjLp uij ^3 cji «f 1 ill •/ JsOJi 
^Im jis ^3 liij J£Ji 40* j JT^Aiii cJUjj cij£ 



76 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 

Jl5 »b>w lilj JUu ^Li CjsJiU ^*j la j -j Uj ^jSl'j 0^'«-">Jt*>Ca 
4flls i - <^ jjJ j^TJ JL?t-li C.a J, i_£Jj C-U\ i— (ijJL^t-lp k_£J 

• I * * a i "-ti'ti ' ' ''t>*., ' ' - " ' * i'* ' ' 

j^-jAjt CJtj ^Ji - *^' i^r? *i (*^' C-iJ-il Uj qjApI Uj 

(582/1 10) Ali 4& related that when Messenger of Allah 0 
stood up to offer prayer he recited the following words after 
Takbir: 

Waj-jahtuWaj-hiya-lilazi ^jjj^ti ^jjj 
fataras-samawati wal- " ' ' 

ardha h an if an wa ^ Ul Ujf ^j^l j 

minal-mushrikeena l * > -)''Utt J<^~ J csr^J t^J**? 

in-na salaati wa nusuki Cj'ytS ^Jsi)Juj *J _5o jJi V j' u i lvH 

mahya-ya wa ma- - , ^ ^j, , ' , 

matillahi rabbil V cJ^Jl CJt ^1 ^-UlJt ^ Ulj 

'Aalimeena La sharika ^ .Ji.f ; IU , VVc. yij ^ cJ) ^ #i 
Lahu wa bithalika / ,, 
Urn irti wa Ana Minal i^J^ ^J** 1 * w* 5 ^ J 

Muslimina allaahumma . ^ ^ ^ *i 

antal maliku laa ilaaha - - - 

ilia anta rabi wa ana CJt *Sh ^r-^V. J"^^' 
abduka zalamtu nafsi ,* , ,. /» » t ' 

wa- 'ataraftu bizanbi J?* ^ ^f**-* ^ J 
faghfirli zunubi ilT ^3tj i_%.U^j (3^J fCJl 
jamee'an in-nahu laa ^ ^ _ ^j*,, 

Yaghfiruz zunuba ilia ^ U ' "-^1 ls? 
a«/a wah-dini li-ahsanil cJUJj ci"j^ t --^!j 

akhlaq laa yahdi , .' 

li-ahsaniha ilia anta ^->-^\ l ^ 3 y i 3 
was-rif 'anni saiyyiha-la 

yasrif'anni sayyiaha ila anta labaika wa sa'adaika wal-khairru 
kul-luhu fi-yadaika was-sharru laisa ilaika ana bika wa ilaika 
tabarakta wa td'aalaita astaghfiruka wa atoobu ilaik. 



Book of Prayers 



1 



(I have turned away from every direction and set my face 
towards Allah who is the Creator of the heavens and the earth, 
and I am not of those who associate anyone with Him in 
allegiance. My worship, and my every religious act, and my life 
and my death are for Allah alone, the Lord of the Worlds. To 
this I have been commanded and I am of those who obey. O 
Allah! You are the Sovereign and Master. No one is worthy of 
obedience save You. You are my Lord and Owner, and I am 
Your slave. I have wronged my soul, and ruined myself, and I 
confess my inequities. O Lord! Forgive me my sins; no one can 
forgive sins except You. And remove all bad manners and 
deplorable morals from my side, and take them away from me. 
This, too, no one aside, of You can do. I am in Your presence, 
for Your service, and Your victory. Here I am, O Lord! All the 
good things, and every kind of piety and virtue are in Your 
hands, and evil has no access towards You. You are the Blessed, 
the Most High. You are my only hope and my face is turned 
towards You. 1 beg Your forgiveness and unto You do I turn 
penitent). 

This prayer the Prophet jH> recited after Takbir and before the 
commencement of recitation from the Qur'an. Then, as he 
performed ruku, (after completing the recital), he used to say: 

Allaahumma iaka ruk'atu wa ^ '-J vJCjj cJ&'j s J^i 

bika aamantu wa laka aslamtu ^ ' 

khasha'a laka sam'ee wa 



basari wa mukhkhi wa 'azmi 
wa 'asbi. 



if}* J ' <£j-*i J (j**-- 

(O Allah! 1 am bowed low before You, and I have believed in 
You and placed myself in Your charge. My ears, and my eyes, 
and my marrow, and my bones, and my muscles, and my nerves 
are all bent in submission to You). 

Later, as the Prophet Hi raised his head from ruku and stood 
erect, he said: 



All ahum ma r abb ana Vt C 6 .' ' '. 



lakal-hamdu mil-as-samawaati 

wal-ardhi wa ma bainahuma j^/^J Otj!»~JI*5L» 



1 78 Meaning and Message oj the Traditions Part III 

warn ila-a ma shi-ata min 



) I 3s c 3 \ 3 s s s s 3 3s 



shaiyyan b 'adit ". 

(O Allah! Praise is for You alone, such boundless praise as may 
cover the extensiveness of the heavens and the earth and fill all 
the empty space between them). 

After it, when the Prophet performed sajda, he used to say 
(placing his forehead on the ground): 

Alahumma laka sajad-tu wa ^jC," cjJL>w c3sl ! a lit 

amanlu wa laka aslamtu ' „ , , 

sajada waj-hiyya-Iillazi cU-Lrt 
khalaqa-hu wa sawwara-tuh 
wa s ha-qa s a m -' ahu w a 
basara-hu labarakal-allahu <*Sj£> a j^,'j &L^> 

ahsamtl khaliqeeti. 



0 ' s 'si s s f.\ ' 3 .f, s 3 s 

<jP J 0 JJ* J **** ^^^3 



\ 

(O Allah! 1 am prostrating myself for Your sake, and in Your 
presence, and I have believed in You, and I have placed myself 
in Your charge. My face is carrying out genuflexion before the 
Creator who create it, and gave it its shape, and its ears, and its 
eyes out of nothing. Blessed, indeed, is the Best of Creators). 

In the end, between At-lahiyyaatu^ and Salutation 2 , hewouldpray: 

Allaahuhhaghfirli ma ^ *fc 
qaddamtu wa ma akhkhartu wa ' ' tf 

ma a'alantu wa ma asraftu wa C~dpl Uj CJjjlA Uj O j>-\ 
ma asrartit wa ma anta 
a' a I a m u b i h i m inn i 



<b CJl Uj C*3 Uj 

antal-muqadimii wa aula! Ai\*i CJlj ^<XaH\ CJl 

muwakhkhiru la ilaaha ilia 



anta. 



(O Allah! Forgive me all the sins I have committed earlier or 
later, and secretly or openly and whatever inequity I have been 
guilty of, and of which. You are better informed than me. You 
are the one Who raises to higer ranks and reduces to lower 
positions. Verily, there is no deity save You)." (Muslimj 

Commentary: From the narratives relating to the Prayer of the 
Prophet Hi it is clear that it was not the Prophet's iH regular 

O. Also known as Tashahhud. It is recited during the Qa'dah. 
©. Finishing salute, first to the right, then to the left. 



Book of Prayers 



179 



practice to recite the supplications mentioned by Sayyidin Ali 4^ 
in Fard prayers. Perhaps, he did so occasionally, and. most 
probably, in Tahajjud. In fact, Imam Muslim has quoted this 
Tradition in connection with the Traditions appertaining to 
Tahajjud. 

Many other supplications were, also, made. by the sacred 
Prophet in prayer, particularly in Tahajjud which will be taken 
up at the appropriate time. These possess a special significance and 
are charged with rare feeling. The Imam can read them in Fard 
prayers as well if he is satisfied that it will not be hard with the 
Mnqladis, and, as far as supererogatory services are concerned, 
there is no reason why one should not avail oneself of this 
marvellous bequest. 

Recital of Qur'an in Namaz 

Like qayam, ruku and sujud, recital of the Qur'an, also, is a 
principal part of prayer, and it is done during qayam. It is common 
knowledge that after Takbir some prayers in the nature of a hymn 
are recited. We have just mentioned two of them from the 
Traditions. It is followed by the recital of the first Surah or opening 
Chapter of the Qur'an, i.e., Surah al-Fatihah, which is a priceless 
gem of adoration and contains a most inspiring and comprehensive 
description of the Attributes of Allah. Along with the rejection and 
repudiation of every form of polytheism there is, in it, an emphatic 
affirmation of Divine Oneness and towards Faith and the Shari'ah. 
Anyhow, first of all, this surah is recited without which there can 
be no prayer. After it, the worshipper is required to recite any other 
surah or a part of it. Whatever passage of the Qur'an he recites will, 
invariably, impart a message of guidance to him. Either it will be 
by way of glorification of the Lord and exposition of His 
Immaculate Attributes or dealing with the Last Day, Heaven and 
Hell, and Divine reward and punishment or conveying a command 
for practical life or narrating an event that has a religious or moral 
significance. It will, thus, be a ready answer to the worshipper's 
entreaty for guidance. In the second rak'al, too, any other surah or 
some verses of it will be recited after sura al-Fatihah but if the 
service consists of three or four rak'at, surah al-Fatihah will, of 



180 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



course, be recited in the third and fourth rak'at, but it is not 
necessary to recite some other surah with it. 
Now, the Traditions. 

&s> aUs ^jjfi *iS\ Sj^'j ^ " 6 jij^ y* ' ? ^y?- ' y** 

(583/1 1 1) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4^> that the Messenger 
of Allah lH said: "There can be no prayer without the recital of 
the Qur'an." proceeding, Abu Hurayrah remarks on his own, 
"We recited the Qur'an with a loud voice in the prayer in which 
the Prophet iH> recited it with a loud voice and silently in the 
prayers in which the Prophet recited it silently." (Muslim) 

Commentary: This haidth tells us that recitalis part of the prayers. 
Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah has said that they used to recited 
audibly in prayers in which the Porphet ^ recite audibly, but when 
he recited inaudibly, they too recited with out being heard. 

(584/1 12) It is recited by Ubadah bin Sam it that the Messenger 
of Allah HH said: "Whoever did not recite sruah al-Fatihah in 
prayers did not offer prayers at all." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

In another version of the above Tradition, quoted in Sahih 
Muslim, it is stated that "Whoever did not recite surah 
al-Faithah and something else after it did not offer prayer at 
all." 

Commentary: It shows that while surah al-Fatihah is an essential 
constituent of prayers it is, also, necessary to recite something else 
from the Qur'an after it, although one is- at liberty to make one's 
choice. 



Book of Prayers 



181 



Rulings of Legist-Doctors on The 
Question of Recital of Al-Fatihah 

Imam Shafa'i and some other leading legist-doctors have 
inferred from the foregoing and a few other similar Traditions that 
it is obligatory to recite surah al-Fatihah in prayer whether one is 
offering it alone or in congregation, leading the congregation or 
participating in it as a Muqtadi, and offering an audiable prayer or 
an inaudiable. Imam Maalik and Imam Ahmad Hanbal, and other 
Scholars on the other hand, hold that if the worshipper be a 
Muqtadi and prayer is an audiable one, the recital of surah 
al-Faithah by the Imam will suffice for the Muqtadis. In that case, 
the Muqtadi should abstain from reciting it. But in all other 
circumstances one must recite surah al-Falihah in prayers. The 
same view is supported by Imam Abu Hanifah who, further, 
believes that the recital by the Imam will do for the Muqtadis as 
well in Rak'ats that are offered silently. 

Below we shall consider one of the sayings that have led these 
doctors to conclude as above. 

[3 X ^ ~M > f j s s ' s s j s ^ 

^Lij <dJl J^fi 4AJl J^ij JtS J IS 6y_jJt ^jl (oAo/\ W) 



(585/1 13) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4fe> that the Messenger 
of Allah jUl said: "The Imam has been appointed for on other 
reason than that the Muqtadis follow him. Thus, say AUahu 
Akbar when the Imam says AUahu Akbar, and listen in silence 
when he is engaged in recitation." 

(Abu Dawood, Nasai and Ibn Majah) 



Commentary: Some other Companions >|fe. too, have related, 
excatly in the same words, the advice of the Prophet %° about 
listening quietly when the Imam is engaged in recitation. For 
instance, in the course of a long Tradition, quoted in Sahih Muslim, 
on the authority of Abu Musa Ash'ari 4^&, the afore-mentioned 
instruction is given in identical words. The Prophet's H> 
exhortation, evidently, is based upon the Qur'anic injuction. 




182 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



When the Qur'an is recited, <t .>> ' > .< ;\'-u - s ivi-» 
give ear to it and pay heed (in J ' 

silence) that ye may obtain " Ijs-^jlj 

mercy. (Al-A'raf7:204) (Y . t :V . w*l y-'tfi) 

Imam Abu Hanifah's view that even in prayer which is offered 
silently recitation by the Imam will suffice for the Muqtadis is 
derived from Sayyidina Jabir's 4|b narrative mentioned, in their 
compilations, by Imam Muhammad, Imam Tahaawi and Imam Dar 
Qutni, on the authority of Imam Abu Hanifah himself. The report 
cited in Imam Muhammad's Muwatta reads: 

It is related by Jabir bin Abdullah that the Messenger of 
Allah lH said: 'Whoever offers prayers behind the Imam, the 
Imam's recitation is his own as well." 

Note: The issue whether the Muqtadi should recite surah 
al-Fatihah behind the Imam or not has been the subject of a 
vehement controversy. And during the present century and 
hundreds of books have been written on it from both sides. But to 
go over the discussion here will not only be redundant, but can, 
also, be dangerous, in some ways, for the classes and the purpose 
for which Ma'arif ul-Hadith x is being written. The proper attitdue 
to adopt in such disputes is to think highly of all jurists-doctors, to 
have faith in their sincerity and to believe that whatever 
conclusions they have arrived at, in the light of the Qur'an and the 
Simnah and the conduct of the companions are in good faith 
and none of them is guilty of falsehood or distortion. It is not, at 
all. opposed or antihetcal to aligning oneself with a particular 
school of jurisprudence. The path of justice and moderation 
pursued by Shah Waliullah <ul* iiii l^>-j in Hitjjatullah-il-Baligha is, 
in our view, the best and the wisest course in the current 
circumstances through which unity can be borught back into the 
disintegrated ranks of the Mulims. 



O. The name of this book in Urdu. 



Book of Prayers 



183 



Recital of The Qur'an by The 
Prophet HI During Fajr 

((^ a, Jj) 

(586/1 14) jabir bin Samurah narrated that the Messenger of 
Allah recited surah Qaaj and other .swra/7 like it in the 7v//> 
prayers, and, later on, his prayers used to be light. (Muslim) 

Commentary: Commentators have interpreted the concluding part 
of the above Tradition in two ways: One that the Prophet's xl§l 
prayers after the Fajr service, i.e., those of Zuhr, Asr, Maghrib and 
Isha used to be lighter, and in the other recited less of the Qur'an as 
compared to Fajr, and the other that the Prophet's iH prayers were 
usually long in the earlier days of Islam when the Companions 
were few in number and those who formed the congregation 
behind him were Muslims of the highest calibre, but later when the 
number of worshippers had increased and they included Believers 
of the second and third grades as well, the Prophet ill began to 
offer comparatively shorter prayers as the more worshippers, the 
greater was the possibility of there being among them some weak, 
sick and faint-hearted people for whom long prayers could be 
tiresome. 

Both the interpretations are correct from the factual point of 
view, but, to us, the latter appears to be more convincing. 

s. jh j»jLo j <LX£ All I { J~p {S j3\ £-4-^ 4jI <_-J.y- ,jJ J y*S* j£ (o AA/ ^ \ ») 

(587/1 15) It is related on the authority of 'Amr bin Hurayth that 
he heard the Messenger of Allah reciting Wal-leyl-i-Iza-'as-'as 
(i.e., Surah al-Tahvir) in the Fajr prayers. (Muslim) 

(^jjlA j y> j5"i t\pr ^jlajaSS ^^"" '^ *^*J ^i « /i3 l p^*>J 



184 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



(588/1 16) Sayyidina Abdullah bin Sa'b 4& said that the 
Messenger of Allah led us in prayer in Makkah and began 
with the surah Al-Mu'mimtn but when he had come to the 
reference of the Sayyidina Musa and Harun f»*>*-Ji u^JU, or to the 
reference of Sayyidina lsa $sSL a cough got the better of him, 
and he (stopped and) went into the ruku'. (Muslim) 

J\'} ji-j &*%\ Jjp ill Sjl>j l\ JlS iy_jA ^ 'J- (oAVUV) 

(589/1 17) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger 
of Allah all recited in both raka'at of Fajr the surah Qui ya ayyu 
hal kafirun (Al-Kafinm) and Qui hit wa Allahu ahad {Al-Ikhlas). 

(Muslim) 

Ai\ t'jJA kl&r Ci\ is^ S ^ J ^' & J* ( o£ \ '/^ ^ A) 

(590/1 18) Mu'z bin Abdulalh al-Juhani related that a member of 
the tribe of Juha 1 na told him that once he heard the Messenger 
of Allah iH recite, Izct zulzilat in both the rak'at of Fajr (The 
narrator, then, added that) he did not know whether the Prophet 
Hi had forgotten or did it delibertely. (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: The usual practice of the Prophet was to recite 
different surah in the two rak'at of a prayer. So, when he, once, 
recited the surah of Iza zulzilat in both the rak'at the Companion 
on whose authority the above Tradition has been related, felt 
uncertain if the Prophet Hi had done so unintentionally or 
intentionally in order to indicate that it, too, was permissible. 

U jl tt'jZ* ji ^ ^1 j £1) Jjii &b & 'jJjS yt«iJ> ^3 j)% 

(591/119) Ibn 'Abbas related that the Messenger of Allah S 
used to recite the verses, Qooloo aamanna hillahi wa ma unzila 
ilaina of Surah Al Baqura, and the verses, Qui yaa ahl 



Book of Prayers 



185 



al-kitaabi ta'alaw ilaa kalimatin Sawaa-in bain-nana wa 

bainakum of Surah Aal-Imran (respectively) in the two 

Rak'at of Fajr. (Muslim) 

\±*r U# Ojjj ^ • cr" 1 ^' 4^ ^J* 1 cP) 'li^ 1 ^J* 1 J* 
^ c*iJi ^ Uls t/bU ^4-^' * Jj*? -£~~c& 9j^4 J J* 

(^L-Jl j ijti ^jI j .U?-l slj_j) . cJlj Ql£ Jl3 

(592/120) It is related by Uqba bin 'Aamir 4» "In a journey 1 
was going along on foot, holding the reins of the Prophet's Hi 
camel in my hand. During the journey, the Prophet said to 
me: 'Uqba, may I teach you two of the best surah of the Qur'an?' 
And, he taught (me) the Surah Qui 'aoozu be rabbi] falaqa, and 
Qui 'aoozu be rabbin naas. He, then, felt that I had not been 
very happy with the choice of the two Surah. So, when the 
Prophet dismounted for the Fajr prayers, he led the prayers 
by reciting both the Surah. At the end of the prayers, he turned 
towards me and said: 'Uqbal What did you see and how did you 
feel?" (Musnad Ahmad, Abu Dawood and Nasai) 

J> 'ji'jjbj JU> Jli i'J(jk 'J> Y \ ) 

(593/121) It is related on the authority of Abu Hurayrah 4& that 

the Messenger of Allah used to recite Alif laum mim tanzil 

(i.e., the Surah As-sajda) in the first rak'at of Fajr, and Halata al 

alinsan (i.e., Surah Ad-Dahr) in the second rak'at. 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: All the reports concerning the recital of the Qur'an 
by the holy Prophet iH in Fajr show that, generally, it used to be 
longer than in the other services, but, sometimes, he, also, recited 
the shorter surah like Qui 'aoozu he rabbit 1 falaq and Qui 'aoozu be 
rabbin naas (probably owing to a special reason). It is, again, 
related that though the customary practice of the Prophet $H was to 



186 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



recite full Surah in a prayer, occasionally, he recited only a few 
verses from a surah. Similarly, at certain times, he recited the same 
surah in both the rak'at. 

Dewelling upon the significance of the recitation of the surah 
of Aliflaam mim tanzilas-saj da and Ad-Dahr in the Fajr prayer on 
Fridays, Shah Walliullah *JU- <&i remarks that "in both of them 
the events of he Last Day and Final Requital have been described 
most vividly, and, as it appears from the Traditions that the Hour 
(of Doom) is going to be on a Friday, the Prophet Hi preferred to 
recite them in the Fajr on that day, perhaps with the object of 
putting the people in mind of the Resurrection and Final 
Judgement. But Allah knows best. 

During Zuhr And Asr 

J> \ ju ^L>j i£s.%\ JU> 5lT Jli 5SlJ ^\ (a <\ £/\ Y Y) 

(j»JLw« j is jlsiJl olj j) . ^l-^l ^ lJL£ftj ^t^mJI J> 1JlSj»j iLJliJl 4*Tyt 

(594/122) It is related by Abu Qatadah 4fe> that the Messenger 
of Allah lH used to recite Surah al-Fatehah, and, besides it, 
two other surah in the first two rak'at of Zuhr, and surah 
al-Fatihah alone in its last two Rak'at and, sometimes, (in the 
Rak'at that are offered quietly) he recited one or two verses 
audibly that we could hear it, and, in the first Rak'at, he made a 
long recital, and, in the second raj 'at, he did not make it so long. 
And the same was his practice for the Asr and Fajr prayers. 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: It shows that, occasionally, in rak'at that are to be 
offered in silence, the Prophet iil recited a few verses with such a 
loud voice that those offering the prayers behind him heard it. 
Commentators have remarked that it could be due to excessive 
absorption in prayers. And it was, also, possible that, sometimes, 
he did it intentionally so that people knew what he was reciting or 
he wanted to demonstrate by his action that it was quite legitimate . 
if one or two verses were recited so loudly in rak'at that were to be 



Book of Prayers 



187 



offered silently that the Muqtadis could hear them and prayer did 
not suffer by reason of it. 

J> \yu j^Lj <ds>%\ jLp -jg JlS iji^ J> y^r 'jt> (o <\ o/ \y V) 

(595/123) It is related by Jabir bin Samurah 4fe that the Prophet 
li§l used to recite the surah Wal-Iayl iza yaghsha in Zuhr 
prayers. In another report it is stated that he recited the surah of 
Subbi hisma rahbika- a'ala. And a surah of almost an equal 
length in Asr prayers and a little longer one in Fajr prayers. 

(Muslim) 

During The Maghrib 

(596/124) It is related on the authority of Abdullah bin Utbah 
that the Messenger of Allah ill recited the Surah Ha- Mini 
ad-Dukha in Maghrib prayers. (Nasasi) 

(597/125) It is related by J u bay r bin Mut'im 4& "I have heard 
the Messenger of Allah Hi recite the Surah Al-Tur in Maghrib 
prayers. (Bukhari and Muslim) 

^J*p aUI J j— > j CjU-j cJlS OjU*Jl C^j J-ia^' ^ J* (MA/HI) 

(598/126) It is reported by Umm al-Fadl bin Al-Harith i^iii^ 
that she heard the Messenger of Allah iH> recite the .vz/ra/? uy// 
mursalali 'urfan in Maghrib prayers. 

tLXs- <UJi ^jU? 4JLS1 Jj-jj 0! (°WUV) 



188 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



(599/127) It is related by Sayyidah Ayshah if* k that the 
Messenger of Allah l§l recited the whole of the Surah Al-A'raf 
in the Maghrib prayers by dividing it between two rak'at .(Nasa\) 

Commentary: None of the surah mentioned in the above 
Traditions is among the shorter ones which, in the Islamic 
terminology, are called Qisar. On the contrary, all of them belong 
to the category of longer surah, called Itwaf and Surah Al-A'raf 
which has been mentioned in Sayyidah Ayshah's if* in 
narrative, is, in fact, spread over one and a quarter Juz ] of the 
Qur'an. In all the four Traditions, however, it is stated that the 
Prophet Hi recited the longer surah in the Maghrib prayers while 
from some of the Traditions, given below, we learn that his normal 
practice was to recite the shorter surahs in that prayers. Most of the 
authorities, however, are of the opinion that the facts appertaining 
to Maghrib prayer mentioned in the foreging narratives, showing 
that the Prophet £H> recited the longer surah, are merely incidental 
while, as a rule, he recited the shorter surah. This view is also 
supported by the letter writen by Sayyidina Umar to Abu Musa 
Al-Ash'ari 4$e> which we shall take up later. 

During 'Isha 

J> VjHj pL>j ills- %\ J~t> cJl^» Jl! frljJl (1 . . A YA) 

(600/128) It is related by Sayyidina Bara' 4#b " I heard the 
Messengr of Allah Hi recite the Surah Wat-teen-i-waz-zailoon 
in 'Isha prayers and I have never heard anyone possessing a 
better voice (than him)." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: From some reports quoted, again, in Sahih Bukhari 
and Sahih Muslim it appears that the event referred to in this 
Tradition took place in the course of a journey and the Prophet Hi 
had recited the surah Wat-teen in one of the rak'ats of the Maghrib 
prayers during it. 

O. One of the division of the Qur'an 30 Juz (parts). 



Book of Prayers 



189 



fll^-j ^JJfi pi ^JLli Jjtj <3^?t}li ?y^J' (*4^ ^*J* is 5 ' P 

4JJ1 JU Jji J j-V, Vj Aij Vjis cii ui ijiia kJ^Jij 

J Us iUi j^Ip ^JLoj <uAp <UJt t _ s JL> flit J ^3 cP 1 * < 

f^liii 13} J-&'j <t^*-^'j <i$*-i>j j-^-iJij tjij ? cji jlaii U 

(601/129) Sayyidina Jabir 4fe> said that Sayyidina Mu'az bin 
Jabal 4fe> used to pray along with the Prophet H? then come and 
lead his people in prayer. One night he prayed the Isha prayer 
with him then came to his people and led them in prayer 
begining with (surah al-Fatihah followed by) al-Daqarah. A 
man turned aside pronouncing the salutation, and prayed his 
individual prayer and departed. (Since it was novel to shun the 
congregation) the people said to him, "Have you become a 
hypocrite?" He replied, "1 swear by Allah that 1 have not, but 1 
shall certainly go to the Messenger of Allah OOfa and tell him." 
So he went to him and said, "Messenger of Allah x§l, we look 
after camels used for watering and work by day. After having 
offered the lsha prayer with you, Mu'az <$b came and began 
with surah AI-Baqarah (as he led us in prayer). The Messenger 
of Allah then approached Mu'az 4^s> and said, "Are you a 
troubler, Mu'az?" Recite, Wash shamsi wa duhaha, the surah 
Ad-Duha, Al-Layl iza yaghsha and Sabbihisma rabbika 
al-a'ala." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: It seems that Sayyidina Mu'az 4fe offered the lsha 
prayers twice with the Prophet ill and as Imam of his people. The 
ulama are agreed that one of these must have been an optional 
prayer. Imam Sahfa'i believes that he offered the prayer in the 
Masjid Nabawi as Fard while when he led his people, he formed 
an intention of an optional prayer. That is why, Imam Shafa'i holds 
that one may offer one's Fard prayer behind an Imam who prays 
the supererogatory prayer. However. Imam Abu Hanifa and Imam 
Malik hold that one cannot offer one's obligatory prayers behind an 
Imam who prays that optional prayer. They believe that he led his 



190 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



tribe in the Isha Fard prayers and formed his intention accordingly 
and since he was with the Prophet Hi at the time of Isha, he did 
not miss the opportunity of obtaining blessings of his prayers. He. 
therefore, offered his supererogatory prayers behind the Prophet &§l 
when he led the Fard Isha. A detailed discussion on this subject is 
found in Falh Al-bari, Umadah Al-Qari and Fath al-Mttlhim. 

Neverthless, the lesson the hadith offers is that the Imam 
should not lenghten his prayers to such an extent as to 
inconvenience the Muqtadi - the old and weak among them. 

During The Namaz of Different Hours 

^¥^3 Jsi-J*^ ^¥H3 '{ft ^j^ 1 J**£y\ Js^i d& 



the authority of Abu Hurayrah 4$sb, that he (i.e., Abu Hurayrah), 
(speaking of an Imam of his time), said: "I have never offered a 
prayer behind anyone which was more comparable to that of the 
Messenger of Allah s§l than the prayer offered behind him." 
Sulayman bin Yasaar added that I too, prayed behind that Imam. 
His usual practice was that he recited the longer surah in the 
first two and the shorter surah in the last two Rak'at of Zuhr, 
and kept the Asr light, and in Maghrib he recited Qisar 
Ms fassal,- and in 'Isha, An sat Mufassal, and, in Fajr, Tiwal 
Mufassal." (Nasai) 

Commentary: The term Mufassal is used to describe the Surah of 
the last ManziO of the Qur'an, i.e., from the surah al-Hujural up to 
the end. It has, further, been divided into three parts: The surah 
from al-Hujurat to at-Buruj are callaed Tiwal Mufassal, from 
al-Buruj up to al-Bayyinah are called Ausat Mufassal, and from 
al-Bayyinah till the end of the Qur'an are called Qisar Muffassal. 

Neither Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah nor Sulayman bin Yasaar 
O. The Qur'an is divided into seven Manzils, each beginning with a particular 




surah. 



Book of Prayers 



191 



has given the name of the Imam but it has no bearing on the 
substance of the report. What is material to our study is that the 
general practice of the Prophet ^ regarding recital in the five daily 
prayers was similar to what was done by the Imam, i.e., longer 
recitation in Zuhr, shorter in Asr, Qisar Mufassal in Maghrib, 
Ausat Mufassal in 'Is ha, and Tiwal Mufassal in Fajr. 

The Same advice is contained , . 

in Sayyidina Umar's 4s> letter £>' J^'j* J\ J** 

to Abu Musa al Ash'ari we j l^i i jt ^s, , tj i;\\ j tjii 

have just mentioned. It reads: ' \ 

"Recite Qisar Mufassal in J J-^iJ 1 J^>j* 

^.sa/ Mufassal in '„ . ^j , , ru ^ j 

/sAfl and 77uy// Mufassal in «J J^^r*" irf 

Fq/'r. (Nasb-ur-Rayah). ^°'^ S s ~" r '} 

Alluding to this letter, Imam Tirmizi has, also, mentioned the 
advice about the recitation of Ausat Mufassal in the Zuhr prayers. 

Evidently, Sayyidina Umar 4fe would have given the advice 
only when he had been led to it by the vocal or practical guidance 
of the Prophet ill. Most of the authorities have, as such, held the 
letter of Sayyidina Umar 4^e> to be the main guiding factor 
regarding the length of the recital in the various obligatory services 
and the conduct forming to it as most comendable. 

During The Friday Prayers 
And The Two 'Id Prayers 

, , ,> - , , , * ^ j_ _ < _ _ _ ,i « _ 

(603/131) Ubaydullah bin Abu Rafi' (son of the Prophet's H 
well-known attendent, Abu Rafi' 4^&) narrated to us that 
Marwan, (when he was Amir Mu'awiya's Governer in Madman), 
went to Makkah (for some reason) and appointed Abu Hurayrah 
to officiate (during his absence). So, Abu Hurayrah led the 
Friday Prayers, and, he recited Surah al-Jumu'a in the first and 
Surah al-Munafiqoon in the second rak'at, and remarked: "I 



192 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



have heard the Messenger of Allah §§l recite the two surah on 
Fridays." (Muslim) 

(604/1 32) Nu'man bin Bashir 4ei> narrated that the Messenger of 



Allah sH used to recite Sabbi-his-ma rabbikal a'ala and Hal 
ata -ka hadeethul ghashiyah in the two Eids and Fridays, and if 
the 'Id occurred on a Friday, he recited the two surah in Eid and 
Friday prayers. (Muslim) 

jlTU Jit j \j\ jL> olk*jl ^ ^ 4^4^* ^ (1 • °l \ VT) 
l^aj Jlfli jkiJlj ^^w?^! "Sit ^jJUtf <3>l J <U 

(605/133) It is related on the authority of Ubaidullah bin Utbah, 
(the nephew of Abdullah bin Mas'ud 4|e>) that Ulnar bin Khattab 
(once) enquired from Abu Waqid al-Laythe what the Messenger 
of Allah HI 1 used to recite in the Eidul Adha and Eidul Fitr? ] 
Abu Waqid replied" He recited Qafwal Quran-ul- majeed and 
Iqatara-ba-tis sa'ah in both of them." (Muslim) 

Commentary: From the above Traditions we learn that the 
Prophet %° habitually recited the Surah al-Juma and 
al-Munaftqoon or al- A'ala and al Ghashiyah in the two ra'kat of 
the Friday. 

In the two Eids, he either recited the Surah A'ala and 
al-Ghashiyah or of Qaff wal Quran-ul-majeed and Iqalara talis 
sa'ah. 

We conclude from the Traditions concerning the recitation of 

Qur'an in the five daily prayers and those of Friday and the two 

O. Some commentators have remarked the Sayyidina Umar's ^ ■*« * enquiry 
could, obviously, not have been due to ignorance or failure of memory. It is 
hard to imagine such a thing about him. What is more plausible is that either 
he wanted to test the range of information and memeory of Abu Waqid or to 
let others hear it from him or to seek the comfonnation of his own knowledge. 



Book of Prayers 



193 



'Ids, discussed above, that: 

(i) The general practice of the Prophet £H was that he made 
long recitals in Fajr, and mostly recited Tiwal Mufassal, 
and in Zuhr, too, made fairly long rectials, and Asr and 
Maghrib, he kept light, and in Isha he preferred to recite 
Ausat Mufassal. But, occasionally, he departed from the 
practice. 

(ii) The Prophet ill neither commanded his followers to recite a 
particular surah in a prayer nor did he set aside any surah 
for a prayer. It is, however, clear that, generally, the Prophet 
ill liked to recite certain surah in certain prayers. 

Remarks Shah Walliullah Up i»t y. 
"The Prophet iil preffered to 

recite some particular Surah in 4)1 ^J^e «3il Jj-'J J^ - ' Aij 

some prayers, but he neither . 

determined them positively nor < ^ 9 * 4 r ^ * 

enjoined upon others to follow ^ ^ jji^a] .-iijl r \\ jpju 

it as a rule. Thus, if anyone 

emulates his example, and, ^ o** v_~lt> *ij 
usually, recites those verses in W *i & *9*\ JLaS 

the prayers, it is good, and ^ 

whoever does not, there is no (t f -Uai*) "aaJM 1 *» i 

harm in it either." 1 



Aameen at The End of Surah al-Fatiha 

The first three verses of Sara/* al-Fatihah, which is uniformly 
recited in all the Rak'at of prayer, are devoted to praise and 
glorification of Allah, in the fourth, there is the affirmation of 
Divine Oneness, and the next three, with which the surah 
concludes, contain an earnest supplication to the Almighty to show 
the Straight Path, the the Path of Guidance. The sacred Prophet iH 
has taught that Aameen should be said at the end of surah 
al-Fatiha, and, further, that when the prayer is observed behind the 
Imam, in congregation, the Muqladis should, also, utter Aameen 
with the Imam at the completion of the surah. He has informed that 
the angels, too, say Aameen at that time. 



O. Hujjat, Vol ii. 



194 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



lit pLj aOp aJJi JU 4)t J)^3 JlS Jli 5j£i ^ jp (n . nAri) 

(606/134) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4& that the Messenger 
of Allah iH said: "When the Imam says Aameen (at the end of 
al-Ftiha), you, the Muqtadis, should, also, say Aameen. 
His previous sins will be forgiven whose Aameen conicides 
with the Aameen of the Angels." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: Various interpretations have been offered of 
anyone's Aameen synchronizing with the Aameen of the angels. 
The most convicing of them, however is that it denotes the 
Aameen that is said with the Aameen of angels, niehter earlier nor 
later. And the time of the angels' Aameen is when the Imam 
pronounces it. The Prophet's HH observaton would, thus, mean that 
the Muqtadis should say Aameen when the Imam says it at the 
conclusion of Surah al-Fatiha for the angels utter Aameen at that 
very time. The decision of Allah is that all previous sins of the 
bondsman will be forgiven who says Aameen with the angels. 

dp JU Jji ji jis Cs ^ o* O • v/^ro) 

\i\ j ij'j&i f^JsJ ft ^ j^ 9 1 (iss^ (*J-»J 

(j^JL^a el j j) /.Oil (»i^>4 ^1 1 fjjaS j^UallVj (tgl^ cJj-4*«Jl j^p JlS 

(607/135) It is related by Abu Musa al-Ash'ari 4fe> that the 
Messenger of Allah said: "When you begin to offer prayers, 
first correct your rows and make them straight; one of you 
should become the Imam. When the Imam says Takbir, you too 
say it and when he recites Ghairil Maghdoobi 'alaihim 
wa-lad-dhalleen (i.e., the last verse of surah al-Fatiha, say 
Aameen (if you will do so) Allah will grant your supplication 
for guidance made in Surah al-Fatiha." (Mulsim) 

Commentary: Aameen, in fact, is an earnest request for the 
acceptance of the supplication and an admission of the truth, on the 
part of the bondsman, that he has no claim upon Allah for his 
petition to be granted. By saying Aameen after the supplications he 
beseeches Allah humbly to allow his entreaty and fulfil his need by 
His grace. 



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It is reported in Sunnan Abu Dawood, on the authority of Abu 
Zubair Numeiri "One night when we were going with the 
Prophet iH we passed by a man who was supplicating to with 
profound earnestness and absorption. The Prophet iH (on seeing 
him) remarked, 'If he set the seal on his supplication, it will, surely, 
be accepted.' 'The seal of what?' enquired one of the Companions 
4^>. 'The seal of Aameen 1 , replied the Prophet Hi. 

It shows that the pronunciation of Aameen after supplication 
one of the things that can be looked forward to for enhancing the 
prospects of its acceptance. 

Should 'Aameen' Be Said With 
A Loud Voice or In Silence? 

It has needlessly been disputed whether Aameen should be said 
aloud after Al-Fatihah or in silence. Reports of both the ways of 
uttering it are found in the authentic compilations of the Traditions. 
It is, also, incontrovertible that among the Companions cHfe> and the 
Taba'een there were some who said it with a loud voice and some 
who said it silently. This, in itself, shows that both the methods are 
confirmed by the practice of the sacred Prophet Wi and were freely 
acted upon in his time. It could not be that Aameen was never said 
aloud during the lifetime of the Prophet Hi and some Companions 



<%> took it upon themselves to do so after his death. Likewise, it is 
inconceivable that the utterance of Aameen in silence was, at no 
tme, acted upon during the days of the Prophet Hi and yet some 
Companions 4fe started doing so when he had passed away. 

Be that as it may, both the methods were in vogue during the 
Prophet's Hi time. Later, some authorities concluded, on the basis 
of their knowledge and research, that the correct position was that 
Aameen was said loud enough to be heard by the other participants 
and it was what was mostly practised during the Prophet's lifetime 
although, occasionally, it was, also, uttered in silence. Hence, while 
to say Aameen silently was premissible, it was better and more 
commendable that it was said loudly. On the contrary, other 
concluded that Aameen, which is not mentioned in the Qur'an, 
ought to be said in silence and so was it done, generally, in the 
O. Meaning "let it be so," "accept our supplication". 



1 96 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part HI 

days of the Prophet Hi though, sometimes, it was also said with a 
loud voice, and, hence, it was preferable to utter it in silence, but to 
pronounce it loudly, too, was allowable. The difference among the 
legists, therefore, is only over the state of being superior and no 
one has challenged the legitimateness either of the two methods. 

Rafa ' Yadayn (Raisin Hands) 

Indentical is the case with Rafa' Yadayn i.e., the raising of 
hands upto the ears in prayer. It is established beyond doubt that 
the Prophet H did it, not only at the time of saying Takbir 
Tahrima but, also, at bending low for ruku, at rising up from it, 
from sajda, and at standing up for the third rak'at. We learn it on 
the authority of a number of holy Companions like Abdullah 
bin Umar tj&>, Wail bin Hujr and Abu Hamayd Sa'idi At the 
sametime, it is, also, known for certain that the Prophet f& off, ed 
prayer by carrying out Rafa' Yadayn merely at the time of Takbir 
Tahrima and on no other occasion during the whole prayers as 
Abdullah bin Masud <S&>, Bara bin Aazib 4^> and many other 
Companions c^> tell. Both the procedures, were current among the 
Companions cj&> as well as the Tabe'een. The difference among the 
legist-doctors, in this regard, also, is, thus, of choice and preference 
otherwise there is no question regarding the legality of the one or 
the other method. 

(608/136) Abdullah bin Umar 4^> narrates that when the 
Messenger of Allah iH> commenced the prayers, he raised both 
the hands up to the shoulders (as he said Takbir Tahrima), and, 
(also), at the time of saying Takbir for bowing low for ruku, 
and, in the smae way, when he rose from ruku, he, also raised 
both the hands like that, and siad: sami Allahu liman hamidah, 
but he did not do so in Sajdah. (Bukhri and Muslim) 



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197 



Commentary: In this narrative of Sayyidina Abdullah bin Umar 
the raising of hands is mentioned only at the time of bowing 
down for ruku and rising from it, in addition, of course, to takbir 
tahrima, and it is distinctly stated that the Prophet lH did not do so 
in sajdah. But from some of his other reports, quoted, again in 
Bukhari, we learn that the Prophet H, also, raised his hands while 
rising up for the third rak'at. And in the narratives of Maalik bin 
al-Huwayritha and Wa'-il bin Hujr, cited by Imam Nasai and Imam 
Abu Dawood, the raising of hands at the time of sajdah, as well, is 
mentioned which has been speciafically denied by Abdullah bin 
Umar 

In truth, each of these reports in correct, and conformity 
between the statement of Maalik bin Al-uwayrith and Wa'-il bin 
Hujr that the Prophet carried out Rafa' Yadayn at the time of 
kneeling down for sajdah and rising up from it and that of 
Abdullah bin Umar that he refrained from it in sajdah can be 
obtained by concluding that the Prophet JH did so only 
occasionally which was seen by Maalik bin al-Huwayrith and 
Wa'-il bin Hujr but, by chance, Abdullah bin Umar 4^> did not see 
the Prophet iH carrying it out, and, therefore, he repudiated it on 
the strength of his knowledge. Had the Prophet H been 
performing it always or frequently, a Companion of the stature 
of Abdullah bin Umar 4&> could not remain unware. 

s jL^> fit JS\ *f\ >'jLJ> *J>\ uJ jil jil iaip 'J> ( 1.1/ \ r y> 

(609/137) It is related by 'Alqamah, the favourite pupil of 
Abdullah bin Masud 4^>, "Once Ibn Ma'sud 4^ said to us: 'Let 
me show you how the Prophet £H prayed.' On saying it, he led 
the service in which he performed Rafa' Yadayn only once 
(which Takbir Tahrima) (and) did not perform it again, at all." 

(Tirmizi, Abu Dawood and Nasai) 

Commentary: Sayyidina Abdullah bin Mas'ud was one of the 
celeberted Companions cjfe> who had been specially instructed by 
the Prophet lH to stand close to him, in the fron row, in prayers. In 
order to teach his pupils how the Prophet iH offered prayers he led 



198 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



the prayers, and, he raised the hands upto the ears only once, i.e., at 
the time of takbir tahrima. 

It will now be admitted, on the basis of the above Tradition, 
that what Abdullah bin Umar and other have said about the 
carrying out of Rafa' Yadayn while bowing down of ruku and 
rising from it, also was not the usual practice of the Prophet Hi or 
else Abdullah bin Mas'ud 4^e> who used to stand near him in prayer 
must have known it, and, he would not, in any case, have omitted it 
when he was demonstrating to his pupils the Prophet's 
characteristic way of offering prayer. 

Taking all the reports together, it should not be difficult to 
conclude that the holy Prophet observed Raja' Yadayn in prayer 
as well as he did not. Sometimes, he raised the hands up to the ears 
only at the time of takbir tahrima, and, sometimes, while bowing 
down for ruku and raising from it as well, and, on a few occasions, 
it, also, happened that he did so as he knelt down for sajdah and 
rose from it. 

From their repeated observation and experience, Companions 
like Abdullah bin Mas'ud 4fe felt that the omission of Raja' 
Yadayn was the rule in prayers while those like Abdullah bin Umar 
4fe> thought that its observance was the right thing. The same 
divergence persisted in the views of Taba'een and the latter days 
theologists. 

Imam Tirmizi, after reproducing the aformentioned narrative of 
Abdullah bin Umar 4fe and pointing out that such-and-suh other 
Companions 4g> have related in the same vein, observes that "some 
Companions 4s> of the Prophet, as for instance, Abdullah bin Umar 
4#b, Jabir 4|&, Abu Hurayrah 4|& and Anas 4^> have adopted Raja' 
Yadayn, and, similarly, such-and-such among the taba'een and 
latter-day legists, too, consider it correct." 

Proceeding, he quotes the narrative of Ibn Mas'ud 4§& showing 
the omission of Rafa' Yadayn and another identical Tradition 
related by Bara' bin 'Aazib 4fe and remarks that "a number of 
Companions have decided in favour of the omission of Rafa' 
Yadayn, and, similarly, such-and-such of the Taba'een and 
latter-day legists, too, consider it to be correct." 

In sum, like the pronouncing of Aameen loudly or in silence, 



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199 



both the raising of hands up to the ears and its omission are 
established by the practice of the sacred Prophet s§l. The variance 
of preference among he Companions c$j$> arose because by their 
intution and understanding and study and observation of the settled 
behaviour of the Prophet $H some of them felt that the omission of 
Rafa' Yadayn was the regular thing in prayer, and when Rafa' 
Yadayn had been carried out, it was only for a time — Companions 



tp> like Ibn Mas'ud 4#b were of that view and legist-doctors like 
Imam Abu Hanifah and Imam Sufyan Suri have decided in favour 
of it — while Companions cHfe> like Abdullah bin Umar 4^> and 
Jabir 4fe thought otherwise and by it, and the difference, again, was 
only overexcellence and perfection, otherwise the propriety and 
legitimateness of neither of the two acts, the carrying out of Rafa 
Yadayn and its omission, has not been changellenged by anyone. 



RUKU AND SUJUD 

Clearly, prayer signifies the expression of one's humbleness, by 
word and deed, body and soul before the Almighty, in a particular 
way. This is the essence of qiyam and q'ood, ruku and sujud. and 
all that is recited in them. Among the various postures of prayer, 
however, the foremost manifestations of submissiveness and 
himility are ruku and sujud. To keep the head high is a sign of 
vanity, and to keep it low is a sign of self-abasement. To bend it 
down before anyone in the form of ruku is an extraordinary gesture 
of reverential homage which is to be paid exclusively to Allah, and 
sajadah is its ultimate form. In sajadah. the bondsman places his 
forehead and nose on the ground which are the most honourable 
parts of the human body. Hence, sajadah and ruku form the most 
essential factors of prayer, and, owing to it, the sacred Prophet Hi 
has enjoined that these acts should be performed fittingly and in a 
becoming manner and exhorted us, through the spoken word as 
well as his own example, to exalt and glorify Allah and suppliate 
Him earnestly in these postures. 

Performance of Ruku And Sujud 

jlJlJ! j 2brU jjl j ^t-Jt j ij jb» yi\ j i jto y\ e\j j) 

(610/138) It is related by Abu Mas'iid Ansari 4#b that the 
Messenger of Allah III said: "A man's prayer does not become 
adequate (i.e., it remains faultly and imcomplete) until he 
straightens out his back in ruku and sajdah." 

(Abu Dawood, Tirmzi, Nasai, Ibn Majah, and Daarami) 



202 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 




(611/139) It is related by Talq bin Ali al-Hanafi 4fe> that the 
Messenger of Allah ill said: "The bondsman who does not 
straighten out his back in ruku and sajdah, Allah does not look 
at his prayer" (Abu Dawood, Tirmzi, Nasai, Ibn Majah, and Daarami) 

Commentary: The refusal of Allah to look at the prayer, as shown 
in this Tradition, denotes that such a prayer is not acceptable to 
Allah otherwise He sees everything and nothing in the heavens and 
the earth is hidden from His view. Both the sayings given above 
signify, in a nutshell, that the prayer of anyone who does not carry 
out ruku and sajda correctly shall not find accptance with Him. 



(612/140) It is related by Anas 4se> that the Messenger of Allah 
lH said: "Carry out sajdah with moderation and do not spread 
your arms, on the ground as a dog does." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: The doing of sajdah with moderation, apparently, 
means that it should be performed in a calm and tranquil manner, 
and not hurriedly. The other thing is that the wrists should be kept 
raised from the ground and the example of the dog is instended to 
bring home the unseemliness of spreading the arms while 
performing sajdah. 



(613/141) Sayyidina Bara bin Azib 4p has said that the 
Messenger of Allah life said: "When you postrate yourself, place 
the palms of your hands on the ground and raise your elbows." 





(Muslim) 



Book of Prayers 



203 



(614/142) Sayyidina Abdullah bin Malik Ibn Buhayana 4fe said 
that the when the Prophet W$ prostrated himself he spread out 
his arms so that the whiteness under his armpits was visible. 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

c: ^ g* Ji ^ ^ ^ 

^L>j iUi J^e> aii <Lj\j Jis yf^- ^ jit) (iio/ur) 

aI^Tj Jis ajJu t/ 2 ^ *d^d J3 •^ ,! -* ) ^ 

(A^-U jj! j ,^'L-Jl j t5 juo jjl j j jb ^j) el j 

(615/143) Sayyidina Wa'il bin Hujr said that he saw that 
when the Messenger of Allah $H prostrated himself he got 
down on his knees before putting his hands on the ground. And 
when he got up he raised his hands before his knees. 

(Abu Dawood, Tirmizi, Nasai, Ibn Majah.) 

&'ja\ iLj tin JU Jji jii jis ^iIp jjj (i \ i/ \ 1 1 > 

(j^L~» j ^5 jbUl el j j) . yLiJlj OQJl C*i& *ij 

(616/144) It is related by Abdullah bin Abbas 4& that the 
Messenger of Allah all said: "I have been commanded (i.e., God 
has commanded me) to perform sajdah on seven limbs (i.e. with 
all the seven limbs resting on the ground): both the feet, and, 
also, that we do not gather up our clothes and hair." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: The seven limbs described in it are known as the 
"limbs of sajdah". These should rest on the ground. Some people 
try to protect theirclothes and hair while performing sad/ah which 
is against its spirit, and, therefore, has been forbidden. 

What is To Be Recited in Ruku And Sajcla? 

Jll <p3vb\ cJo^ ciji itJ ja\* J{ X3t£> 'j£. 1*>) 

(^jljJl j ajtU jj! j i jb el j j) 



204 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



(617/145) Sayyidina Uqbah bin Aamir-4§s> has narrated that 
when Fa sabbih bismi rabbikal-azim was revealed, the 
Messenger of Allah ill said, "Let it be for your ruku." (He 
meant that we mut say in the bowing posture: Subhana 
rrabbiya-azim). Then when sabbiha ismi rabbik al-a'la was 
revealed, he said, "Let it be for your sajdah" (meaning that we 
should say in prostrtion: subhana rabbiy al-a'la). 

(Abu Dawood Ibn Majah, Darami) 

jlTj ^JLij ^Jt iS\ ^ (1 ^ A/ Si 1) 

(618/146) Sayyidina Huzayfah *sHk> has said that he prayed with 
the Prophet HH and he recited in ruku' (the bowing posture): 
subhana rabbiyal-azeem, and in sajdah (postration): subhana 
rabbiy al-a'al. (Nasai and Ibn Majah; and Tirmizi Abu dawood, 
Darami with additional narration.) 

JU* AlJl J}J-j jlfl JlS iji-li 4JJIJ4P ^ j}p ^P (l^/\iY) 

diS J) J> Jlil ^( lit Up ill! 

^ j tjbu-i 85 ^9 JU3 Jl*i~j blj olol L_5Jbj 4P jSj IJJUS Ol 

(619/147) It is related by 'Aun bin Abdullah, on the authority of 
Abdulah bin Mas'ud that the Messenger of Allah said: 
"When anyone says Subhaana rabbi-al Azeem (Glory to God, 
the Most Great) thrice in ruku, his ruku is completed, and it is 
of a low grade. In the same way, when anyone says Subhaana 
rabbi-al a'ala (Glory to God, the Most High) thrice in sajdah, 
his sajdah is completed, and it is of a low grade." 

(Tirmizi, Abu Dawood and Ibn-i-Maja) 

Commentary: It shows that if the Tasbih ] is said less than three 
times in ruku and sajdah, the ruku and sajdah will remain faulty to 
some extent. For complete fulfilment, it is necessary to say the 
Tasbih at least thrice, and, better still, more. But the Imam should 
O. Act of praising and glorifying Allah. 



Book of Prayers 



205 



take care not to prolong the ruku and sajdah to the extent of 
wearying the Muqtadis. It is related by Abu Dawood and Nasai, on 
the authority of Sa'eed bin Jubayr Taba'ee, that Sayyidina Anas 
once remarked about Sayyidina Umar bin Abdul Aziz 4|e> that this 
pryer was very much like that of the Prophet's Hi. Ibn Jubayr said 
that they then calculated that Umar bin Abdul Aziz rectied Tasbih 
ten times in ruku and sajdah. We, thus, know that the Messenger of 
Allah £H recited the Tasbih that many times, approximately, during 
the two acts. For anyone who leads the congregation, it will, as 
such, be appropriate that he recited Tasbih at least three and at the 
most ten times in ruku and sajdah. 

The above Tradition shows that the Prophet iH instructed his 
followers to recite Subhaana rabbi-al Azeem and Subhaana 
rabbi-al a'ala in ruku and sajdah, respectively, and such was, also, 
his own normal practice. But in other reports, some of which are 
given below, it is stated that he recited other formulas of prayer and 
glorification as well. 

(620/148) It is related by Sayyidah Ayshah 14* iiii that the 
Messenger of Allah £§? used to recite Subboohun Oudoosun 
rabbul malaikati warrooh (Most Holy and Most Sublime is the 
Lord of the angels and the spirit) in ruku and sadjah. (Muslim) 

As. '.on Jj> ^Ji 1^ cJts if* %\ {g&j ujip 'j. (*m/m) 

(621/149) Sayyidah Ayshah ^M^j has narrated that the 
Prophet £§l used to recited very much in ruku and sajdah: 
Subhaanaka al I ahumm a rabbana wa bi-hamdika, 
allahumma-ghfirlee (Glory be unto Thee, O Allah, our Lord! 
We celebrate Thy praise. O God! forgive me). (By reciting it) he 
acted up to the commandment of the Qur'an.(Bukhari and Muslim) 
Commentary: Its last sentence shows that the Prophet Ji§S> used to 
praise and glorify Allah and beg His forgiveness, also, through the 



206 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



words indicated in it, in ruku and sajdah, in obedience to the 
Divine Command contained in the Surah An-Nasr. 

Then hymn the praises of Your Lord, and sek forgiveness of 
Him. (Al-Nasrl 10:3) 

It is narrated also on her authority that after the revelation of 
the surah an-Nasr the Prophet Hi used frequently to recite 
comprehensive formulas of praise, glorification and repentance. 

^gj jAj A-iJLi ^kj ^^Jlp JjJj oJtd^S 4s-L«jJli l/ 1 '^' cT? (•^~ J J 

• si jj) i— Cm. a't ^^Lp c.i' l 

(622/150) Sayyidah Ayshah *>n has said that one night 
when she woke up she did not find the Messenger of Allah 
on his bed. When she looked for him (in the darkness) her hand 
came on the soles of his feet while he was in sajdah and he was 
saying: 

"O Allah! I seek refuge in Your good pleasure from Your anger, 
and in Your forgiveness from Your punishment and I seek 
refuge in You from Your wrath. I cannot reckon Your praise. 
You are as You have praised Yourself." (Muslim) 

A% &\ JU> ^\ jlT Jll &*%\ YySjk ^\ 'J. (n xr/ \.o \ ) 

6 jS^Vj MJjij AX^j ASS <U5 15^^' (HJ^' ^J*-^ \Jt Uj^i <T^3 



(623/151) Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Prophet ill also 
(occasionally) recited this supplication in sajdah; Allahumma 
ghfirli lhanbi kulahu wa jalahu wa Awalahu wa aakhiruhu, wa 
'alaniyatahu wa sirrahu (On God! Forgive me all my sins, 



Book of Prayers 



207 



major as well as minor, and earlier as well as later, and manifest 
as well as hidden). (Muslim) 

Commentary: On certain grounds, some authorities have 
expressed the view that the Prophet HI mostly used to recite these 
supplications in Tahajjud and other opptional prayers, but it is 
clear that, sometimes, he recited them, also, during the obligatory 
prayers. 

Those of us who appreciate the meaning of these supplications 
should, occasionally, recite these in ruku and sajdah, along with 
Tasbih, particularly during a optional prayers where one is free to 
devote as much time to ruku and sajdah as one likes. Of course, in 
an obligatory prayer the Imam must see that the Muqladis are not 
put to unnecessary hardship. 

Qur'an Should Not be Recited in Ruku and Sajdah 

(624/1 52) It is related by Abdullah bin Abbas 4& that the 
Messenger of Allah all said: "It is forbidden to me to recite the 
Qur'an in the postures of ruku and sajdah. So, exalt your Lord in 
ruku and supplicate to Him earnestly in sajdah. The supplication 
of sajdah is, (sepcially), worthy of acceptance." (Muslim) 

Commentary: Recital of Qur'an is an essential factor of prayer, 
but its place is Qiyam and the dignity and solemnity of the Divine 
Word demands that it should be recited while standing erect. For 
ruku and sujud the proper thing is that these should be reserved, 
exclusively, for the glorification of the Lord and the affirmation of 
one's own abasement and for supplication and repentance. Such 
was the life-long custom of the sacred Prophet lH, and, in this 
Tradition, he has advised his followers to act similarly. 

In the Traditions discussed earlier we are exhorted to recite 
Subhaana rahhi-al a'ala in sajdah, and, as we have seen, the 
Prophet 111 did the same. In the above Tradition we are, further, 
advised to supplicate to the Lord in sajdah. There is, in truth, no 
contradiction between the two exhortations. A simple and 



208 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



straightforward form of begging is that the supplicant, directly, 
asked for the fulfilment of his need, and another is that he only 
extolled the virtues of the person whose favour was solicited. The 
latter method is quite popular among the beggars in our midst. In 
any case, it is a form of supplication, and, that is why Al-hamdu 
lillaah has been described in one of the sayings as the best of 
entreaties and solicitations. Hence, Subhaana rabbi-al a'ala, too, is 
a formula of supplication and the sajdah of anyone who only 
repeats the Tasbih is not, definitely, bereft of invocation. 

tf* j ( * ^ ****** 

J^e>iSi\ Jy> C4^ JlS Ji O 1 *^ <S* O ° r ) 



(625/153) Ma'dan bin Talha said, "I met Thauban 4% the freed 
slave and special attendant of Allah's Messenger I asked 
him to tell me something which, if I do, would get me into 
Paradise. He did not answer, so I asked him again but he still 
gave no reply. I asked him a third time and he said that he had 
asked the Messenger of Allah £H the same question and was 
told, "Make prostrations before Allah often for He will raise you 
a degree against every prostaration you make and He will 
remove a sin from you against it." Madan said, "I met Abu 
Darda 4^£> later and when I asked him the same question, I 
received a similar reply." (Muslim) 

' ' ' s 



(626/154) Rabia bin Ka'b Aslami (Who was one of the 



Companions of Suffah and used to accompany the Prophet 






Book of Prayers 



209 



in his travels) said, "1 was with the Messenger of Allah Ji§^ at 
night and when I brought him his water for ablution and what 
he required (for tahajjuJ), he told me to make a request. I said '1 
ask to accompany you in Pardise.' He asked if I had any other 
request to make and when I replied that that was all, he said. 
"Then help me to get you this by devoting yourself often to 
prostration." 

Commentary: Those who are near to Allah, sometimes sense a 
precious moment when they would get what they ask from Allah. 
The Prophet lH may have sensed that opportunity and so he asked 
Rabi'a to make a request. He asked for the Prophet's ill company in 
Paradise and was advised to make frequent prostrations. Frequency 
of prostrtion refers to offering prayers often. Instead of saying that 
he should increase the nubmer of raka'at offered, prostration is 
mentioned because that is the posture in prayers most liable to lead 
to Paradise. 

Quauma and Jalsa 

Between ruku and sajdah, qauma\ is enjoined, and between the 
two sajdah of the same rak'at, jalsa 2 has to be carried out. For the 
Prophet's instructions concerning them and his own practice we 
will refer to the following Traditions. 

jiij ja Ju^Ji \Zj ^JJt ■ySfa f ji 

(627/155) It is related by Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger 
of Allah said: "When (on rising from ruku) the Imam says 
Sami' -al laahu Hman hamidah (God has heard the one who has 
praised Him), you (the Muqtadis) should say Allahumma 
Rab-banaa lakal hamd (O Allah! Our Lord, praise be to You). 
All his previous sins will be forgiven whose recital (of it) will 
be in accord and agreement with that of the angels." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

O. Meaning the standing position assumed after ruku and before kneeling down 
for sajdah. 

©. Denoting the act of seating oneself between the two prostrations of the same 
rak'at. 



210 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Pari III 



Commentary: It shows that in the congregational prayers the 
angels, too, say Allahumma Rab-banaa lakal hamd when the Imam 
says Sami'al laahu liman hamidah while assuming the standing 
position after performing ruku, and the Prophet SH has exhorted 
that those offerng prayers behind the Imam should, also, utter these 
words at that time, and revealed that all the previous sins of the 
Muqtadis will be forgiven whose recital of it will be "in accord and 
agreement" with that of the angels which, apparently, denotes that 
it occurs at the same instant. 

As we have stressed repeatedly in the pat, generally, minor 
transgressions are meant when the remission of all previous sins is 
spoken of in a Tradition as a sresult of the the auspiciousness of a 
particular deed. About the major sins it appears from the Qur'an 
and the Traditions of the Prophet Hi that their remission is related 
fundamentally to Tawba i.e., sincere reptance. God, nevertheless, 
has the power to forgive even the most grievous misdeeds if and 
when He likes. 

(628/156) Abdulah bin Awfa ^ has said that when the 
Messenger of Allah mt raised his back from ruku' he 
pronounced: 

"Allah listens to him who praises Him. O Allah, our Lord, to 
You be the praise in all the heavens and all the earth and all that 
it pleases You to create afterwards." (Muslim) 

Muslim has af$o transmited from Abu Sa'eed Khudri 4&> the 
same supplication with some more words. It seems that the Prophet 
iH said t-u* jJ aU) and responded merely with: juAJi 33 \Z] 
But sometimes lengthened the supplication as stated by Abu Sa'eed 
Khudri 4sk>. Sometimes, he stood so long that worshippers behind 
him thought he had forgotten as we will see in the hadith of 



Book of Prayers 



21 1 



Sayyidina Anas 4&>. 




(629/157) It is narrated by Rifa'ah bin Rafi' 4& "We were 
praying behind the Prophet isH and when he raised his head 
from the ruku' he said: 



(Our Lord, to You be the praise abundant, good, blessed and 
sufficient.) 

When he ended (the prayer) the Prophet $i> asked, 'Who was the 
speaker just now?' and the man identified himself. He said, '1 
saw over thirty angels racing over another to be the first to 
record it." (Bukhari) 

Commentary: Perhaps it was the man's particular learning and 
sincerity with which he said those words that so many angels raced 
to record his words. 



(630/158) It is related by Huzaifah 4fe that the Messenger of 
Allah iH used to recite Rab-bighfirlee (O Lord! Forgive me) in 



(Allah listens to him who praises Him.) 



A man behind him said, 




Jalsa between the two sajdah. 



(Nasai and Daarami) 




212 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



(631/159) It is related by Abdullah bin Abbas that the 
Prophet lH used to recite between the two sajdah: 
AUahummaghfirlee warhamni wa hidini wa-'aafmi warzuqni (O 
God! Forgive me, and have mercy on me, and bestow upon me 
the blessing of guidance, and pardon me, and provide me with 
sustenance.). (Abu Dawood and Tirmizi) 

(632/160) it is related by Sayyidina Anas 4&> that when the 
Prophet Sjfe said Saw/' Allahu liman hamidah on rising from 
ruku, he remained standing(for such a long time) that we felt 
that, probably, he had forgotten; and, then, he performed sajdah, 
and, after raising from it, sat (for such a long time) between the 
two sajdahs that we felt that, probably, he had forgotten. (Muslim) 

Commentary: While the above Tradition shows that, sometimes, 
the Quama and J aha of the Prophet lasted so long that the 
Companions 4» began to doubt that he had forgotten, it, also, 
makes it clear that such a thing happened only rarely and it was not 
his regular practice. Had the Prophet HI been doing so habitually 
or often the Companions would not have thought as they did. 

As in ruku and sujud, the supplications the Prophet H> used to 
recite in quama and jaha, too, are most auspicious and deserving 
of Divine acceptance. But should the Imam propose to recite them 
he must be prudent enough to see that undue inconvenience was 
not caused, thereby, to the Muqtadis. 

Q'adah, Thshahhud and Salaam 

The prayers come to an end with q'adah^ and salaam. 2 These 
are its last acts or parts, but if these are three or four rak'ats, the 
devotee sits also, after the completion of the first two rak'ats, and 
this is known as q'adah-i-oula or the First q'adah. In it, only 
tahsahhwP is recited after which the devotee stands up and sits 
O. The act of sitting down on the left foot keeping the right foot erect. 
©. Finishing salute b\ turning the face first to the right, and, then, to the left. 
©. Denoting the recital of At-tahiyyat. 



Book of Prayers 



213 



again after the third or fourth rak'at. The prayer is, then, brought to 
end with salaam after the recital of durood i after tashahhud. 

The correct method of Q'adah 

^-Jl (.5^' **s^»} ^ ^^isr 

(633/161) It is related by Abdullah bin Umar 4fe that when the 
Prophet £H sat down in prayer he used to place both the hands 
above his knees and make a sign by raising the finger of the 
right hand which was next to the thumb (i.e., the index linger), 
and, at that time, his left hand remained rested above the left 
knee (i.e., he made no sign with it.)." (Muslim) 

Commentary: Other Companions, besides Abdullah bin Umar <*^>, 
have also related the raising of the forefinger and making a sign 
with it at the time of the pronunciation of Kalima Shahadah, i.e., 
the formula of Affirmation, and there can be no doubt about it that 
it was the regular practice of the Prophet ill. Its underlying 
significance, perhaps, was that when the devotee was testifying to 
the Oneness of Allah by reciting Ash-hadu aan-laa-ilaaha-il- lal- 
laha, his heart, too, should be filled with the conviction of Divine 
Unity and he, also, made an affirmation of it with his body by 
raising one of the fingers. 

Another version tells us that the Prophet HsHfe followed this 
gesture with his eyes too. Abdullah bin Umar has quoted the 
Prophet Hi. 



"This gesture of the index 

finger is made more painful to ^ jlklijl ^Js- JLii ^ 
the devil than a sharp-eyed 
knife or sword." (Mishkat) 



JLlJLwJl 



O. The invocation of Divine blessings on the Prophet. 



214 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



(634/162) It is related by Abdullah, son of Abdullah bin Umar 
4^>, "I saw my father (i.e., Abdullah bin Umar that he sat 
cross-legged in prayer, (and), I, too, began to sit cross-legged 
though I was quite young at that time. On seeing it, my father 
told me not to sit like that and explained that, from the point of 
view of Shari'ah, the correct way of sitting was to keep the right 
foot erect (on the toes) and the left one in a reclining position 
(under the rumps). 1, thereupon, remarked, 'But you sit 
cross-legged'. My father replied: '( It is because of feebleness 
and infrimity). My legs, now, do not support my wieght'." 

(Bukhari) 

Commentary: Abdullah was, also, the name of one of Abdulah 
bin Umar's sons and this incident was in respect of him. Abdullah 
bin Umar 4$k> lived up to the ripe old age of 84, and, according to a 
report, of 86 years. Towards the end of his life he had grown so 
weak that he could not sit on his feet in prayer, according to the 
prescribed method. It has, also, been reported that there was some 
defect in his feet which rendered him unable to sit in Q'adah as the 
sacred Prophet iH did. Anyhow, simply to follow his father's 
example, Abdullah 4^>, too, had begun to sit cross-legged. When 
Abdullah bin Umar $h saw that, he checked him and said that the 
correct way of sitting was that one should seat oneself on the left 
foot, keeping the right foot erect, with the heel pointing upwards 
and the toes of the feet bent outward. About himself he explaimed 
that he sat cross-legged owing to an ailment or debility. 

The fact that he said that his legs did not support his weight 
any more showed that this sitting posture is assumed in a manner 
that bears the weight of the body. 

Brevity and Haste in Q'adah-i-Oola 

{X*>j4fi&\J^> aji 'J>o?°i \ it) 

(635/163) It is related by Abdullah bin Mas'ud Ǥ&that when the 
Messenger of Allah ill sat down after the first two rak'als (i.e., 
performed Q'adah-i-Oola, he did it so hurriedly) as if he was 



Book of Prayers 



215 



sitting on hot bricks until he stood up for the third rak'at. 

(Tirmizi and Nassai) 

Commentary: Authorities have concluded from it that the devotee 
should stand up quickly after reciting only the Tashahhud in 
Q'adah-i-Oola. 

Tashahhud 

AS\S"jjj^\ i^J-'/j { s ~1\ U\tt t_£liP ^llJl oCLJlj OIjLaJIj 

ojlp tXl^ jl JL^iil j'iii ill ^1 jt JLgi>i i>bUp JLpj Ulip 

(636/164) It is related by Abdullah bin Mas'ud 4l> "The 
Messenger of Allah JH taught me Tashahhud in such a state 
that my hand was in his hands, i.e., in the way (in which) he 
used to teach the Surah of the Qur'an (he taught): At-tahiyyatu 
lillaahi was-salawaatu wat-taiyyabatu as-salaamu 'alaika 
ayyuhan nabeyu wa rahmatul laahi wa bara-kaatuh, 
as-salaamu 'alainaa wa-alaa ibaadil laahis saal iheen , 
ash-hudu al laa ilaaha il-lal-laah, wa ash-hudu an-na 
mohammadan 'abduhu wa rasuluhu (All reverence, all worship, 
all sanctity unto Allah. Peace be on You, O Prophet, as well as 
the Mercy of Allah, and His blessings. Peace be on us as well as 
on the pious bondsmen of Allah. I attest that there is no god 
save Allah, and I attest that Muhammad ^ is His slave and 
Messenger )." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: Of all the things the Prophet taught to the 
Companions, the teachingof the Qur'an received his greatest 
attention. Yet he taught Tashahhud (or At-tahiyyat) with the same 
care and solicitude as marked by his teaching of a surah of the 
Qur'an. The holding of the hand of Abdullah bin Mas'ud in his 
own hands by the Prophet sfc was, also, a part of it, and according 
to a report quoted by Tahawi, the Prophet ill had taught it phrase 
by phrase to Abdullah bin Mas'iid 4^> in the same way as it is done 
when anyone wants to make a child or an illiterate person 



216 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



remember something. In another Tradition, reproduced in Musnc.J 
Ahmad, it is, further, stated that the Prophet Hi taught Tashahhud 
to Abdullah bin Mas'ud and bade him to teach it to others. Besides 
Abdullah bin Mas'ud Tashahhud has been realted on the 
authority of Sayyidina Umar 4fe, Sayyidina Abdullah bin Abbas 
4^&, Sayyidah Ayshah ^ *»i ^> and some other Companions as 
well and there is merely a variation of a word or two in all the 
reports. Commentators, however, are agreed that judged from the 
chain of narrators. theTashahud of Abdullah bin Mas'ud 
commands preference though the other narartives, too. are correct 
and the Tashahud mentioned inthem, can. also, be recited. 

Some scholars suggest that the tashahhud represents the 
exchange of dialogue in the mi'raj. When the Prophet &§l reached 
there he submitted: 

All revenence, all worship all sanctity unto Allah. 
Allah said: 

AJlT^j ill 2u*- jj ^Jt I^jI {&1S\ 

(Peace be on you, O Prophet, the mercy of Allah and His blessings). 
The Prophet Hi remarked: 

j^L^Jl iibCp Jlp) blip falfi 

(Peace be on us and on the pious slaves of Allah). 
Then, he added to renew his declaration of Faith: 

<U j~i j j OJLP- IJUjxj» <X+Si\j «Udt *i\ *i\ ^ ^\ JL^-Stl 

(1 bear witness that there is no god but Allah and I bear witness 
that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger i$io. 

In Sahi h Bukhari it is. also, quoted on the authority of Abdullah 
bin Mas'ud 4^e> that "In Tashahhud we used to recite, As-salaamu 
'alaika ayyuhan naheeyu during the lifetime of the Prophet, but 
after his passing away, we began to recite, As-salaamu 'ala-n- 
naheeyu instead of it. But from the general practice of the Ummah 
it is clear that the words taught by the Prophet Hi, i.e.. As-salaamu 
'alaika ayyuhan naheeyu were retained in their original form even 
after his death, and, there is, indeed, a unique joy in them for 
people of discernment. Now, those who strive to propound the cult 



Book of Prayers 2 1 7 

about the Prophet H that he is present and seeing from the mood 
and form of the words of his salutaion are the victims of 
polytheistic mentality and betray a lamentable lack of appreciation 
of the Arabic idiom. 



INVOCATING BLESSINGS 
ON THE PROPHET S 



After Allah, the greatest obligation on mankind, specially on 
the bondsmen who have attained Faith through the guidance of a 
Prophet is of the Prophet Si through whose endeavours the 
Divine Message reached them. As far as the Muslims are 
concerned, the wealth of Faith has. doubtlessly, been gainded by 
them by the merciful agency of the Last of the Prophets 
Prophet Muhammad ill (Peace and Blessings of Allah be upon 
him). He is their greatest benefactor, next, of course, to Allah. 
Hence, as it is the claim of Allah that Fie should be worshiped, in 
the same way it is the claim of the Prophets that blessings and 
salutation be sent to them with all sincerity and deference, i.e., an 
invocation be made to Allah to magnify them further and bestow 
upon them His choicest favours. This is what Sal ah on the Prophet 
and Salaam mean 1 . These are the offerings of love, loyiaty and 
gratitude to these benefactors, otherwise it is obvious that they do 
not stand in need of our invocations. 

All the same. Allah causes our blessings to be carried to them 
and there does take place an increase in the Divine favours on them 
as a result of our entreaties. But the real gain is our own. Our 
spiritual ties grows stronger and we become deserving of. at least, 
ten blessings of Allah in return for one invocation made with a 
sincere heart. Herein lies the main secret and advantage of Duroocl 
and Salaam. 

A distinctive wisdom behind Durood and Salaam, also, is that 
they strike sharply at the roots of polytheism. The most reverable 
beings, after the almighty, are the Prophets f^Ji and when the 
O. The Urdu word is durood but the words Salatu a'lan Nabi are used for 
invocating blessings on the Prophet. The word is Salah which also means the 
regular prayer. The word durood is used to distinguish it from prayer. 



220 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



command is given that durood and salaam be sent to them, i.e., 
supplications made to Allah to magnify them it idstinctly shows 
that they, too, are dependent on Alah for peace and blessings, and, 
by virtue of the loftiness of their rank and position, they are entitled 
only to this much that Divine favours were invoked on them. Peace 
and blessings do not lie in their hands, and, this being so, it 
logically follows that these things do not lie in the hands of any 
created being for the Prophets f%Ji are superior to all of them 
and the essential element of polytheism is that gain and benediction 
were imagined to be in the control of anyone aside of Allah. 

The Command in the Qur'an to 
invoke blessings on The Prophet H 

Allah has commanded us in the folowing verse that we should 
invocate blessings on the Prophet iH. 
"Surely Allah and His angels ■ 

send blessings on the Prophet. J^Jl ^ jjl 'n \ y>J)j>y&\ j( 
O you who believe! Send your j y ^ 

blessings on him and salute '-^ ' ^ - 

him with a becoming (0l: rroi^i) li^ljljiLj 
salutation. (al-Ahzab, 33:56) 

This verse does not qualify the command with prayer just as the 
Qur'an frequently commands us to praise and glorify Allah but does 
not restrict that command to prayer alone or outside prayer. But, 
the Holy Prophet iH understood prayer to be the particular 
occasion to praise and glorify Allah (as we have seen in the hadith 
the origin of the tasbeeh of niku' and sajdah in the verses: 

l»-la*)t i_£->j and ^-£->j >\ 

Consequently, it is my humble opinion that when this was 
revealed the Prophet instructed his Companions c^> that this 
command should best be obeyed in prayer in the final qa'dah 
(sitting posture). I base my opinion on a point raised in the next 
hadith where I well elucidate it. 



Text 



Book of Prayers 



22! 




(637/165) It is related by Ka'b bin 'Ujrah 4fe "We said to the 
Messenger of Allah Hi: 'Allah has told us how to sent salutation 
to you (i.e., you have informed us on behalf of Allah that we 
should sent the salutation to you by saying. As-salaamu 'alaika 
ayyuhan nabeeyu wa rahmatul-laahi wa bara-kaotuh in 
Tashahhud); now tell us how are we to send blessings on you'. 
The Prophet replied: 'Do so by saying, Allaahumma sal-li-alaa 
Muhammadin kamaa sal-laita 'alaa Ibrahima wa-'alaa 
aal-i-lbrahim in-naka hameedum majeed. Allaahumma haarik 
'alaa Muhammadin wa 'alaa aal-i-Muhammadin kamaa 
baarakta 'alaa Ibrahima wa 'alaa aal-i-lbrahim in-naka 
hameedum majeed. (O Allah, bless Muhamad and his family as 
You did bless Ibrahim and his family: Verily, You are the 
Praiseworthy, the Majestic. O Allah! Favour Muhammad 
and his family as You have favoured Ibrahim and his family; 
Verily You are the Praiseworthy, the Majestic) 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: In this narrative of K'ab 4fe it is not mentioned 
whether the above invocation is to be recited during prayer or apart 
from it. But another Tradition, bearing almost the same 
subject-matter, is related on the authority of Abu Mas'ud Ansari 
and, in some versions of it, it is stated that the question was 



It clearly shows that the enquiry of the Companions c$k> was 
about the recitation of durood in prayer. This much they had 





O. Sahih Muslim p. 175. 



222 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



It is, moreover, related by Haakim in Mustadark, on the 
authority of Abdullah bin Mas'ud 4fe: 

"One should recite Tashahhud \^ \ y t <>l "i^'M y^-A 
in prayer (i.e., in the last ' " ^ ' t t " 

Oa'adah). then send blessings ^JlS Sj&Jj 

on the Prophet, and, then, supplicate for oneself. 1 

Abdullah bin Mas'ud 4|e> surely, would have said so only on 
hearing it from the sacred Prophet Hi, and not on his own that 
Durood was to be recited after Tashahhud in prayer. 

It should now be clear that it was from the Prophet $H that the 
Companions c$fe> had come to know that the special occasion for the 
compliance of the Commandment contained in Sura Al-Ahzah 2 
concerning the sending of blessings on and salutation to the 
Prophet HI was prayer, and, that too, is the last Q'adah. After that, 
they enquired from him how and in what words were they to do it 
and he taught them Durood Ibrahim which we recite in our 
prayers. 

Meaning of 'Aal' in Durood Sharif 

We have translated the word Aal, occuring four times in the 
aforementioned Druood Ibrahim as 'family'. In fact, in the Arabic 
language, particularly in the idiom of the Qur'an and the Traditions, 
all those who are connected to a person in a special way are called 
his Aal whether this connection be of lineage and relationship or 
of association, companionship, allegiance and affection. Thus, in 
the literal sense, it can here, convey both the meaninngs. But. as 
the narrative of Abu Humayd Sa'idi we are now going to discuss, 
shows Aal, in the present context, denotes only the Prophet's <*$5^ 
f>*A~Ji family, i.e., his wives and descendants. 



(2 Jl I ** A ' 3*3* ^ % S ^ 11 * 3 > «"<•»* ' ^ j * 



O. Fathe-el-Baari p. 305. 
©. Chapter XXXIII of the Qur'an. 



Book of Prayers 



223 



(638/166) It is related on the authority of Abu Humayd Sa'idi 
4sZ> that (once) it was enquired from the Messenger of Allah iH? 
how were they to send blessings on him. He, thereupon, replied: 
"Pray to Allah thus: Allaahumma sal-li-'alaa Mohammadin wa 
azwajihi wa Zurriyatihi kamaa sal-laita 'alaa all-i-Ibrabima wa 
baark 'alaa Mohammadin wa azwajihi wa zurriyatihi Kamaa 
barakta 'alaa all-i-Ibrahima, in-naka hameedum majeed (O 
God! bless Muhammad and his wives and descendant as you did 
bless the family of Ibrahim, and favour Muhammad and his 
wives and descendants as You did favour the family of Ibrahim. 
Verily You are the Praiseworthy, the Majestic)." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: The words of this Durood are slightly different 
from those of the preceding, one, but their import, basically, is the 
same. According to the authorities, both of these Durood can be 
recited in prayer, but the common practice is to recite the former 
one. 

In the latter, saying the words, azwajihi wa zuriyatihi have been 
used in the place of Aal which, apparently, settles it that the word 
Aal occuring in the former Tradition denotes the Prophet's H 
family, i.e., his pious wives and descendants, and just as they 
enjoyed the nobility and eminence of relationship with him which 
others do not, though they may be superior to them, Allah has, also, 
bestowed upon them the distinction of partnership in Durood and 
Salaam, but it does not, at all, mean that they are better than 
everyone else in the Ummah. It is like this when he admirers of a 
holy man or anyother venerable person send a gift to him their 
natural wish is that he and the members of his family may use it in 
spite of the fact that in their own judgement, some of his frineds or 
attendants might be worthier than his dependants. Durood and 
Salaam, too, are an offering of love and gratitude and these should 
be seen in the light of the general and instinctive impulsions of a 
strong emotional attachment. To raise a polemical or legalistic 
controversy over superiority or otherwise will be uncalled for and 
not in good taste. 



224 



Meaning and Message of the Tradit ions Part III 



Place And Wisdom of Durood in Prayer 

As we have seen, Durood is recited at the end of prayer i.e.. in 
the last Q'adah, after Tashahhud. The bondsman attained the 
blessings of Faith thanks to the teachings and endeavours of the 
Prophet iHk he obtained the knowledge of Allah and was favoured 
with presence in His court and with the good fortune to exalt Mis 
name and to glorify Him which reached the culminating point at 
Tashahhud in the last Q'adah. Now. he is commanded that before 
taking his leave and supplicating for himself he make the choicest 
invocations for the Prophet and his pious wives and 
descendants in acknowledgement of the enormous debt of gratitude 
he owned to him. There can be no more suitable way to express his 
loyalty and thankfulness, nor a better offering of love, and the slave 
has nothing else with him. 

This discussion pertains to prayer, so we have limited ourselves 
to only two hadith on forms of durood. There are many other 
ahadiih and forms of durood. You can see them, Insha Allah, in 
the Book of Supplications. 

Supplication After Durood and Before Salaam 

We have just quoted Sayyidina Abdullah bin Mas'ud 4^> that 
the devotee should recite durood after tashahhud, and, then, make 
a supplication. In fact the instructions to make the suplications 
w ere there even before the durood was prescribed. For it, the holy 
Prophet has taught some special formulas. Below we will 
reproduce only three Traditions with regard to it. 

(639/167) It is related by Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger 
of Allah lH said: "When anyone of you completes the last 
Tashahhud. he should seek the protection of Allah from four 
things: (i) the punishment of Hell: (ii) the punishment of the 
grave: (iii) the trial and temptations of life and death and (iv ) the 
evil of Dajjal." (Muslim) 



Book of Prayers 



225 



(640/168) It is related by Abdullah bin Abbas 4^> that the 
Prophet Hi used to teach this prayer to the Companions c$g> in 
the same way as he taught a Swra/? of the Qur'an: Allaahumma 
in-ni a-'oozu-bika min 'azaab-i-jahannuma, wa a-'oozu-bika 
min 'azaab-il-qabr-i, wa a-'oozu-bika min fitna'til 
maseeh-i-dajjal, wa a-'oozubika min fitnatil mahyaa wal 
mamaal (O Allah! 1 seek refuge in You from the punishment of 
Hell, and from the punishment of grave, and from the calamity 
of Dajjal, and I seek refuge in You from the trials and 
temptations of life and death)." (Muslim) 

Commentary: The above supplication is remarkable by 
all-embracing for seeking protection from the calamities of both 
the worlds. Protection is, first sought from the punishment of the 
grave and hell which is the most terrible of all the punishments, 
and, then, from the calamity of Dajjal which is the severest of all 
the calamities that are going to overtake the world and at the time 
of which it will be most difficult for the faith of anyone to survive. 
After it, an entreaty is made, in general terms, for refuge against 
the various trials and mischiefs of life and death which includes all 
major and minor sins, adversities, corruption and profligacy. 

Though, in this Tradition, it is not stated for what occasion the 
Prophet $1 had taught the above supplication to be recited, from 
Abu Hurayrah's narrative, quoted, earlier, it is clear that the 
special time for it is after Tashahhud and before Salaam in the last 
Q'adah. It is about the same supplication that Bukhari and Msulim 
have tranmitted a hadith by Sayyidah Ayshah if* that the 

Prophet used to make it in prayer and add these words in the 
end: 

"O Allah! 1 seek refuge in You from everything sinful and from 
the burdan of debt." 



226 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



ill J^jGciS Jtl^ibl^j jJJUaJl j&^tf (in/Hi) 

(64 1 /l 69) It is related by Abu Bakr "I said to the Prophet 
III: O Messenger of Allah! Teach me a supplication which I 
may make in my prayer.' He replied: "Say: Allaahumma in-ni 
ZalanUu nafsi zalman katheeran, wa laa yaghfiruz-zunooba 
iJ-laa anla, faghfir-lee maghfiratam min indika warhamni 
in-nika antal ghafoorur-rahim (Oh Allah! I have done my soul a 
great harm and no one can forgive sins except You; so grant me 
forgiveness with Your pleasure, and have pity on me. You are 
the Most Forgiving, the Most Merciful.) 1 (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: It shows that the Prophet Hi had taught this 
supplication, at his request, to Sayyidina Abu Bakr for 
recitation in prayer. Though it is not stated in so many words that it 
was meant for recitation before salaam, commentators have 
observed that since it was the most proper time for supplication in 
prayer and the Prophet Hi had exhorted the Companions oj^> to 
choose a good supplication for beseeching Allah after Tashahhud 
and before Salaam, and beseech Him through it, as we learnt from 
Abdullah bin Mas'ud's 4^> narrative given earlier, one can safely 
conclude that Abu Bakr had requested him to teach him a 
supplication for that very occasion and it was thus that the Prophet 
Hi had taught this prayer. 

What is particualraly whorthy of note, here, is that Sayyidina 
Abu Bakr had repeatedly been favoured with the happy tidings 
of Paradise, and was, definitely, the most superior bondsman of 
Allah in the whole of the Ummah; his prayer was the best and most 
perfect among all the followers of the Prophet Hi so much so that 
the Prophet Hi, himself, had made him the Imam during his last 
illness and offered prayers behind him. He asked the Prophet Hi to 
teach him a supplication which he could supplicate to the Lord in 
prayer and the Prophet Hi taught him this supplication in response 
to his request. The Prophet Hi, as if one would say, told him, "O 



Book of Prayers 



227 



Abu Bakr! Never, never imagine, even after offering prayer, that 
you have worshipped Allah as He should be worshipped, and have 
done your bit, but even after an act of worship like prayer, consider 
yourself to be at fault and blameworthy, and, confessing your 
dereliction and guiltiness before Him, beseech His pardon and 
mercy in these words: "O God! I have nothing to my credit, no 
good deed, no virtuous act, which may give me a claim to Your 
mercy. Forgive me my sins solely out of Your benevolence." 

These suplications must be made after Tashahhud and Durood 
and before Salaam. It should not be difficult to learn them by heart 
and to know their meaning. 

It is very unfortunate if we deprive ourselves of the precious 
teachings of the Prophet ill which are wortheir than the world and 
every thing in it. 

Salaam Marking the End of Prayer 

As the Prophet iH has taught the Kalima of Allah-u-Akbar for 
the commencement of the prayer than which there can be no better 
kalima to mark its beginning, so, also, has he instructed that prayer 
should be brought to an end with: 

ill ii^-jj filS\ 

As-Salaamu alaikum wa rahmatnllah (Peace be upon you and 
the mercy of God). 

There can, of course, be no more appropriate words for the 
conclusion of the prayer. Salutation, as everyone knows, is made 
when people meet for the first time after being away from 
each-other for some time. The teaching of As-salaamu alaikum wa 
rahmatullah denotes, or, rather, directs that the bodnsman should 
cut himself aloof from the world, even from those who pray with 
him, sitting to his left and right, and no one besides God should be 
present before his mind's eye when he enters into prayer by 
pronouncing Allah-u-Akbar and begins his submission to Allah. 
Throughout the prayer, it should be like that. When he has 
completed his prayer, after reciting Tahsahhud and Durood, and 
making his last supplication in the presence of Almighty in the 
final qadah, his inner state should be as if he had returned to this 



228 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part HI 



world, and to his own environment from some other planet and was 
meeting, again, the men or angels on both the sides of him and 
wishing them peace and blessings of Allah. This, in our humble 
opinion, is the real signigicance of As-salaamu alaikum wa 
rahmatullah. 

£bL jjjj d£ ill JU ill Jj^3 JtS JlS *Js> ("t i Y/W • ) 
(4^rU jji j ^ jUli j tsx. ^ij a jla y el j j) 

(642/1 70) It is related on the authority of Sayyidina Ali 4^> that 
the Messenger of Allah lH said: "Cleanliness (i.e., wudu) is the 
key of prayer and the utterance of Alla-u-Akbar is its Tahrim\ 
and the way to loosen its restrictions is to say As-salaamu 
alaikum wa rahmatullah." (AbuDawood,Tirmizi,Daarami,andIbnMajah) 

Commentary: Three things have been stressed in the above 
saying: 

(i) The key, i.e., the first pre-requisite of prayer is cleanliness and 
wudu. Without it, the door of the divine court does not open. 

(ii) The opening Kalima of prayer is Allah-u-Akbar and all the 
restrictions that are peculiar to prayer (for instance, even 
legitimate acts like eating, drinking and conversation are 
forbidden till prayer lasts) come into force. 

(iii) The conclusive kalima of prayer, with which the restrictions 
come to an end, is As-salaamu alaikum wa rahmatullah. 

(643/171) Sa'ad bin Abi Waqqas 4^> related to us, "I saw the 
Messenger of Allah JH that he turned his face to the right and 
(then) to the left at the time of Salaam, and turned the face so 
much to the right and to the left that we could see the fair 
colouring of his cheeks." (Muslim) 

Commentary: this very message with a slight difference of words 
is also relatd by Abdullah bin Hab'id 4^> in the four books and by 
Aamar bin Yasar in Ibn Majah. 

O. The commencement of prayer when all the worldly thoughts are forbidden. 



Book of Prayers 



229 



Supplicaion After Salaam 

We have just seen the supplication the Prophet used to 
make at the end of prayer, before salaam, or the prayers he taught 
for that occasion. Now, we shall take up the sayings showing the 
guidance he gave to his followers regarding the supplications and 
zikr (God-remembrance) after final salutation and his own usual 
practice. 

3yr Jl5 *IpAJ» ill J}i# J3 Jli aitft ^» (-\ t i/ ^ v Y) 

(644/172) Abu Umama 4^ narrated (once) it was enquired from 
the Messenger of Allah iSl: Messenger of Allah! Which 
supplication is heard most (i.e., a supplication made at what 
time has the greatest likelihood of being granted), "During the 
latter part of the night and at the end of an obligatory prayer,' 
replied the Prophet %m. (Tirmizi) 

aIIp ill ,JLi> ill J.j-'j <J>& J 1 ^ J4£ Ji k^* 0* 0*°/wr) 

j^-j ^O^j ^T/i J* 4o" js^s ^ jji? -)i 

(^'L-Ji j i jb jjI j ju?-i ai j j) . " Up 

(645/173) Mu'az bin Jabal 4& said that the Messenger of Allah 
Hi held him by his hand and said, ' O Mu'az, I love you! Mu'az 
<*§k> said to him "Messenger of Allah! I too love you!" he said, 
"So (because of that I say to you) be sure to make this 
supplication to Allah after every prayer: 

"O Allah! help me in remembring You, in being grateful to You 
and in the worshipping You well." (Ahmad, Abu Dawood, Nasa'i) 

ill Jjfi ill J'jZij 'tfS JlS tfif 'jt> (MVWi) 



230 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



(646/174) It is stated by Thauban 4^> that when the Messenger 
of Allah lH finished offering his prayers he sought forgiveness 
of Allah three times and then made this supplication: 

f'^Y'j J^*fo *i C^jCJ j&iil CJt 

"O Allah ! You are Peace, and peace comes from You. Blessed 
are You, O Possessor of glory and honour. (Muslim) 

Commentary: This hadith tells us that after he had offered prayers 
the Prophet »H would say & three times. In fact, it is a sign of 
prefection of worship that a man having offered prayers considers 
his effort imperfect and regards himself responsible for that. So, he 
seeks the forgiveness of Allah. 

The short supplication that Sayyidina Thauban 4^> has spoken 
of is exactly that much. The additional words commonly used after 
pL~l\ are later addtions and not taught by the Pophet 0, 
these additional words are: 

ys 2L*Jl LU-at j f%Ji> L(?u» fiLJ\ ^-ji k-£J!j 

The only words taught by the Prophet iH are repeated here: 

But Allah knows best. 

ui £Z tj uj e > i$\ . jij iuii 

(647/175) Mughirah bin Shu'bah ^ narrated that after every 
fard payer the Messenger of Allah used to say: La ilaaha 
ill-allaah wahduhu laa sharika-lahu, lahul nnilku wa lahul 
hamdu, wa hua 'alaa kulli shai'in qadeer, AUahumma laa 
maani'a lima ataita wa laa mu'li lima mana'ta wa laa 
yanfa'uzal-jaddi minkal jadd (There is no one worthy of 
worship save Allah. He is One and without a partner. Unto Him 
belongs Sovereignty and unto Him belongs all praise. In His 
Hand is all good and He has power over all things. O Allah! No 
one can withhold what You bestow, and no one can bestow 
what You decide to withhold, and the prosperity of no 



Book of Prayers 



23 



prosperous one can make him independent of You i.e., even the 
wealthiest and most powerful person is a beggar at the door of 
Your mercy." (Bukhari and Muslim) 



^JLi til Jji ^JL^j ^^Li? 4i»l J jlS Jji jij ^^uJt 

4Jj J$ldl 4J i) V J ill V] a3» V ol jliJl j ejUJl 

j&j vyiii vi v .k vt SjW j j>v jr J* j*j Ju^it 
j^ii 4j j^a*i'Ai vt aJi v iiiii *j j jJJi <u'j uiJi 4j to V] 

(648/176) Abu Az-Zubayr the Taba'ee has said that Abdullah 
bin Zubayr said while delivering the sermon on this pulpit that 
after the Messenger of Allah HI turned in salutation and ended 
prayers, he would recite: 

^ftj*J»J ^ j 4J V ojJ-j % V] & V 

aIj Iuji ii ai|i vi Jl£ vj Ai vi aJ» v Aw % syVj j>v >:jJ 

6j « / jJj jgJl VI «l)I V ^Jl » LaJl i3 j jJaiSl 

"There is no God but Allah alone Who has no partner. To Him 
belongs the kingdom, to Him praise is due, and He is 
omnipotent. There is no might or power except in Allah. There 
is no god but Allah. And we do not worship any except Him. To 
Him belongs wealth, to Him belongs grace, and to Him is 
worthy praise accorded. There is no god but Allah to Whom we 
are sincere in devotion even though the disbelievers have it. 

(Muslim) 

Jj-^j h\ Sjfcj 9U-$> frV ji> $ & 'J' ("U <\M YY) 

^il (t$JJl • S'jlJaJl Zfit iycu (JJLij ill ^JJfi ill 

(tSjWJt si jj) . t-jlJUj liijl *Isi 

(649/1 77) Sa'ad bin Abi Waqqas related to us that he used to 
teach the Kalimas of "refuge" to his children and tell them that 



232 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 




he had heard the Messenger of Allah ^Iseek the refuge of 
Allah after prayer in these words: Allahumma in-ni- a'uzubika 
minal jubni, wa a'uzthubika minal bukhli wa authubika min 
arzail-'umri' wa a'uthubika min fitnatid-duniya wa' athaabil 
qabr (Oh Allah! I seek refuge in You from stinginess, and I seek 
refuge in You from worthless age (when he organs and senses 
lose their function through old age and a man becomes 
unwanted and a bruden on others), and I seek refuge in You 
from the ills and evils of life and the punisment of death). 



(650/178) It is related by Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger 
of Allah lH said: "Whoever, afterevery prayer, recites Subhan 
Allah (Glory to Allah) 33 times, and, in the same way, 
Al-hamdu lillaah (Praise to Allah) 33 times, and Allah-u-Akbar 
(Allah is Great) 33 times, — these make 99 Kalimas, and, then, 
in order to complete the figure of 100, says 

La ilaaha illallahu wahduhu laa sharika-lahu, lahul mulku wa 
lahul hamdu, wahuwa 'ala kulli shai'in qadeer (No one is 
worthy of worship save Allah. He is One and without a partner. 
Unto Him belongs Sovereignty and unto Him belongs all praise. 
In His Hand is all good and He has power over all things) all his 
sins will be forgiven even if they be as profuse as the foam of 
the sea." (Muslim) 

Commentary: It is necessary to bear in mind, that, what has been 
said earlier about glad tidings on the remission of sins owing to a 
virtuous deed. 

In this Tradition we are exhorted to recite 33 times each the 3 
Kalimas of Subhan Allah, Al-hamdu lillah and Allah-u-Akbar, and, 
then once the Kalima of La ilaaha ill-allaahu wahaduhu laa 



(Bukhari) 




Book of Prayers 



233 



sharika lahu — in order to attain the round figure of 100. But in 
the narrative of some other Companions like Ka'b bin 'Ujrah 4|s> it 
is stated that Subhan Allah and Al-hamdu lillah should be recited 
33 times and Allah-u-Akbar, 34 times, arriving, thus at the total of 
100. 

In fact, the Prophet has, sometimes, spoken of the one. and 
sometimes, of the other method of reciting it. Both of these are 
correct and based on unquestionable evidence, and one can adopt 
either of them according to one's inclination. The Prophet iH has, 
also, advised the recitation of the three Kalimas at the time of 
retiring to bed. In common parlance, it is known as Tasbih 
Fatimah. 

aIIp ill l Jufi ill J}^ cJ*5 ^ (i o \ I \ v <\) 

^CJi t-&*j cji (t^AJt Jjf>t-» j 1 *^? *i\ J ^t p ^ (i^j 

(651/179) It is related by Sayyidah Ayshah if* ^ that the 
Messenger of Allah HI did not sit, after making the finishing 
salutation (Salaam), but for so long as to say: AUaahumma 
anlas-salaamu wa minkas-salaamu, tabarrakta yaa 
zal-jalaal-i-wal ikraam (Oh God! You are Peace, and peace 
comes from You, Blessed are You, O Owner of Majesty and 
Glory.) (Muslim) 

Commentary: Apparently, the above Tradition tells that, after 
salaam, the Prophet sat only for such a little time as it took to recite 
AUaahumma anlas-salaam — , and, then, he stood up. But from the 
Traditions quoted earlier it seems that he, also, recited some other 
prayers and Kalimas of zikr after the finishing salutation and 
exhorted others, as well, to do the same. 

Some authorities have tried to explain the divergence by 
suggesting that the Prophet did not recite the other formulas of zikr 
and prayer immediate 1 after Salaam but when he had completed 
sunnah and nafl rak'ats, and his exhortation to the Ummah to recite 
them, too, was for that occasion. 

From the words of most of the sayings discussed above as well 
as of numerous other reports bearing upon the same subject. 



234 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part HI 



however, it is evident that the Prophet all recited these prayers and 
Kalimus of zikr soon after Salaam. We, on our part, believe that 
the correct position, in this regard is what has been stated by Shah 
Waliullah <ui* i»i > He Writes: 

"It is better that these supplications and formulas of Zikr are 
recited before the sunnahs that are to be offered up immediately 
after salaam for some of the Traditions belonging to that 
category denote it explicity while the words of the others seem 
to convey the same impression. As for Sayyidah Ayshah's ^i^j 
lys. narrative the Prophet 6H did not sit after salaam but for so 
long as to say Alaahumma antas-Salaam — , it can be 
interpreted in various wasy. It is possible that what she meant 
was that the Prophet iH> sat in the posture of prayer only for that 
little while after salaam, and, then, changed the manner of 
sitting and turned to the left or the right or towards the 
Muqtadis, as some other reports, also, indicate, as well as that it 
was not his regular practice but, occasionally, it, too, happened 
that the Prophet iH got up only after reciting Allaahumma 
antas-Salaam — when he had completed the finishing salute, 
and it was done with the object of impressing upon the 
followers that the recitataion of these formulas of prayer and 
zikr was not obligatory or Wajib but supererogatory and 
commendable." 1 

Note: We concluede that the recitation of these supplications 
after salaam is confirmed by the teachings as well as the practice 
of the sacred Prophet Hi and there can be no two opinions about it. 
But the habit of the Muqtadis to consider themselves bound to 
follows the Imam in supplication after salaam and or regard it 
unbecoming to get up before him though they may have the need to 
leave earlier is without foundation and calls for correction. The 
band between lmamat and Iqtida 2 ends with salaam, and it is not 
necessary to follow the Imam after it. One can get up before the 
Imam after making a short supplication, or go on praying as long as 
one likes. 



O. Hujjat, Vol. II, p. 12. 

©. Meaning follwoing or taking after. 



SUNNAH AND NA WAFIL PRAYER 



The five daily prayers are obligatory in Islam. Apart from them, 
the Prophet H? has exhorted us to offer some other Rak'al as well 
before or after the Fard prayer or at some other time. Of these, the 
prayers he strongly advised or took pains to observe himself are, 
commonly, known as Simnah while the rest as N aw a fit . 

The apparent wisdom behind the Sunnah and Nawafil that are 
to be offered before the Fard is that. Fard prayer is a very special 
kind of presence in the Court of the Almighty, and, that is why, it 
is observed congregational ly in the mosque. Therefore, before 
engaging in it one should get attened inwardly to the solemn event 
and develop an affinity with the celestial world by offering two or 
four Rak'at individually. As for the Sunnah and Nafl Ra'kat that are 
required to be offered after the obligatory prayer the wisdom seems 
to be that amends be made through them for the deficiency that 
might have remained in the Fard. 

There are some obligatory prayers before or after which we are 
not called upon, or positively forbidden, to offer Sunnah or Nafl 
Rak'als. The significance of it will be discussed later, at the 
appropriate place. 

Besides the Sunnah and Nafl prayers which are offered before 
or after an obligatory prayer, there are a few like Chasht in the day 
and Tahajjud in the night that occupy a unique place in the Islamic 
design of worship. For the seekers of the countenance of Allah and 
His propinquity these prayers are an exceptional means to 
advancement and distinction. 



O. plural of Nafl, meaning supererogatory. In the Traditions all the prayers, 
aside of the Fard are called Nawafil. 



236 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



Sunnat-i-Muakkadah 

^Lij <0ll -fill J^->3 J 1 * ^w*" f 1 0* X/ N A « ) 

(t^Ju jJl at j j) j^J' 

(652/180) Umm Habibah if* ^ related to us that the 



Messenger of Allah &m said: "Whoever will offer 12 Rak'at 
during the the day and the night (apart from the Fard prayers), 
for him a mansion will be built in Heaven. (The 12 Rak'ats are): 
4 before and 2 after Zuhr, 2 after Maghrib, 2 after Isha, and 2 
before Fajr." (Tirmizi) 

This Tradition is also mentioned in Muslim but the number of 
rak'at are not mentioned there. 

Commentary: This hadith mentions four raka'at to be offered 
before the Fard of Zuhr. A hadith of the same import narated 
Sayyidah Ayshah if* <3n is transmitted by Sunan Nasa'i and 
others. Besides, the hadith transmitted by Muslim and narrated by 
Sayyidah Ayshah if* -Sii tells us of the practice of the Prophet 
0. 

"He offered four raka'at at home before the Zuhr prayer which 
he offered in the mosque and then came home and offered two 
rak'al. Similarly, after he had led the Maghrib in the mosque, he 
came home and offered two raka'at and after having led the 
Isha prayer, he came home and offered two raka'at." 

Finally she said that before the Fajr, he offered two raka'at at 
home after Subh Sadiq (dawn). However, in some ahadith the 
prayers before Zuhr are mentioned as comprising two raka'at not 
four. We will see those ahadith. 



Book of Prayers 237 

(653/181) Ibn Umar 4§e> said, "I prayed along with the Messengr 
of Allah iH two raka'at before and two raka'at after Zuhr 
prayer, two after Maghrib in his house, and two after Isha in his 
house." He said that (his sister, the mother of the Believers) 
Sayyidah Hafsah ifpiiii^j told him that the Messenger of Allah 
£H used to pray two short raka'at after subh Sadiq (dawn). 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: Taking into account all the reports in this 
connection it would appear that the Prophet 111 usually offered 4 
raka'ls before Zuhr, and, occasionally, only 2. Both of these 
courses were adopted by the Prophet HI and whichever of the two ^ 
is followed, the Sunnah will be fulfilled. Our own experience is 
that some theologists, generally offer 4 rak'at before Zuhr but » ■-" 
when the time for the congregation is short, they rest content with 
2 rak'at. 

Since the sacred Prophet was very particular about the 10 or 12 
rak'ats of Sunnah mentioned in these Trditions and laid a great 
stress on them, these are known as Sunnat Mukkadah 1 . Among 
them he attached the greatest importance to the Sunnah of Fajr. 

Special Significance of Sunnats of Fajr 

4* in JU in Jis ciis i^Ip iiJi ^3 UiiP 'J> p ° ti \ a y> 

((iJL~»aljj) . I^Uj l^ijl ^ jj^l IsiTj jiJLjj 

(654/182) It is narratedby Sayyidah Ayshah if* At that the 
Messenger of Allah said, "The two raka'at (sunnah) of Fq/V 
are better than this world and what it contains." (Muslim) 

Commentary: It means that the reward awaiting anyone in the 
hereafter against the two raka'at sunnah of Fajr is more valuable 
than the world and what it contains. These things are all perishable 
while the reward is lasting. We will come to know of this in the 
next world. Insha Allah. 

*i ji-j ^Lp iii JU> iii JiS JiS ijSjh ^\ (i o o/ ur> 

O. Denoting the class of prayers which the Prophet used to offer regularly and 
has ordered his followers to do the same. One must not omit them without a 
cogent reason. 



238 



Adeeming and Message of the Traditions Part III 



(655/183) it is related by Abu Hurayrah <*^> that the Messenger 
of Allah j$l said: "Do not omit the 2 rak'ats of the Sunnals of 
Fajr even though the circumstances be that horseswere chasing 
you (i.e., you were being carried along in a journey on galloping 
horses)." (Abu Dawood) 

dp 4JJ1 JU» ^Jl j& ^' CJVS I^paJJI ^ iifl* jP(loVUt) 

(656/184) It is related by Sayyidah Ayshah if* ^j*, that the 
Messenger of Allah HHjfe did not show more anxiety for any other 
Sunnah or Nafl prayers than the 2 rak'at before Fajr. 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

^ 4llp 4)>1 Juf 4«l J^j Jl3 Jl3 i'JSjk ^jI ^ (1 o V/ \ A o) 

(657/185) It is related by Abu Hurayrah «|e> that the Messenger 
of Allah Hi said: "Whoever may not have offered the sunnah of 
Fajr should do so after sunrise." (Tirmizi) 

Superiority of Sunnah and Nawafil at Other Times 

(658/1 86) -It is related by Abu Ayub Ansari 4& that the 
Messengr of Allah Hi said: "The gates of Paradise open for the 
for Rak'at before Zithr during which Salaam is not carried out 
(i.e., which are offered together)." (Abu Dawood and Ibn Majah) 

(659/187) Sayyidah Ayshah if* A\ relates that the practice 
of the Prophet lH was that if he had not offered the four rak'at 
before Zw/?r he did so after he had completed the Zuhr. (Tirmizi) 
Commentary: In the report quoted in Ibn Majah it is made clear 



Book of Prayers 



239 



that in such a case the Prophet offered the four pre-Zuhr rak'at 
after he had offered the two rak'at of Sunnah after Zuhr. 

. jL)t iJJl iiy- ^jij ^kJl jJ OUT^ £| jt JiP Jalui- 

(660/1 88) It is related on the authority of Umm Habiba *»i 

that the Messenger of Allah iH said: "Whoever regularly 
offers 4 rak'at before and 4 after Zuhr, Allah will forbid the Fire 
of Hell for him." (Musnad Ahmad, Abu Dawood, Nasai and Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: Some commentators have observed that since it is 
established by authentic hadith that the Prophet Hi, generally, 
offered 2 rak'at of Sunnah after Zuhr, as is, also, borne out by the 
aforementioned narratives of Sayyidah Ayshah i^iii^j, 
Sayyidina Abdullah bin Umar 4fe and Sayyidah Umm Habiba ^ j 
tf^ &\ the Muakkadah Sunnat after Zuhr are only 2 rak'at. The 
manner of offering 4 rak'ats will, therefore, be to say 2 Nafl rak'at 
in addition to the 2 Muakkadah rak'at. 

Note: In our country it is quite common to offer an additional 2 
Rak'at of iVa/7 after the Sunnah of Zw/zr, but people, generally, offer 
these Nafl, as all other Nafl rak'at, in the sitting posture and believe 
that Nafl rak'at should always be offered sitting, though it is 
altogether wrong. A Tradition clearly has it that a prayer offered in 
the sitting position fetches half the reward of the one offered 
standing. 

0^9* 9 s* '9* * s % s % ^ ^ 

(681/189) It is related on the authority of Abdullah bin Umar 
that the Messenger of Allah Hi said: "Blessings of the Lord 
be on the bondsman who offers 4 rak'at before Asr." 

(Musnad Ahmad, Tirmizi and Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: It cotnains the Prophet's $|l exhortation about the 4 
rak'at of Nafl before the Asr prayer and his usual practice is 
reported to have been the same, though it, too, is related that, 
sometimes, he said only 2 rak'at before Asr. 



240 % Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 

^Lij jiJLfj iJJl ^JLis t^te^- v£J?j Jlij <^**^j ywJUiJ 

o^i^ ••HV^'j cJ*-*j j**^ *^ J* 3^3 Hr'^'j *-> ^Aa3ij*5 

(662/1965 It is related by Muhammad bin Ammar bin Yasir "I 
saw iwf'fether, Ammar bin Yasir, that he used to offer 6 rak'ats 
after Magn'rib. He said, 'I have seen my beloved, the Prophet, 
offering 6 rak'at after Maghrib and saying that whoever offers 6 
rak'at after Mahgrib, his sins will be forgiven even if they are as 
profuse as the foam of the sea." (Tabarani) 

Commentary: Two Rak'at after Maghrib are Sunnat Muakkadah, 
as we have already seen in the Traditions related by Sayyidah 
Ayshah ^ in Sayyidina Abdulah bin Umar 4fc> and Sayyidah 
Umm Habibah t^-Sii^j. If, besides, 4 rak'at of Nafl are also 
gfffered, it wiffmake 6 rak'at and the bondsman will become 
worthy of the glad tidings given in the above Tradition. 

. our, c~. ji our, $ JU i\ yti U i\JJ\ 4* 
( J j ,a Ji' 4, JJ) 

(663/191) It is related by Sayyidah Ayshah iiii "It never 
happened that the Messenger of Allah iH came to my house (to 
rests) after offering Isha prayer and he did not offered four or six 
raka'at." (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: Two rak'at after Isha are Sunnat Muwakkadah as 
shown in the previously mentioned narratives of Umm-i-Habiba, 
Abdullah bin Umar 4^> and Sayyidah Ayshah 1^* h but from 
the above report it appears that the Prophet, also, offered 2, and, 
sometimes, 4 rak'at in addition to the 2 rak'at of Sunnat 
Muwakkadah. 

Witr 



Book of Prayers 



241 



. j*J&\ iiloi $ J\ *LsJl a'^L> j£ U^i ijjl 

(664/192) Kharijah bin Huzafa relates "One day the 
Messenger of Allah IH> came out (of his apartment) and, 
addressing us, said: 'God has bestowed upon you the gift of 
another prayer which is better for you than the red camels (on 
which you place the highest value). It is Witr. God has placed it 
for you after the Isha, till day-break (i.e., it can be offered at any 
time during it)." (Tirmizi and Abu Dawood) 

% } fiJ s ji Si s s f <~ s s ^ 

fej As- illl Jl> aU\ J^j cJuJ Jli flJU^j ^ (*n 0/ s°i T) 

(ijbjjlsljj) L. J-ls^jdjiJ^ 

(665/193) It is related by Buraidah 4& "I myself heard the 
Messenger of Allah say, 'Witr is truth: whoever does not 
offer witr is not one of us. Witr is truth; whoever does not offer 
witr is not one of us. Witr is truth; whoever does not offer witr 
is not one of us'. (He said it thrice)." (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: These, obviously, are the last words by way of 
warning and exhortation as regards Witr. It is from Traditions like 
it that Imam Abu Hanifah has concluded that Witr is not merely a 
Sunnah but Wajib and its place is between an obligatory prayer and 
Sunnat Muakkadah. 

(666/194) It is related by Abu Sa'eed Khudri 4& that the 
Messenger of Allah W> said: "Whoever remains asleep at the 
time of Witr or forgets it should offer it when he wakes up or 
remembers." (Tirmizi, Abu Dawood and Ibn Majah) 

(667/195) It is related by Ibn Umar that the Messenger of 
Allah §m said: "Make witr your last prayer of the night (i.e., 



242 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



among the prayers of the night it should be the last to be 
offered)." (Muslim) 



'ja a2p aDi JU> *U\ Sj^j JlS JtS (HA/ni) 
e^-l 5 l <>*J j^Js^ J*^ j 5 ^ Jr? f *5l t) 1 

(668/196) It is related by Jabir 4|& that the Messenger of Allah 
lH said: "Whoever is unsure that he would wake up during the 
last part of the night should offer witr at the beginning of it (i.e., 
with Isha), and whoever is confident that he will get up (for 
Tahajjud) during the last part of the night should offer witr then 
(i.e., after Tahajjud) for the Angels of Mercy are present at that 
time and it is a time of great superiority." (Muslim) 

Commentary: The general command about witr is what is 
contained in the two aforementioned Traditions, i.e., it ought to be 
offered after and at the end of all the nightly prayers including 
Tahajjud, and, further, that whoever may be sure of waking up in 
the last hours of the night, should offer it not at the beginning of 
the night but towards the end of it, with Tahajjud, and whoever is 
not so sure, should do so after Isha. The Prophet iHl, however, had 
advised some Companions to offer witr at the beginning of the 
night owing to their special circumstances. Sayyidina Abu 
Hurayrah being one of them. It is related, on his authority, in 
Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim "among the few exceptional 
exhortations of the Prophet Hi to me one was that I offer witr at 
the beginning of the night." 

J_^3 5lT ^ isJlp cJU> JlS ^ J> aJJu^pjp (*m/\<\V) 

dJljj C*~"J £>jb CJl3 ?^JjJ (iluj <0S> iJJl ^J^fi 4JJI 

est uP^i j(jt fa ^jj^j o^j 

(669/197) Abdullah bin Abi Qubays narrates "I enquired from 
Sayyidah Ayshah tf* At how many rak'at did the Messenger 
of Allah Hi offer in witr, and she replied: "Four and three, and 
six and three, and eight and three, and ten and three, but never 



Book of Prayers 



243 



less than seven or more than thirteen rak'at in witr."(Abu Dawood) 



Commentary: Some Companions 4^ used to describe the joint 

prayers of Tahajjud and Witrs, as Witr, and such was, also, th case 
with Sayyidah Ayshah &\ In the above Tradition she has 
given the reply to Abdullah bin Abu Qays enquiry on the same 
principle. What she, actually, means is that before the three rak'at 
of Witr the sacred Prophet til sometimes offered only four rak'at of 
Tahajjud, sometimes six, sometimes eight, and sometimes ten. But 
Ylz never offered less than four nor more than ten rak'at in Tahajjud 
and, after these rak'at of Tahajjud, he offered the three rak'at of 
witr. 

Recital of Qur'an in Witr 

'yy_ jlT^li^L iLSJtP blL> JlS^^r ^ jill J^P jP pV >/\ <\A) 

'j'yi\ j Ijaj & cJis aj( jLp ajui 

jU-l iijljii Jib AiJliJl ^ Jjj4^' ^ ^-d t5?j JlP*$ iJSoj 

(670/198) Abul Aziz bin Jurayj (Taba'ee) has narrated that 
(once) they asked Sayyidah Ayshah &\ what surahs the 
Messenger of Allah recited in Witr. She replied: 'He recited 
Sabbihisma rabbikal a'alaa in the first Rak'at, Qul-yaa aiyyuhal 
kafiroon in thesecond and Qui huwallaahu ahad and 
Mu'awwazateyn (i.e., Qui a'oozu birabbil falaq, and Qui a'oozu 
birabbin-naas) in the third." (Tirmizi and Abu Dawood) 



Commentary: Ubayy bin Ka'b and Abdullah bin Abbas have, 



a 'alaa in the first, Qui ya aiyyuhal kafiroon in the second, and Qui 
huwallaahu ahad in the third rak'ats of witr, but they have not 
mentioned the recial of Mu'awwazateyn in the third rak'at. It 
appears from the above narrative that, occasionally, he, also, 
recited Mu'awwazateyn, along with surah Ikhals x , in the third 
rak'at. 





O. Meaning Qui huvvallahu ahad 



244 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



Qunoot of Witr 




(671/199) It is related by Hasan bin Ali 4#s> "The Messenger of 
Allah HI taught me a few supplications which 1 make in the 
Qunoot of witr, (these are): 



Allaahum-mahdini feeman hadaita, wa 'aafini fee man 'aafaita, 
wa tawal-lani feeman tawal-laita, wa baarik li feemaa a'taita, 
wa qini shar-rama qadaita, fa-in-naka taqdhee walaa yuqdhaa 
'alaika, in-nahoo laa yazil-luman waalaita, tabarakta rabbana 
wa ta'aalait 

(O Allah! Guide us to the right path from among those whom 
You have guided, and accord us security from among those 
whom You have accorded security, and be our Patron from 
among those whom You have been Patron, and give us 
plentitude in what You have bestowed upon us of the good, and 
protect us from the evil which You have decreed, since it is You 
who decides and nothing can be decided against You. Our Lord! 
Blessed and Exalted are you)." 

(Tirmizi, Abu Dawood, Nasai, Ibn Majah and Daarami) 

Commentary: In some report Walaa Ya'izzu man 'aadait (And no 
honour can be had by whom you are an enemy) is, also, mentioned 
after In-nahoo la yazil-ul-man waalait, and in others 
Nastaghfiruka wa natoobu ilaik (We ask pardon of You and repent 
before You) has been added after Tabarakta rabbana wa ta'aalait, 
and yet in others the Durood, Wa sal-lal-laahu 'alan-nabeeyi (And 
may Allah bless the Prophet) too, occurs after these words of 




Book of Prayers 



245 



repentance. Many legists and theologians have adopted this Qunooi 
for recital in witr. The Qunooi which is current among the Hanafis. 

i.e., Allaahumma inna nast'eenuka wa nastaghfurika has been 

related by Imam Ibn Abu Shaybah and Imam Tahawi, on the 
authority of Sayyidina Umar «^e> and Abdullah bin Mas'ud 4fe while 
Allama Shami holds, on the authority of some leading Hanafi 
autorities, that with the Qunoot, Allaahumma inna nasta'eenuka 
wa nastghfurika — should be also recite along with 
Allahumma-mahdinaa fee man hadait 

f\ J Sjt -jlT J-p *J$\ & pVY/Y • •) 

. uJn *Jij ^s- c~uft US' cji s.ui is^"^ *— ^ *— ^ i j^j 

(^UjjI j^UJl jL 5^yll jijby 9tjj) 

(672/200) It is related by Sayyidina Ali 4#b that the Messenger 
of Allah all used to make this supplication after witr: 
Allaahumma in-ni a'oozu bi-ridhaaka min Sakhatika wa 
bi-ma'afaatina min 'uqubatika wa a'oodhubika minka laa uh'see 
thana-an alaika an-ta kamaa athnaita 'alaa nafsika (O Allah! I 
seek refuge in Your good pleasure from Your displeasure, and 
in Your forgiveness from Your retribution; and 1 seek refuge in 
You from You. Unable am I to reckon Your Praise which is 
Your. You are, indeed, as you have described Yourself)." 

(Abu Dawood, Tirmizi, Nasai and Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: What the above supplication means is that there is 
no refuge from the repraisal, punishment or anger of Allah. One 
can find shelter only in His mercy and benevolence. In Sayyidina 
Ali's narrative it is simply stated that the Messenger of Allah all 
used to make it at the conclusion of witr which can mean that he 
made it as Qunoot in the third rak'at, as some authorities have 
suggested, or before or after Salaam in the last q'adah of witr or in 
the last sajdah of it. It is quoted in Sahih Muslim, on the authority 
of Sayyidah Ayshah l^p £a\ that once she heard the Prophet Hi 
making this supplication in the sajdah of the prayer of the night. 
Any of the three courses may, however, be followed. 



246 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



^j^&\Ju0jh\ JjijOlf Jt'J>Q* ovm^) 

(673/201) Ubayy bin Ka'b 4§ib has related that the Messenger of 
Allah £§l used to say Subhaan-al malikul quddoos (Glory to the 
King, the Blessed) after the Salaam of Witr. 

(Abu Dawood and Masai) 

Commentary:In the report quoted in Nasai it is added that the 
Prophet Hi used to recite the formula thrice in a long-drawn-out 
tone. Some other narratives have it that at the third time he 
pronounced it in a loud voice. 

Two Rak'at Nafl After Witr 

'Jjfij b\Z ds- * ill JJfi ^jJl £l iiL ^1 (tVi/Y-Y) 

(674/202) Umm Salmah if* narrated that the Prophet III 

offered another two Rak'at after Witr. (Tirmizi) 

This Tradition has, also, been quoted by Ibn Majah with the 
addition that the Prophet l§l used to make the two post-Witr 
rak'at brief and offer them in the sitting posture. 

Commentary: Apart from Sayyidah Umm Salmah tf*i»i^j, 
Sayyidah Ayshah if* i»t and Abu Umama 4t&, too, have 
narrated that the Prophet $§1 used to offer the two Rak'at after J-J77r 
in the sitting posture, and some theologists have, therefore, 
concluded that it is better to offer them while sitting. But others 
hold that it would not be proper, in this regard, to draw conclusions 
about the general body of Muslims from what the Prophet H 1 did. 
In Sahih Muslim it is mentioned, on the authority of Abdullah bin 
Umar 4^&, that once on seeing the Prophet offering prayer in the 
sitting posture he remarked that he had heard from someone that he 
i.e., the Prophet, said that whoever offers it sitting gets half the 
reward accuring to him who does it in the standing position. The 
Prophet HI, thereupon, replied, "Yes. It is the rule, but in this 
matter, I am not like you. My case is exceptional with God, i.e., I 
get the full reward even on offering it in the sitting posture." On 



Book of Prayers 



247 



the strength of it, a majority of the authorities have expressed the 
view that there is no special rule for the two rak'at after Witr and 
the general rule that the reward on offering prayer in the sitting 
posture is half of that on offering it standing applies to them as 
well. 

We have seen that Witr should be the last prayer of the night. 
To offer two ra'kat after it will not be at variance with the 
command for these, in fact, are a part of Witr and not a separate 
prayer in themselves. 

Qiyam al-Layl or Tahajjud 

There is no obligatory prayer between Is ha and Fajr. If Is ha is 
offered at the beginning of the stipulated time, plenty of time is left 
vacant though it is extremely precious in the sense that inner peace 
and tranquillity which is felt in the silent hours of the night is not, 
generally, experienced at any other time and in case a man goes to 
sleep for sometime after Isha, and gets up after midnight, which is 
the real time for Tahajjud, the atmosphere of serenity and devotion 
in which he offers it does not fall to his lot in any other prayer. 
Moreover, to leave the bed at that time and offer prayer is, also, 
highly efficacious for disciplining of the self. Says the Qur'an: 

"Truly, the rising by night is most potent for governing (the 
should), and most suitable for framing the word (of Prayer and 
Praise). (Al-Muzammil73:6) 
At anohter place, the bondsmen have been praised: 

"Who forsake their beds to cry unto their Lord in fear and hope 
(at the time when people sleep comfortably). (Al-Sajdah 32: 1 6) 

The Qur'an, further tells that the reward these bondsmen are 
going to recieve in the Hereafter, which will be utterly pleasing, is 
known only to God. 

"No soul knoweth what is kept hid for them of joy, as a reward 
for what they used to do). (Al-Sajdah 32:17) 

The Prophet 111 is commanded one occasion in the Qur'an to 
observe the Tahajjud and prosmised the praiseworthy station: 



248 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



(Y<\: W^j-W) 

We learn from authentic Traditions that, during the last part of 
the night, Allah turns toward His bondsmen with full mercy and 
benevolence, and those of us who have been blessed, is some 
measure, with the capability to know or feel such things, also, 
perceive the heavenly felicity that is associated with that hour. 

jjji dJ Jfi ^ dili »UiJi J\ '*& 'Jte j ujj 

(675/203) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4§& that the Messenger 
of Allah said: "When the last one-third of the night remains, 
our Lord, the Glorious One, descends towards the heavens of 
the world, and proclaims: "Who is there who supplicates Me, 
and 1 grant his supplication? Who is there who begs Me for 
(anything), and I grant it to him? Who is there who seeks My 
forgiveness, and I forgive him?'" (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: The "descent" of Allah towards the "heavens of the 
world" spoken of in the above Tradition, is an Attribute and 
Function of the Lord which is beyond our comprehension in the 
same way as the reality and significance of expression like the 
"Hand of Allah", "the Face of Allah" and "He sat on the Throne" is 
not known to us. In fact, the acknowledgement of the ignorance of 
and inability to understand the truth, nature and state of the 
Attributes and Functions of God is the height of knowledge. The 
pious precursors have constantly upheld the view that ignorance 
and helplessness in respect of these things should be openly 
admitted and their knowledge, like that of all other metaphorical 
and allegorical expressions, be left to Allah and it ought to be 
believed that whatever they may signify is correct. But this much 
is clear from this saying that during the last one-third of the night 
Allah turns towards His bondsmen with special grace and 
benevolence and calls them personally to prayer, supplication and 
repentance. Those who believe in it find it harder to keep on 



Book of Prayers 



249 



sleeping than to rise from the bed at that time. 

cJ&il jl» ^tf jill 0>r ^? ^ i> 

(676/204) It is related by 'Amr bin 'Abasa that the Messenger of 
Allah ill said: "God is nearest to the bondsmen in the later half 
of the night. So, if it is possible for you to be of the bondsmen 
who mention Allah at that hour then be of them." (Tinnizi) 

Commentary: In this Tradition we are exhorted to occupy 
ourselves with Zikr (God-remembrance) during the later part of the 
night and though God-remembrance has been mentioned in general 
terms, prayer undoudtedly, is the highest form of it for it combines 
the Zikr of the heart, the tongue and the limbs. 

plJj iiJl Jufi fUl J'j^j Jt3 JlS iy_jA 'j* (nVV/Y < °) 

(677/205) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4fe> that the Messenger 
of Allah lH said: "After the obligatory prayers the most superior 
prayar is that of the middle of the night (i.e., Tahajjud),"(Mustim) 

Vj&»j ftp J\ ft X'J ft$ j&h+h 4^ & ^ f% 

(tfJUjsJiotjj) . ^(^5l|ujcAlJJ 

(678/206) It is related on the authority of Abu Umamah 4fe that 
the Messenger of Allah lH said: "You should offer Tahajjud for 
it has been the way of the pious souls before you and it is a 
spcial means of seking the countenance of Allah and it removes 
the evil effects of sins and protects from the transgression of 
divine laws." (Tinnizi) 
Commentary: In this Tradition four characteristics of Tahajjud 
have been described: (i) it has been the practice of virtuous 
bondsmen of Allah from the days of old; (ii) it is a special source 
of seeking tf^ propinquity of the Lord; (iii) it possesses the quality 
of obliterating the harmful effects of sinful deeds by acting as an 



250 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



atonement for them; and (iv) it restrains a man from evil-doing. 

Doubtlessly, prayer of Tahajjud is a great boon. It is said about 
Junayd Bahgdadi that, after his death, some people saw him in 
their dreams and asked him how it turned out for him up there, the 
high-souled man repled, "The discourses on higher truths I used to 
give availed nothing. If anything served me it were the rak'at I used 
to offer in the night. 

(679/207) Mughirah bin Shu'bah 4^ narrated that the 
Messenger of Allah ill remained standing for such a long time 
in the prayer of Tahajjud that his feet swelled. It was said to 
him: "Why do you exert yourself so excessively in prayer when 
all your sins, of the past as well as of the future, have been 
forgiven (and Allah has allayed your fears in that regard by 
making a proclamtion of it in the Qur'an)?' "Should 1, then, not 
be His most grateful bondsman (on this extraordinary favour)?" 
replied the Prophet $3$*. (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: Not withstanding the fact that the Prophet iSl 
needed not to pray much and to make other spiritual exertions like 
us and that every act of his, even walking and sleeping, was a 
virtuous act deserving of Divine reward, he offered such long 
prayers during the night that his feet become' swollen. 

There is a significant lesson in it for those who merely profess 
belief for instance; people like us. 

Note.: In this Tradition the forgiving of the zunub of the 
Prophet has been mentioned, and zunub, in common parlance, 
denotes a sin. It may, therefore, be asked when the guiltilessness of 
the Divine Prophets f*>LJi ^Js- and their freedom from evil 
infulences was an article of faith with the Muslims, what could the 
forgiving of the sins of the Prophet mean? Of all the explanations 
that have been furnished, the most satisfying, in our view, is that 
freedom of the Prophet from sins signifies that he is protected 
against evils which belong to the category of worng doing or 



Book of Prayers 



251 



iniquity and are regarded as sinful for the whole of the Ummah as 
well. But every Prophet, including the Prophet Muhammad $§§■, can 
do things which, though not sinful, may not be in keeping with the 
highest ideal or his lofty position, as for instance, the incident of 
the Prophet Hi forbidding the use of honey to himself or of his 
being impolite to Abdullah bin Umm maktoom 4^> upon which he 
was affectionately upbraided by Allah in the surah al-Tahrim and 
Abasa respectively. 

Anyhow, even the Prophet may do such things over which 
they feel grieved to such an extent that we do grieve over a major 
transgression. Thus, when the forgiving of the ziimtb of the holy 
Prophet life is mentioned in the Qur'an and the Traditions it simply 
means the forgiving of such things as mentioned above. 

^ j pLj d& aJJi JLp J^3 JlS Jll (i A • / Y < A) 

\^r j cJl ^13 cJLii 43Vy>\ Jaijlj JUa3 JlUl J* ^ <&l 

. (680/208) It is related by Abu Iliirayrah that the Messenger 
o Allah |§l said: "Blessings of Allah be on the bondsmen who 
got up in the night and offered Tahajjud prayers, and, also woke 
up his wife, and she, too, prayed, and if she did not wake up 
(owing to the overpowering influene of sleep), he administered 
a mild dash of water on her face. In the same way, blessings of 
God be on the bondswoman who got up in the night for 
Tahajjud prayers and prayed, and, also, woke up her hsband, 
and he, too, got up and prayed, and, if he did not wake up, she 
awakened him by administering a mild dash of water on his 
face." 

Commentary: It needs be remembered that the holy Companions 
c^> to whom these words were spoken had become sure in their 
minds, by listening to the exhortations of the Prophet Si and* 
observing his own conduct in respect of Tahajjud, about what the 
bondsmen stood to gain by offering it up and how painful was the 
loss in neglecting it. Generally speaking, the same was the state of 
all the Companions 4k both m a' e anc " female. Everyone of them 



252 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 

was eager to partake of this marvellous gift of the Prophet iil to 
the Ummah. In spite of it, it could and did happen, occasionally, 
that the husband woke up on time but the wife remained asleep or 
the wife woke up in time and the husband remained asleep, and, 
then, the one who had got up wanted to awaken the other who was 
sleeping and if the latter did not feel inclined to get up due to the 
preponderance of sleep, he or she woke him or her up by gently 
sprinkling water over the face of the oher out of love and 
thoughtful attention. In such a case, an act like that was not likely 
to lead to bitterness or an angry dispute. On the other hand, their 
fondness and tender affection for each other became stronger. The 
above Tradition, anyhow, appertains to circumstances like it and 
the Prophet's exhortation is for the couples who are worthy of it 
and appreciative of the unique value and significance of prayers of 
Tahajjud. 

In The Event of Missing Tahajjud 

aJ Ccf 3 'jJUfj y^Jl 5 jU? jli U-J L» ^Li> ^pjt <u^ 

(681/209) It is related by Sayyidina Umar 4& that the 
Messenger of Allah iH said: "Whoever remained asleep in the 
night and (missed) his appointed Wird ] or a part thereof, and, 
then, made it up between Eajr and Zuhr, for him it will be 
written down as having been offered in the night.' (Muslim) 

Commentary: It shows that if a person has fixed some daily task 
of worship for himself for the night, as for instance, resolved that 
he will offer so many rak'at or recite so much of the Qur'an, and, 
on some night, he oversleeps and fails to carry out the whole or 
part of it, and, then, makes amends for it the same day before the 
time of Zuhr, God will requite him in the same measure as on 
performing it at appointed time. 



O. Meaning a daily task of devotion or worship. 



Book of Prayers 



253 



& 3 s y y- 7 Cm jl / s V 

(682/210) It is related on the authority of Sayyidah Ayshah 
Vfi*-5i( that when due to illness or some other reason the Prophet 
H? missed the Tahajjud prayer, he offered 12 rak'at during the 
day in the place of that." (Muslim) 

Rak'at of Tahajjud 

(683/21 1) It is related on the authority of Sayyidah Ayshah 
ifiP .iiii that the Messenger of Allah ® offered 1 3 at night 

which, also, included w/fr and the 2 ra/c'a/ Surtnah of Fajr. 

(Muslim) 

Commentary: What Sayyidah Ayshah ^ *»i has stated in it 
about the practice of the holy Prophet ® concerning the rak'at of 
Tahajjud denotes what he did so usually otherwise from her own 
other narratives we find that, occasionally, he offered up fewer 
Rak'at as well. 

JL> AJJl J 15 J* O A l/Y H) 

^ J5 ^ J .'7 ^ "^3 ^ 3 j s s s & tS 

j^gsi^j c£ j— 1 3 jJLf- ^J^-lj cJla3 J-JJb (♦-'-''J 

(684/212) It is related by Masrooq that he enquired from 
Sayyidah Ayshah if* <3ii about the Tahajjud of the Prophet 
III (i.e., how many rak'at he offered in it) and she replied: 
"Seven and nine and eleven besides the two rak'at (Sunnat) of 
Fajr." (Bukhari) 

Commentary: It shows that, sometimes, the Prophet iH offered 
only 7 rak'at in Tahajjud (4 rak'at of Tahajjud and 3 of witr), and 
sometimes, 1 1 (8 rak'at of Tahajjud and 3 of witr). 

Some Other Details 

^ bt lJL>j aIIp' Jill JU ^Jl 5lT dJlS JLSJlP (1A°/Y ST) 



254 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part 111 



(685/213) It is related by Sayyidah Ayshah l^ii^j that when 
the Prophet iH? stood up in the night for Tahajjud. he first 
offered two light rak'at. (Muslim) 

Commentary: Some commentators say that the Prophet Hi did so, 
probably, because he wanted to produce the feeling of alacrity and 
cheerfulness within himself before offering the longer rak'at. 

In Sahih Muslim, again, it is reported on the authority of Abu 
Hurayrah*^ that the Prophet lH said: 

"When anyone of you stands up ^ , ^ ( r ( „ 

for prayer in the night, he " l * V 

should begin it with two light "J.-.a,ar- J^'y, i ^LaJl 

rak'at. 

&\ i J^p ill Jj-^j ^l^P illJlp (TA1/Y \ I) 

£j ij^-Ulj ^Jp' U-glfl Jlkli js^j tj^ai (»J 

Ji^lj^ji ^ILJ ^ J 1 j)3 ^jlS ^3 jirl ^AJl J>I jij o^UJl 

otJjy eft J**h hj 3 J. J^'j'j^ 

el j) . \]y {gkj tfj S'/ji # faj 

(686/214) Abdullah bin Abbas ^ narrated that one night he 
stayed with the Messenger of Allah 111. So, when the time for 
Tahajjud came, he got up and cleansed his teeth with miswak 
and performed witdit, and, during that time, he was reciting 
these invocatory verses from the surah of Aal hnran: Lo! In the 
creation of the heavens and the earth and (in) the difference of 
night and day are tokens (of His sovereignty) for men of 
understanding (up to the end of surah). Then he stood for 
prayer and offered two rak'at in which he carried out very long 
cjiyam, ruku and sajdah. After that, he returned to bed and slept 
(for a little while) so much so that he began to breathe loudly. 
He did so thrice after that, (i.e., three times the Prophet 111 got 



Book of Prayers 



255 



up after a short sleep, cleansed his teeth and performed michi 
and offered two rak'at with extended qiyam, rukit and sajclah). 
He, thus, offered 6 rak'ats (in addition to the two he had said at 
first), and each time he would cleanse his teeth with miswak, 
perform wudii and recite those verses of Aal Imran. Later, he 
offered 3 Rak'ats of witr. Then, as the Muazzin gave the Azan, 
he went out for the Fajr prayer, and, at that time, he was 
reciting the prayers: 

cs* faY/y 'J- fc-fy'iy 'j^A tj//byls$'Ji J**- 1 J4^' 
o*j by o* d**b by c^ ul cytiby est J**b by ^r^. 

• by J** K 1*4"' by ^ 

Allahummaj'al fi qalbi noorun wafi lisani noorun 

(O Allah! Produce Light in my heart, and produce light in my 
tongue, and produce light in my hearing and sight, and produce 
Light in front of me and behind me and produce Light above me 
and beneath me. O God! Grant me Light.)" (Muslim) 

Commentary: Different versions of this Tradition have been 
quoted in Bukhari and Muslim and a few other compilations and 
some of them are a little more detailed. 

The offering of two brief rak'at is not mentioned in the above 
report. The narrator seems to have forgotten to relate it because in 
all other versions it is distinctly stated that the Prophet !l oiler 13 
rak'at while, in it, only 1 1 are mentioned which leads one to 
conclude that the present narrator did not mention the first two 
Rak'at presumbaly because he felt that those were not a part of 
Tahajjitd but Tahiyyat-itl-wudii. 

The "Prayer of Light" staled in it contains nine phrases but, in 
som other versions, some more phrases are found. It is a most 
luminous prayer, indeed. It is a supplication to Allah to grant light 
in body and spirit and around oneself. The verse of the Qur'an is is 
recalled: 

(r°:r i jjJi) Jf>')ib ^'j^-J 1 /y I 

Also the verse: 



256 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



lj>, Syk 5^ A^ia* ijsxj ii-jS'j 5^ ^3 

' * } ^ s 3 * ^ s s s * ^ ^ t s s s s s 

^\ju*i\j\ oJUuJlj tLlJlj jl^ip J 1 !} 3ji2l iJS oUf 3 ,^23 

(j jb jjI atjj) . iljLii l_>-s 

(687/215) It is related by Huzayfah ^> that, one night, he saw 
the Prophet HH offer the Tahajjud prayer. Commencing it, the 
Prophet said: "Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, 
Zul-malakoot wal-jabroot wal-kibriyai wal-'azmati (God is 
Most Great, God is Most Great, God is Most Great, Lord of 
Sovereignty and Power, Splendour and Greatness). After it, he 
began the prayer. Then (after surah Al-Fateha), the Prophet 
recited surah Al-Baqarah, and then, performed ruku and his 
ruku was like qiyam (i.e., as he had made a very long qiyam and 
recited the whole of surah Al-Baarah in one rak'at so, also, did 
he carry out a porlonged ruku), and during it, he went on saying, 
again and again: Subhana rabi-biyal azeem (Glory to Allah, the 
Most Great). He, then, raised his head from ruku, and stood for 
longtime as he had done in ruku, and, during quama, the 
formula Li-rabbial hamd (All praise to Allah) was on his lips. 
After it, as he performed the sajdah, his sajdah, too, was very 
long like his ruku, and, during it, he said: Subhaana 
rab-biyal-a'laa (Glory to Allah, the Most High). Then, he raised 
his head from sajdah and between the two sajdas he sat for as 
much time as in the sajdah, and, during the interveening Jalsa, 
he prayed: Rabbighfirli, Rabbighfirli (Forgive me, my Lord! 
Forgive me, my Lord)! He offered 4 rak'at at that time in which 
he recited surah Al-Aal Imran, surah An-Nisaa and surah 
Al-Maidah or surah Al-An'aam. (Shu'ba the teacher of the 
teacher of Imam Abu Dawood, is not sure whether his teacher, 



Book of Prayers 



257 



'Amr bin Murrah, had spoken of the recital of surah Al-Maidah 
or surah at-An'aam in the foruth Rak'at). (Abu Dawood) 



Commentary: Many other Companions, besides Sayyidina 
Huzayfah have, also, narrated events regarding the offering of 
Tahajjud by the Prophet 111 with a prolonged recital and greatly 
extended ruku and sajdah. Thus, Awf bin Maalik Ashj'aee has 
described the Prophet's lH Tahajjud prayer of a night in which he 
recited surah Al-Baqarah and surah Al-Imran in the first two 
Rak'at, and even longer surahs, perhaps surah An-Nisaa and surah 
Al-Maida, in the next two rak'at, and in such a way that when a 
verse of Mercy occured, he halted and prayed for Mercy during the 
recital and when a verse of punishment occurred, he sought 
protection from it in the same manner. 

It should be kept in the mind that the authorities are 
unanimously of the view that it is altogether legitimate to halt and 
pray during recital in Tahajjud, as in all over Nafl prayers. 



(688/216) It is related by Abu Zarr Ghifari 4fe that (once) in a 
nightly prayer (i.e., Tahajjud) the Prophet i§? went on reciting a 
single verse till it was morning and the verse (of Al-Ma'dah) 
was: In to'azzibhum fa-inna-hum 'ibduka wa in taghj'irlahum 
fa-innaka antal 'azeezul hakeem (If You do punish them, they 
are Your slaves, and if You do forgive them, You are the 
Exalted, the Wise) (V: 121) (Nasai and Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: The aforementioned verse is a part of the statement 
of regret and humble petition made by Sayyidina Isa in reply 
to a question put to him by Allah. It is stated in the last section of 
\ surah Maidah that, on the Day of Judgement, God will ask him if 
he had told his followers to deify him and his mother aside of 
Allah. Prophet Isa will, then, plead his innocence and say: 

"O Lord! Nothing is concealed from You. You are the Knower 
of what is hidden and it is Your Knowledge that I had preached to 
them nothing but Divine Unity and invited them, solely, to it. They 




258 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



took to polytheism after I had departed from the world. 

^ ) K.o aOJU) 

Now, if You do punish them for it, they are Your servants and 
You have the right to chastise them as it pleases You, and if 
You do forgive them, that is easy for You. You are the 
Ail-Powerful, the All-wise, and Your decision shall not be out 
of compulsion or constraint but sapience and good judgement." 

As for the act of reciting the verse, again and again, till 
daybreak, some commentators have remarked that, perhaps, on 
arriving at it, the Prophet ill was reminded of his followers about 
whom it had been revealed to him that like the earlier communities, 
they, too, would fall a prey, in quite a large way, to the polythestic 
beliefs and practices, and, out of the resulting anxiety, he went on 
repeating the humble request and entreaty of Prophet Isa 

jJLj %\ JU ijdi sfjl dJiT JiS 3>;> ^ pAi/r \ V) 

(i )\Sy\ at j j) . I jjb jWlfjjp tfji JaUl< 

(689/217) Abu Hurayrah narrates that in the prayer of the 
night the Prophet HI, sometimes, did the recitation in a loud 
voice, and, sometimes in a low voice. (Abu Dawood) 

2U# £^ (i-j ill jU <5>i J}^3 & ^ 'J>'(f 

JlSj dill JjHj ^ <>" *~***-"^ *^ J^ ^SSyfi J&isxJ ^ji^l? CJlj 

'ja ^iji jSytJl rJ jJJUij aIIp 4jji ^yLff ^1 Jtfs ^Ik-sJ' 5 

fi r S 3 * S t S S 

(4jbjjl«\jj) . tili v-^Jj-i? (^aa^-l Jtij ll£<— ^j-^ 

(690/218) It is related by Abu Qatadah that one night, the 
Messenger of Allah Hi went out and saw that Abu Bakr was 
offering prayer in a very subdued voice, and as he passed by 
Umar 4^b, he found him offering prayer in a very loud voice. 
When (at some other time) both of them came to the Prophet Hi 



Book of Prayers 



259 



together, he said to Abu Bakr, "I passed by you and saw that 
you were praying in a very low voice." Abu Bakr 4fe replied, "I 
made myself heard to Whom I was addressing, and He heard 
me." Then, in the same way, the Prophet H§l said to Umar 4^>, "I 
passed by you in the night and saw that you were praying in a 
very loud voice." "O messenger of Allah," replied Umar 4fe>, "1 
wanted to wake up the sleepy ones and to drive away the Satan 
by reciting loudly." The Prophet 0, observed, "Abu Bakr 4^>, 
you should pray a little more loudly, and, Umar you should 
pray a little more quietly." (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: Generally, it is better to offer Tahajjud in a 
moderate voice. It should neither be too loud nor too subdued. But, 
if at anytime, it was preferable to pray it quietly, it should be done 
that way, and, similarly, in case it was more appropriate, at a 
particular time, to offer it in a loud voice, one should do so. 

Chasht and Ishraq 

As no obligatory prayer has been prescribed between Isha and 
Fajr, and one is exhorted to only offer a few rak'ats of Tahajjud 
during that time, in the same way no obligatory prayer has been 
enjoined for the long interwal between Fajr and Zuhr, but we are 
advised to offer at aleast two and as many as posible rak'at of Nafl 
as Salat-ud-Duha during it. If these rak'at are offered a short while 
after sunrise, they are called Ishraq and if when the day has 
advanced considerably, Chasht. 

Here we shall give the substance of what Shah Waliullah has to 
say about these Nafl rak'at. 

"The day (which among the Arabs begins with Fajr and is 
divided into four parts called Pahr or divisions), it was decided by 
Allah, in His Infinite Wisdom, that none -of the four divisions of it 
should be withour prayer. Thus, Fajr was made obligatory at the 
beginnig of the first division and Zuhr and Asr for the third and 
foruth divisions respectively, and, in the second division, which 
had been left free from an obligatory service as a concession to the 
economic activities of the people, as a whole, Salat-ud-Duha was 
enjoined as a Nafl prayer and by narrating its virtues, it was 
suggested, by way of an inducement, that the bondsmen who could 
find time from their engagements to offer a few rak'at during it 



260 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part HI 



should avail themselves of the blessing. Salat-ud-duha, is, at least, 
2 rak'at, but 4 rak'at are more beneficial, and 8, even better." 1 
Let us now read some ahadith on the subject. 



^y^aJ( ^ | » gitC ^j jbiTj (ij^J i3»W> j^l«J( 

(691/219) It is related by Abu Zarr Ghifari 4^ that the Prophet 
Hi said: 'There is charity on each joint of everyone of you in the 
morning (i.e., when anyone rises in sound, he should express his 
gratitude to Allah by offering charity that is, performing a good 
and virtuous deed, in the name of every joint, and the list of 
such deeds is very long). Thus, to say Subhana Allah (Glory to 
God) once is charity, and to say Al-hamdu lillaah (Praise to be 
God), also, is charity, and to say laa ilaaha illal-Allah (there is 
no god save One God), also, is charity, and to sanction what is 
allowed and forbid what is prohibited, also, is charity, and, for 
this thanksgiving, two rak'at are enough which one should offer 
at the time of Chasht." (Muslim) 

Commentary: It shows that the propitiatory offering a man should 
make every morning on behalf of his joints get fulfilled with the 
offering of two rak'at of Chasht, one of the reasons of which, 
probably, is that prayer is a form of worship in which each and 
every limb and joint of a person, and his inner and outward selves, 
participates. 

(692/220) It is related by Abu Darda and Abu Zarr Ghifari 4& 
that the Messenger of Allah ill narrated that Allah has said, "O 
son of Adam, you take upon yourself only this much of 

O.Hujjatullah-il-Baligha 



Book of Prayers 



261 



responsibility that you will offer 4 rak'at for My sake during the 
early part of the day, and I, in return, shall suffice you till the 
rest of the day." (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: The bondsman who offers 4 rak'at. at the time of 
lsharaq or Chasht, with absolute reliance upon the promise of 
Allah, will Insha Allah see how his whole day's needs are supplied 
by Him. 

. <UJ( s.LiU £jXi&') cJl3 ? ^giwaJl b'^Li? ^Liij ^JL^ij <ulp 

Oljj) 

(693/221) Mu'azah Adawiyah narrated to us that (once) she 
asked Sayyidah Ayshah L^piiii^j how many rak'at did the 
Prophet We offer in the prayer of Chasht. She replied: "Four 
rak'at and as many more as Allah willed." (Muslim) 

Commentary: It shows that the Prophet lH usually offered 4 
rak'at at the time of Chashl, and, occsionally. a few more. 
Sayyidah Ayshah's 4-* ^ own practice was to offer four rak'at 
and so intense was her fondness for them that she would say, 
"Even if my parents were sent back to the world I will not miss 
these rak'at in the excitement of meeting them." 

J>i aIIp iln jU ^Ji cJlS JjjlA ^1 (n <U/Y Y Y) 

i k jip~\ Jai d'jLpj\ j»i3 OUT j ^Uj ^ji-i'J J-»^Pli iS^> 

(694/222) It is related on the authority of Umm Haani bint Abu 
Talib if* «ii that the Messenger of Allah III came to her 
house on the day of the Victory of Makkah where he had a bath, 
and. then, offered 8 rak'at (which were so brief that) she had not 
seen a prayer as brief as that, but he was carrying out ruku and 
sajda fully." (In another version of the same Tradition it is 
stated that it was the time of Chasht). 



pL>j &J-'&\ ill J)^>j Jl5 Jll iyfj» ^\ If- (IWy YT) 



262 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



(695/223) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4fe that the Messenger 
of Allah lH said: "Whoever took care to offer 2 rak'at at 
Chasht, all his sins will be forgiven even though they are as 
profuse as the foam of the sea." 

(Tirmizi, Musnad Ahmad and Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: We have explained earlier the meaning of 
forgiveness of sins against worship and righteousness. That must 
be remembered here. 

ȣ\ ^Caj d/>(L ^iU>jt Jl5 iy.jA ^j* p <\ VY Y i ) 

(696/224) It is related by Abu Hurayrah «fe "My beloved, the 
Prophet III, exhorted me specially three things: three days of 
fasting every month; two rak'at of Chasht and offering of Witr 
before retiring to bed. " (Muslim) 

(697/225) It is related by Abu Saeed Khudri 4§& "(Sometimes) 
the Prophet iH offfered the Chasht with (such) needfulness and 
constancy that we used to say that he would, now, never omit it 
(and go on saying it forever), and, (sometimes), he gave it up (in 
such a manner) that we used to say that he would, now, 
(perhaps), never offer it." (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: Explaining why the Prophet did not offer Chasht 
(regularly), Sayyidah Ayshah 4»i once remarked "sometimes 
he even abastained from acts which were very dear to his heart for 
fear that the common Muslims would observe them in emulation of 
his example, and these would be (ultimately) prescribed to them as 
a duty." 

Anyhow, the holy Prophet ill, occasionally, used to omit Nqfl 
prayers like those of Chasht and Ishraq for the reason indicated 
above by her, and it is an accepted principal that anyone who 
desists from performing a virtuous deed with such an aim and 



Book of Prayers 



263 



intention continues to earn the reward that is on it even during the 
period of abstention. Evidently, a consideration like that was 
exclusive to the Prophet No one else enjoys that position. 

Nafl Prayers on Special Occasions 

The Nafl prayers which are to be offered before or after Fard 
rak'at, as also Tahajjud, Chasht and Ishraq, have a fixed time at 
which alone these can be offered. But there are some other prayers 
like Tahiy at ul-wudu (two rak'at of ablution), Tahhiyya-tul Masjid 
(two rak'at of mosque), Salalul Haajah (the prayer of need), 
Salah-i-Tawba (prayer of repentance), Salah Istikhara (Prayer of 
angury). They are related not to a particular hour but to a particular 
occasion or circumstances. These prayers are not offered at a 
specified time but whenever the need is felt or the conditions that 
call for them arise. We have already examined the Traditions 
regarding Tahiyyalul Wudu and Tahiyyatul Masjid. Now, we 
propose to take up the sayings that appertain to the other Nafl 
prayers of this category. 

Salat Istighfar 

p> uii u - ?^ Jj^ p**j t5^« 

(698/226) Sayyidina Ali narrated that Abu Bakr 4fe (who, 
certainly is truthful and sincere of speech) said to him that he 
heard the Prophet s§l say: "If anyone commits a sin, and, then, 
gets up, and performs wudu, and offers prayer, and seeks the 
forgiveness of Allah, He, in any-case, forgives him." After it, 
the Prophet recited the verse of the Qur'an: 

^jiJ^tjyiaiili ilh j^i fa-M l^iifcjl 2Ljj>-l3 lil Ji^tj" 



264 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



"And those who, when they do an evil thing or wrong 
themselves, remember Allah and implore forgiveness for their 
sins — who forgiveth sins save Allah only? — and will not, 
knowingly, repeat the wrong they did.(Aal-c-Imran:l35.136)(Tirmizi) 

Commentary: The verse mentioned above is from surah Aal 
Imran. At frist, the pious bondsmen of Allah are spoken of for 
whom Heaven has, specially, been prepared. It is, then, added that: 
The reward of such will be forgiveness from their Lord, and 
Gardens underneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide 
forever bountiful reward for those who act. 

In it, glad tidings of forgiveness and Paradise are given the 
sinning bondsmen who are not habitual sinners but their state is 
that they feel sincere regret when they go astray and are guilty of a 
major or minor transgression and turn to the Lord in earnest 
repetance. 

In this Tradition the Prophet Hi has said that the best way to 
beseech pardon of Allah is to offer two rak'at, after performing 
ablution, and, then, pray for the remission of one's sins. The sin 
will, in that case, be forgiven. 

Salatul Hajat 

iJJl JLp Jjl J}^3 JlS Jll J>'$ [J* J>. JjU^" ^ (1 W Y Y V) 
j~J4ti Urjslia ^> ly> ^1 j\ Jit J\ kfl*- <0 CJlT ^Lij 

&\ *is» i\ & *i ft fi*j 4* 

^jTJpj i^^ioji-j CjC^-ja t»_£i£~»>t jlJliJl 4JU JU^dlj j«4^*^' 

C&rrfy £ *i\ U 9 j 33' ii-W j i\ lift 

(699/227) It is related on the authority of Abdullah bin Abu 
Awfa 4fe that the Messenger of Allah said: "Whoever has a 
need, in relation to Allah or man (i.e., no matter whether it is 
connected directly with Allah and no bondsman comes into the 
picture or apparently, with a bondsman), he should first perform 



Book o f Prayers 



265 



Wudu, and perfrom it well, and, then, offer 2 rak'at prayer, and, 
then, recite praises in honour of Allah, and, then, send blessings 
on the Prophet Hi, and, then, beseech the Lord in these words: 

JU^iij j>'jd\ Jj( 51^0 . ^_J3\ (i^Ji iui i\ ii\ i 

i^SjjA*J> k__X~<k^-j CjC^-jA (_^jLi-j( i y s A^J>l\ i_Jj 

Laailaaha il~ lallaahu alhaleemul kareem, subhan allahi rcibbil 
'arshil azeem, wal-hamdu lillaahi rabbil 'aakimeen, as-'aluka 
mooj ibaal-i-rahmatika wa 'aza'ima maghfaratika wal- 
ghuneemata min kulli bir-riwas-salaamata mm kulli ithmin laa 
tada'a li zanban ilia ghafartahu wa laa hamman ilia farrajtahu 
wa laa hajjalan hiya laka rizan ilia cjazailaha yaa 
ar-ham-urrahimeen. 

(There is no deity but Allah, the Most Benevolent, the Most 
Grecious. Sublime is He who is the Owner of the Great throne. 
All praise is for Allah who is the Lord of the Worlds. O Allah! 1 
beg of You deeds and virtues and states that are a source of 
Your Mercy and a sure means to Your Forgiveness, and I beg 
You a share in all good things, and I seek Your protection from 
all evils. O Allah! Forgive me all my sins and remove from me 
every anxiety and distress and fulfil my every need that may be 
pleasing to You. You are the Most Merciful of those who show 
mercy." (Tirmizi and lbn Majah) 

Commentary: It is a matter of faith with all truthful Believers that 
everything lies in the hands of Allah and what may seem to be done 
through the agency of man, actually, gets accomplished by His 
command. Scrlalul Hajah, indicated by the sacred Prophet Hi in the 
above Tradition, is the most effective means of getting one's needs 
granted by Him. It is the everyday experience of the bondsmen who 
are fortunate enough to place reliance on these spiritual realities. 
They, indeed, have come to regard Salami Hajah as the key to the 
treasures of the Lord. 

In this Tradition the Prophet Hi has advised us to take recourse 
to Sulalul Hajah for the fulfilment of such wants also that, 
apparently, are connected with this or that bondsman. One of its 



266 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



exceptional advantages is that when we will pray to Allah in this 
manner, after offering the two rak'at of Salatul Hajat, for our needs 
of a similar kind, our belief that it is not the bondsman but Allah 
who is the disperser of wants will grow stronger and we will begin 
to look upon the bondsman only as a tool of Divine will and 
purpose. After it, when we will see a need of ours being fulfilled, it 
will not have the effect of weakening or undermining our faith in 
the Unity of Allah. 

*Ja\ luj*- \i\ iLij ih\ JU ^Ji jiT jii i£JJ- (V • -/y ya) 

V 

(700/228) Huzaifah 4|e> related to us that it was custom of the 
Prophet lH that whenever he was confronted with a preplexing 
situation he engaged himself in prayer. (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: In the Qur'an, too, the bondsmen are exhorted: 

Seek help in steadfastness and prayer (Al-Baqarah2:153) 

The Prophet accordingly, used to occupy himself in prayer 
of seeking the help of Allah in every difficulty and the detailed 
manner of it that he taught to his followers is contaned in Abdullah 
bin Abi Awfa's narrative geven earlier. 

Salat Istikhara 

The knowledge of man is limited.- It is, also, imperfect. Often it 
happens that he want to do a thing the outcome of which is not 
good for him. The Prophet $H has advised us to offer Salatul 
Istakhara x when we have an important decision to take but connot 
make up our mind, and, through it, beseech Allah for guidance and 
good fortune. 

lliiiJ jjLj ds. iiJl JU> Jjl Sjltj 5lT JlS y^r tf> (V • \ft Y <\) 

3 * X s ' & s * ' » * * 3 * 3 s * * » & ' s % * * 3 } * 3 ' S * 3 3 

- ^ — - c c - c c c 

O. Istikhara denotes the act of imploring Allah to guide one to the right course 
concerning an endeavour. 



Book of Prayers 



267 



JiS <u o& <LL?- ^ joii j a^p j ^ 

(c5 jbxJl aljj) . As^-Ui- ^j^-lJj 

(701/229) It is related by Jabir 4fe that the Messenger of Allah 
all taught us the method of doing Istikhara in our affairs with 
the same care and solicitude with which he taught us the verses 
of the Qur'an. He said: "When anyone of you decides to do a 
thing (and is worried about the outcome, he should do Istikhara 
like this). (He should) first offer 2 rak'ats of Nafl, and, then, 
entreat the Lord in these words: 

' f 3 9 ' 3 3 * 3 3 3 3 ^ 3 " 3*' 

jlT cJS- ^siJt ^ jJUt j AiP ^jSjJslj ^£ Afljjsli (Air 1 !} ,S y>\ JjrlP 

AUahumma in-ni astakhiruka bi' ilmika wa astaqdiruka 
bi-qudratika wa as'aluka min fadlikal 'azeem, fa-in-naka 
taqdiru wa laa aqdiru wa t'alamu wa laa aalamu wa anta 
'aUannil ghuyoob. AUahumma in kunta t'alamu in-na hazzal 
amra khairun-li fi deeni wa ma'ashi wa 'aaqibati amri 
(Awqaala fi 'aajiliamri wa jilihi) faa aqdir-hu li wa yassir-hu li 
thumma baarika lifeehi wa in kunta t'alamu an-na haazal amra 
sharrun-li fi deeni wa ma'ashi wa 'aaqibati amri (Awqaala fi 
'aajiliamri wa ajilihi) faasrifhu 'an-ni wasrifni 'an-hu waqdir 
liya-al-khaira haithu kaana thum-ma ardhini bihi 



268 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



(O Allah! I seek good guidance from Your through Your 
Attribute of Knowledge, and I seek strength from You though 
Your Attribute of Power, and I beg You for Your Great Favour. 
You are All-Powerful, and I am helpless; You are All-Knowing 
and I am ignorant. And You know the Unseen. If in Your 
knowledge this thing is good for me, for my Faith, and my 
world, and the Hereafter, ordain it for me, and make it easy for 
me, and bless me in it. And if in Your Knowledge it is harmful 
for me, for my Faith, and my world, and the Hereafter, keep me 
away from it and prevent me from doing it, and ordain for me 
what is and, then, make me contented with it)." 

The narrator added that the Prophet l§l, also, said: "The thing 
for which Istikhara is done should be specifically mentioned 
while making the suplication." (Bukhari) 

Commentary: As it is clear from the above supplication, the 
essence of Istikhara lies in the fact that the bondsman, while 
acknowledging his own ignorance and helplessness, seeks help and 
guidance from the Omniscient and Omnipotent Lord and master 
entrusts his affair to His charge and leaves it to Him to do about it 
what He thinks best. He surrenders aim and interest to the Divine 
Will and when this supplication is made as it ought to be, with all 
sincerity and conviciton, it can not be that Allah did not help and 
guide him. It is not revealed in this Tradition how the guidance of 
Allah will be made available to the bondsmen, but experience tells 
that, generaly, it is through a dream or some other indirect 
suggestion from the Unknown. Sometimes, it, also, happens that, 
without an apparent reason, the inclination to do the particular 
thing grows or the heart turns away from it altogether. Both of 
these states should be believed in as from Allah and the outcome of 
the supplication. If the feeling of uncertainly persists after 
Istikhara, it should be done again and no steps taken until a distinct 
inclination is produced, one way or the other. 



Salatul Tasbih 

jilt y\ y\ *i\ Jpa£i h\ «lU a l; yi&Xft^ 



Book of Prayers 

j J ^ ^ ^ s ? j s y s / 3 * } } s 3 " * 

ilji} iliw it ^ j aj jU£it j Jji ^is^i cii cit j j j< 

^ . „ * i , "* a J t ' s v« _ 3s ^ %ss * C % ' s ' s3' 

^■N—tlj j»J 1 CJtj 1^3 ^ib3 y j^j 0 y> i 

% s ^ % > % ^ } f f, j " # 3 s s* 3 3 * $ s ' s s 

* ■*■*■ j ^ / » ' ' 3 "* ' j ? ^ * 3 ' 3**3 ' y ' J 

^fll Jiii 6 ^ V ^ lK J*^ r ' ^ V 

in ■■ 

(702/230) It is related by Abdullah bin Abbas 4fe that, and day, 
the Prophet aft said to his uncle, Abbas bin Abdul Muttalib 4fe: 
"O Abbas! O my respected uncle! May 1 offer you a precious 
gift and a valuable present? May I tell you something special? 
May 1 do ten jobs for you and render you ten services (i.e., tell 
you about an act from which ten benefits may accue)? (It is such 
an act that if you perforin it) Allah will forgive you all your sins, 
of the past as well as the future, older as well as new, intentional 
as well as unintentional, major as well as minor, hidden as well 
as manifest. (It is Salatut-Tasbih, and the method of offering it 
is) that you say 4 rak'at of Nafl and recite surah AI-Fateha and 
some other surah in every rak'at. When you have finished the 
recital in the first rak'at say, Subhaan Allah wa al-hamdu 
lil-laah wa laa ilaaha il-lallah wa Allahu Akbar 15 times while 
still standing, and, then, perform ruku and say it 10 times, and, 
then, say it 1 0 times, again in the state of qiyam, as you arise 
from ruku, and, then, perform sajdah and say it 10 times during 
sajdah also, and, then, say it 10 times jalsa, as you rise up from 
sajdah, and, then, say it 10 times in the second sajdah, and, 
then, 10 times after it (i.e., before getting up from the second 



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Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



sajdah). Offer all the 4 rak'at like that and utter the Kalima of 
Subhan Allah wa al-hamdu lil-laah wa laa ilaaha il-lallaah wa 
Allahu Akbar 75 times (in all) in the same order in every rak'at. 
(My uncle), if you can manage it, offer this prayer every day, 
and if you cannot do so every day then every Friday, and if even 
that not be possible, once in a year, and in case, too, cannot to 
be done then once in your life." 

(Abu Dawood, Ibn Majah and Baihaqi) 

Commentary: The exhortation by the Prophet Hi to offer Salatut 
Tasbih has been quoted in standard compilations of the Traditions, 
on the authrity of a number of Companions. Imam Tirmizi, after 
qouting the narrative of the Prophet's $!> attendant and manumitted 
slave, Abu Raff, remarks that Abdullah bin Abbas <j^>, Abdullah 
bin Amr and Fazl bin Abbas, also, have related it. Hafiz Ibn Hajr 
has discussed at length the reports concerning Salatut Tasbih and 
the documentary evidence of their transmission, in course of the 
refutation of Ibn al-Jawzi\ and concluded that this Tradition is, at 
least, authentic in the second degree. Some Taba'een and Tab' a 
Taba'een, including the renowned jurist, Abdullah bin Mubarak, 
too, are known to have described the virtues of Saltut Tasbih and 
urged the people to observe it which clearly shows that, in their 
view, it had been, definitely, taught by the Prophet III, and, in the 
subsequent ages, many men of outstanding virtue and holiness 
have been offering it regularly. Making an original point, Shah 
Waliullah aJ* &\ Us-j observes that the Prophet Hi has taught a 
number of supplications and God remembrance for recitation in 
prayer, particularly the Nwafil. Now, the bondsmen who fail to 
include them fully in their prayer, and, thus, remain deprived of the 
good fortune to offer a most perfect prayer, inclusive of these 
formulas, for them Salatut Tasbih becomes a substitute since it 
gives afullest expression to the glorifcation and exaltation of Allah. 
Moreover, as one and the same formula is to be repeated in it, 
again and again, even the common people can offer it easily. 
According to the method and arrangement of Salatut Tasbih stated 

O. Allama Ibn al-Jawzi is famous for his extremist views on the Tradtions. He 
has declared many reports false and fictious whose authenticity is beyond 
doubt according to the other authorties. The Tradition regarding Salatut 
Tasbih, too, has been rejected by him as untrue. 



Book of Prayers 



271 



by Imam Tirmizi and others, on the authority of Abdullah bin 
Mubarak, Subhanak allahumma wa bihamdika wa tabaraksmuka 
wa ta'ala jadduka wa laa ilaaha ghairuka is, also, to be said before 
recitation, and Subhana rabbiyal azeem in ruku and Subhana 
rabbiyal a'ala in sajdah, as in any other prayer, and in every rak'at, 
Subhan Allah wa al-hamdu lil-lah wa laa ilaaha il-lallaah wa 
Allahu Akbar is repeated 15 times before and 10 times after the 
recitation in qiyam. The Kalima is thus said 25 times in the qiyam 
of each rak'at but it is not recited after the second sajdah in any 
rak'at. In all, it will be said 75 times in every rak'at and 300 times 
in the whole prayer. Nonetheless, both the methods of Salalut 
Tasbih are in vogue and one can adopt whichever of the two one 
likes. 

That prayer is a source of remission of sins and purification 
from the unclean effects is set forth, doctrinally, in the Qur'an as 
well: 

" oUlUl ^AJb oL-^Jl l\ jijl ^ liljj jl^Jl ^> 3 j&\ jii 
(lU:n .ipoj^) 

Establish worship at the two ends of the day and in some 
watches of the night. Lo! good deesds annual ill deeds 

(Hud 11:114) 

But the unique place Salatut Tasbih occupies in this regard has 
been distinctly shown in Abdaullah bin Abbas's narrative quoted 
above, and it is, by its blessedness, that all the earlier and 
subsequent, old and new. intentional and unitentional, major and 
minor, and minifest and hidden sins are forgiven by Allah. 

It is stated in a Tradition quoted in Abu Dawood that the 
Prophet 6H while exhorting one of his Companions Abdullah 
bin Amr, to offer Salatut Tasbih Said: 

" 33iL j& 61 je'fis Jit cJr jJ " 

"Even if you happen to be the greatest sinner in the world, Allah 
will forgive you owing to its propitiousness." 

May Allah save us from depriving ourselves of this blesing and 
may He join us with those who benefit from it. 



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Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



A Special Advantage oi Nafl Prayers 

Our discussion on Nafl prayers has concluded. Let us read the 
following hadith: 

'J'j^i £$JJt ciia 2LuxJt ciJi Jtl 2Uala dJ^- j£ (V • Y7\ n ) 

^ ^ £ i ^ ^ ' & ' ? ' 

l*JL«ij aJLp 4_U 1 j^^Utf <*JUl J j**>j j-o 4 ato-^> i^jwb>tj ^jjjxi \>ilLp L^lbr 

jiil JoSsi* U <b J-*^ ^ J* )'J^ 

(703/231) Harith bin Qabisah narrated that on coming to 
Madinah, he prayed to God: O Allah! Grant me the company of 
a virtuous bondsman of Thine. Later, as he went to see Abu 
Hurayrah he said to him: 'I had prayed to God to grant me 
the company of a virtuous bondsman (and now I have come to 
you). Relate a Tradition to me which you may have, personally 
heard from the Prophet Hi. I hope God will make it beneficial 
for me." Abu Hurayrah therupon, related this Tradition. He 
said: "I heard the Prophet say: On the Day of Reckoning the 
first thing to be brought to account from among the deeds of the 
bondsman will be prayers, and his prayers will be examined. So, 
if his prayers turns to be good, the bondsman will be successful, 
and if it turn out to be bad, the bondsman will be lost. If there is 
deficiency in his prayers, Allah will, say: Look, if there are any 
other virtuous acts (i.e., Sunnat and Nawafil), apart from duties, 
in My bondsman's stock of deeds so that the deficiency in (the 
fulfilment of) obligatory tasks can be made up with them. The 
Reckoning of all other deeds, besides prayers, will, then, be 
done in the same way." (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: This one hadith is by itself sufficient to highlight 
the significance of Sunnah and Nawafil. 



SPECIAL CONGREGATIONAL PRAYERS 
FRIDAY AND THE TWO EIDS 

In addition to the five obligatory prayers which ought to be 
offered congregationally and the Sunnah and Nafl prayers that are 
offered individually, there are a few prayers which are offered only 
in congregation and can justly be described as the grand peculiarity 
of the Muslim Comunity. One of these is the wekly Friday prayer 
and the others are the prayers of Eidul Fitr and Eid-ul-Adha that 
are held once each in a year. 

The advantages of offering the five obligatory prayers 
congregationally are obtained on a larger scale from the prayer, of a 
Friday and the two Eids, but there are some other gains, too. that 
are related to them exclusively. 

We will, frist. make some brief observation about the Friday 
prayers which will, perhaps, be helpful in understanding the aim 
and purpose of the Traditions appertaining to them. 

As only the Muslims of a limited area or part of a town 
popularly called locality can gather together for the five daily 
prayers, a day has been set apart in the week on which the Muslims 
of the whole town can collect in a large mosque for a special 
prayer. 1 

O. From the extraordianary significance attached to the Friday prayer in the 
Shari'ah as well as the general conduct of the Ummah during the time of the 
Prophet itiu, the Companions and the Taba'een and even later on, it would 
appear that it should be held, as far as possible, only at one place in a town or 
settlement. If, however, there is no such mosque in which all the worshippers 
can assemble, some other suitable mosques can be marked out for it according 
to the need. But even then care should be taken that the Fraiday prayer is 
offered in one mosque alone in a quarter or part of a town. The practice of 
holding the prayer in all mosques of a locality is against the spirit and 
intention of Shari'ah. 



274 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



The most appropraite time for such a prayer would, obviously, 
be that of Zuh\ and, out of the 4 rak'at of Zuhr, only two have 
been described for the Friday prayer. In order to make the 
congregation more effective and beneficial from the educational 
and instructional point of view, the Khutba, i.e., sermon has been 
enjoined in the place of the two omitted rak'at, and Friday has been 
fixed for it because it is the greatest and most auspicious day of the 
week. Just as, on all days the Divine Grace and Benevolence is 
directed, in the greatest degree, towards the bondsmen during the 
last hours of the night, and one night, i.e., Laylatul Qadr — the 
Night of Power — is most blessed of all the nights of the year, in 
the same way among the seven days of the week, Friday is the day 
of special favour of Allah, and. as will be seen from the Traditions 
given below, it is for this reason that events of utmost importance 
to mankind have taken place and are going to take place, from the 
side of Allah, on it. 

On account of these peculiarities, Friday was selected for a 
magnificent weekly congregational prayer and the Muslims were 
required strictly to participate in it. They are exhorted, or, in a 
sense, it is demanded of them, to take a bath, put on a good, clean 
dress and apply perfume, if availabe, before going for the prayers 
so that, apart from inner and spiritual blessings, the solemn 
congreagation may, also, present a neat and delightful spectacle 
and bear the closest possible resemblance to the sacred assembly of 
the angels. 

Superiority of Friday 

(704/232) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4^£> that the Messenger 
of Allah III said: "Of all the seven days on which the sun rises 
(i.e., of all the days of week), the best and most superior is 
Friday. It was on a Friday that Allah created Adam, and a Friday 
on which he was admitted to Heaven and a Friday on which he 
was taken out of Heaven sent down to world (where the human 



Book of Prayers 



275 



race originated from him), and the Hour (of Doom) will, also, 
be on a Friday". (Muslim) 

Durood Sharif is The Special 
Prayer Formula of Friday 

jJLj ds- tilt JJip till J^l»j JlS Jl5 J) ^P (V • o/YYT) 

. frCtfiSLl^ ^ jST» Jp f> aj( Jii 

(705/233) It is related by Aws bin Aus Thaqafi 4fe that the 
Messenger of Allah ill said: "Friday is among the most superior 
days. It was on it that Adam was created, and it was on it that he 
died, and it will be on it that the Trumpet of Doom will be 
sounded, and it will be on it that the slumber of death will 
descend upon all created beings. You should, therefore, invoke 
blessings (send Durood) much and often on me on a Friday for 
Durood is communicated and will continue to be communicated 
to me." The Companions , thereupon, asked: "O Messenger of 
Allah! (after your death) how will our Durood be carried to 
You? Your body will have been reduced to dust in the grave." 
The Prophet HI replied: "Allah has forbidden the dead bodies of 
the Prophets to the earth (i.e., their dead bodies remain 
untouched in the grave and the earth can bring about no change 
in them)." (Abu Dawood, Nasai, Ibn Majah, Daarami and Baihaqi) 

Commentary: It shows that just as the special prayer of the month 
of Ramzan is the recital of the Qur'an and of the Haj, the slogan of 
Labbaik allahumma labbaik, the sepcial prayer of Friday is 
Durood. It should, therefore, be offered profusely on it. 

In it, the Prophet Hi has also revealed that it has been so 
arranged by Allah that Durood of the Ummah is presented before 
him and it shall continue to be so even after his death. (In some 
other Traditions it is also stated that the angels cary Durood to the 
Prophet all). Upon it, some Companions thought that the 



276 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



coming of the angels to the Prophet and the carrying of Durood 
to him was quite understandable and also known to them, but when 
after his death the Prophet life will be buried in the grave, and, 
according to the law of nautre, his earthly frame will be reduced to 
dust, how will Durood be communicated to him. They, therefore, 
enquired about it from the Prophet Hfe who explained to them that 
by the command of Allah the dead bodies of the Propehts f»*>LJi ^Js- 
remain intact in the graves and the earth does not carry out its 
natural action upon them, i.e., as in the world corpses can be 
preserved from decay by impregnating them with certain chemicals 
or some other means, so has the Almighty made the dead bodies of 
His Messengers safe in the graves and an unusual existence is 
conferred on them which is quite in keeping with laws of the world 
that lies on the other side of death. The process of the 
communication and presentation of Durood will, thus, go on 
without an interruption after death as well. 

Hour of Exceptional Propitiousness On a Friday 

J l\ ^L,j till JU> aJJi J ji^ JlS Jl5 YJiJ» ^ j£ (Y . V Y r i ) 

(706/234) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4is> that the Messenger 
of Allah said: "There comes a time on a Friday when if a 
Muslim bondsman is fortunate enough to supplicate to God for 
something worth having, God grants it (to him)." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: It shows that in the way a special night of mercy 
and acceptance (Laylatu Qadr) has been set apart in a whole year 
in which it is most opportune to supplicate to Allah and offer 
sincere repentance and there is a distinct possibility of its 
acceptance, there is, also, in the week, a time exceptional 
propitiousness on Friday in which if anyone beseeches Allah for a 
good and lawful thing, there is the confident exceptation of its 
being granted to him. Abu Hurayrah has stated, on the authority of 
Abdullah bin Salaam and K'ab Ahbaar, that the occurance of the 
"hour of acceptance" on a Friday has, also, been mentioned in 



Book of Prayers 



277 



Torah and both of these Companions were among the foremost 
scholars of Torah and other ancient scriptures. 

Commentators have alluded to various sources in their attempts 
to determine precisely the Friday's "hour of acceptance." Two 
portions of time, however, have been indicated in the Traditions as 
well: 

(i) From the time the Imam ascends the pulpit for delivering the 
sermon till the end of the prayer. In other words, the time of the 
sermon and of the prayer is most propitious for supplication to the 
Lord. 

(ii) From the time of the conclusion of the 'Asr prayer till the 
setting of the sun. 

Commenting on the two specifications. Shah Walliullah w-j 
<uIp remarks: "The aim of both of these observations is not to 
demarcate the hour precisely but only to show that since the time of 
the sermon and the prayer is, particularly, the time of 
God-remembrance and supplication, it can be hoped that the 'hour 
of acceptance' lies in it, and, similarly, as the time for the descent 
of Fate or the end or termination of the day, it can be hoped that the 
'hour of acceptance' was contained in it."' 

Some authorities have, further, suggested that the special 
moment of time on a Friday has been kept vague for the same 
reason for which Laylatu Qadr has been left undefined. As some 
indirect suggestions have been given in the Traditions about 
Laylatu Qadr that it lies in the odd nights of the last ten days of the 
month of Ramadan, particularly on the night of the 27th of that 
month, so also, have some hints been given in the Traditions to the 
effect that the 'hour of acceptance' on a Friday occurs at the time of 
the sermon and the prayer and during the period intervening 
between Asr and Maghrib so that the bondsmen may, at least, 
devote themselves, with earnest care and solicitude, to 
God-remembrance and supplication during those hours. 

We have seen about some of our elders that they do not like to 
meet or talk to anyone during that part of a Friday and keep 
themselves occupied with meditation, prayer and supplication. 



O. Hujjat 



278 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part 111 



Special Significance of Friday Prayer 

(707/235) It is related by Tariq bin Shahab that the Messenger 
of Allah lH said: "To offer the Friday prayers in congregation is 
obligatory for a Muslim. Four kinds of men are exemted from it: 
(i) the slave who is legeally owned by someone: (ii) the women; 
(iii) the boy who has not attained majority and (iv) the sick." 

(Abu Dawood) 

J-* J]l Sjl>j Li*J JlS U^Jl I'JSjk j 'j^s- jj( (V < A/Y r 1) 

(708/236) Abdullah bin Umar 4&> and Abu Hurayrah 4&, both 
of them, related to us that they heard it from the Prophet $0^; he 
was saying it from the pulpit that those who omit the Friday 
prayer should either desist from it or it will so happen that God 
will set a seal on their hearts in punishment of the sin, and they 
will, then, be among the heedless (and will not get an 
opportunity to reform theselves). (Muslim) 

^if. Jit j~p Jji 3^ s 4**^ 'J> If ( v • ^/vrv) 
lsjl, jJi j i'p y\ t\ jj) .<uii ^ip iJJt i# u ji^j fJJ: ulTy ^3 

(709/237) It is related by Abu Al-Ja'd Ad Damri that the Prophet 
said: "Whoever will omit three Fridays (i.e., the 
congreaggational Fridays prayers three times) without a valid 
reason become of eariness, Allah shall set a seal on his heart 
(and, then, he will be deprived of the good fortune to reform 
himself)," (Abu Dawood, Tirmizi, Nasai and Ibn Majah) 

^'y (ij ^ lJ^ s & J>) cf (VWxrA) 



Book of Prayers 



279 



(710/238) Sayyidina Ibn Abbas 4fe has said that the Prophet |l 
said, "If anyone neglects the Friday prayers without valid reason 
then he is recorded as a hypocrite in the Record Book which is 
never amended or changed." In some versions it is stated that if 
he neglects three Fridays. 

Commentary: The significance attached to Friday in the ahadith 
and the warning on neglecting it is very clear and needs on 
explanation. 

May Allah keep us away from all sorts of disobedience because 
of which one deprives oneself of His mercy and has a seal affixed 
to his heart. O Allah preserve us! 

Proprities 

' ,3 3 % 3 3 3 i' 3 6 3 3 6 s^s 

(71 1/239) It is related by Salman Farsi «fethat the Messenger of 
Allah ia§l said: "Whoever takes a bath on a Friday and pays 
attention to cleanliness, as far as possible, and applies whatever 
oil and perfume there is in his house, and, then, goes out for the 
prayer, and. on reaching the mosque, takes care not to sit 
between two persons which may, already, be sitting next to each 
other, and. then, offers the prayers, i.e., Sunnah and Nafl that 
may be decreed for him. and then, listens attentively when the 
Imam delivers the sermon, all his sins between that Friday and 
the next will be forgiven by Allah." (Bukhari) 

Alfc AJJl JU aJJI Sj^'j Jl5 Jll iyjjk {J\ j J-U~> (V U/ Y t « ) 

ji (^4^ Jr? J~°J ffQ cT*^" 5 eft u~-Jj **«-^ f Jd J-*^ 1 (>» (i-^J 
^ aJ iih t_-sTla ^^AJs p ^Ljl &(l£-\ Ja^tJ ^ i>UAj! ^ jjj «*LjP 

jIjj i^li l«J o jiaS' cji?' &y^p (L-^*" t ~ i '^'^ 



280 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



(712/240) Abu Sa'eed and Abu Hurayrah u^p in reported 
the Messenger of Allah lH as saying, "If anyone bathes on a 
Friday, puts on his best clothes, applies a touch of perfume if he 
has any. then goes to the congregational prayer and takes care 
not to step over people then prays what Allah has prescribed for 
him. then keeps silent from the time the Imam comes to deliver 
the Khutba till he finishes the prayer, it will atone for his sins 
during the previous week." (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: We have already discussed the importance attached 
by Shari'ah to bath on Friday in the chapter on Ghusl. These two 
ahadith also mention some other procedures on Friday: attention to 
cleanliness, best clothes, perfume, care not o disturb other 
worshippers in the mosque like squeezing two people already 
seated, jumping over other people already seated, to offer sunnah 
or optional prayer, listen to the sermon attentively. The hadith tell 
us that when the Friday prayer is observed carefully then it atones 
for the sins of the week and becomes a tool of forgiveness for the 
worshipper. It is common sense that if anyone is attentive to these 
things then he gets a spiritual awakening and finds the results in 
his life and invites the mercy and forgiveness of Allah. 



(713/241) It is related by way of Mursal\ by Ubayd bin 
As-Sabbaq Taba'ee that the Prophet all, while delivering the 
sermon on a Friday said: "O Muslims! Allah has made this day 
of Friday an Eid\ so take a bath on it, and whoever has perfume, 
there is no harm if he applies, it and use the Miswak, positively, 
on that day." (Ibn Majah) 




O. Sometimes a Tab'ee relates a Tradition but does not mention the name of the 
Companion through whom it had reached him. Such a Tradition is called 
Mursal. 



Book of Prayers 



281 



Clipping The Moustaches And Paring OffThe Nails 



(714/242) Abu Hurayrah 4& narrated that the Prophet H used 
to pare off his nails and clip moustaches before going out for 
the Friday prayer. 1 " 

Wearing Good Clothes 

, \ t i > , - - i 

(7 1 5/243) It is related by Abdulah bin Salaam 4fethat the 



Messenger of Allah agl said: "There is no harm for anyone of 
you who can afford it to keep a special dress for a Friday in 
addition to theclothes he wears everday during working hours." 



Commentary: It could be imagined that to have a special dress, 
apart from everyday clothes, was opposed to the spirit of 
asceticism. The above Tradition is intended to remove the 
misunderstanding. It shows that since to wear a decent dress, 
according to one's means, for a religious congegation like that of a 
Friday, which is the weekly Eid of the Muslims, is pleasing to 
Allah, there is no harm in having a separate set of clothes for it. It 
has been mentioned by Tabarani in Mn'ojim Sagheer and Ausat, on 
the authority of Sayyidah Ayshah &\ "The Messenger of 
Allah HI had a special dress which he used to wear on a Friday, 
and when he returned home after prayers. I folded it and kept it 
away and it was taken out again only on the next Friday." The 
evidence of the reliability of this report, however, does not come 
up to the standard laid down by the authorities. 

O. It should be noted that doubt has been expressed about the veracity of this 
report but from the manner in which the Prophet has stressed the need of 
cleanliness on a Friday in Salman Farsi's narrative we have just quoted from 
Sahih Bukhari it would seem that it includes these things as well. 





(ibn Majah) 



282 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



Going Early For Prayers 

lit dp &\ JU J)^j Jtf 5 jo* <j*' ^ (V n/Y 1 1) 

jJj lllT j»j JjJl$| tkJJlT jJj iiJu t^J^gj <j;JJi jiii" J>*fyS\ 

(716/244) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4fe that the Messenger 
of Allah iH said: "When a Friday comes, angels stand at the 
door of the mosque and note down, in order of arrival, the 
names of those who come early. The parable of he who comes 
at the beginnig of the speicfied time, at noon, is that of a man 
who offers the sacrifice of a camel to Allah, and of he who is 
the second to come, of a man who offers the sacrifice of a cow, 
and of he who is the third to come, of a man who offers the 
sacrifice a chicken, and of he who is the fifth to come, of a man 
who offers the sacrifice of an egg. After it, as the Imam 
proceeds towards the pulpit for delivering the sermon, the 
angels roll up their papers and join (the congregation) for 
listening to the sermon." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: The real aim of it is to induce men to go early for 
the Friday congreagation and -the Prophet iH has sought to explain 
the difference in the grades and recompense of those who come at 
different times by using the examples. 

Practice of The Prophet H 

Isiil \i\ jjjj dp iJJl JU> ^Jl £lf Jl5 ^P (V \ V/Y 1 o) 

(t5 jbtJl al jj) .4jwj»sJ1 a'jJUalil) 3 J>} y*S\\ ls-i>* blj 

(717/245) Anas prelates that the general practice of the 
Prophet lH was that he offered the Friday prayers earlier when 
it was very cold, and, if it was very hot, he delayed the prayers. 

(Bukhari) 

^L»j aIIp <JJl l5 JL> ^JJ CJlT J 13 iy^> J> yfc 'j* (Y \ A/Y M) 
AjjLfi CJl^S ^Ljlj^^Jj 5^^' fr j^i la gM* ij^fH jls^ 25 " 



Book of Prayers 



283 



(718/246) Jabir bin Samura -nfe narrates that the Messenger of 
Allah used to deliver two semons, and, between them, he 
used to sit down (for a while). In these sermons he recited the 
verses of the Qur'an and gave good counsel to the people. Like 
his prayer, his sermons, too, were moderate. (Muslim) 

Commentary: It shows that both the prayers and the sermons of 
the Prophet iH were niether too long nor too brief, but of a 
reasonable length. As for the recital of the Qur'an during the 
sermons, we have already seen the verses he normally recited in the 
Friday service. 



Oa* lil ^JL-j Alip -dJl JJ> *Ut J}-jj jlf JlS jj^r ^ (V \ ^/Y 1 V) 
^>Jx~p J jflj J^Lpr j ills' iL&£> liiilj alllp 

(7 1 9/247) Jabir 4& related to us that when the Prophet % 
dejivered a sermon, his eyes became red and voice got raised 
and a state of intense anger and excitement was produced so 
much so that his condition became that of a person who had 
(just) returned after seeing the enemy's forces with his own eyes 
and was urging his community to get ready to defend itself by 
telling it that the enemy was near and the attack was imminent. 
The Prophet ill, also, used to say "My raising up and the 
coming of the Last Day are (close to one another) like these two 
fingers." and, in order to illustrate the point, he would join 
together his index and middle fingers. (Muslim) 

Commentary: What it shows that the sermons of the Prophet !s$> 
were forceful and stirring and his outward condition used to reflect 
his thoughts and feelings. He dwelt, particularly upon the nearness 
of the Day of Resurrection and its dreadful happenings and tried to 
bring home the point by joining together the index and middle 
fingers and saying that his raising up and the Day of Final 
Judgement were as close to one another as the two fingers, and no 
other Prophet ill was going to be sent down in the intervening 
period. The Hour was going to be during his era of mission. So, let 



284 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



no one be caught unprepared. 




(720/248) It is related by Abdllah bin Abbas 4fe that the Prophet 
HI used to offer 4 rak'at before the Friday service and 4 after 



(721/249) It is related on the authority of Jabir bin Abdullah 
that (once), on a Friday, Sulayk Ghatofani came to the mosque 
at a time when the Prophet III had sat on the pulpit (i.e., he had 
occupied the pulpit for delivering the sermon but had not yet 
begun). So, Sulaik came in and "sat down in the same state 
before offering prayer (i.e., he did not offer prayer on entering 
the mosque but sat down n seeing that the Prophet Hi had gone 
to the pulpit for delivering the sermon). The Prophet iH>, 
thereupon, asked him: "Have you offered the two rak'at?" Sulaik 
replied that he had not. The Prophet Hi, then, said: "Get up and 
say the two rak'at first." (Muslim) 

Commentary: On the basis of this Tradition, Imam Shafee, Imam 
Ahmad and some other legists have held that two rak'at of 
Tahayyatul Masjid are obligatory on that day for anyone who 
comes to the mosque for the Friday prayer and he should offer 
them even if the Imam has begun the sermon. But Imam Abu 
Manila, Imam Maalik and Sufiyan Suri and many other legists do 
O. The above narrative of Abdullah bin Abbas has been quoted in 
Jama-ul-Fawayid from Tabarani, and, with it, it has, also, been indicated that 
the claim of its narrators is weak and below the standard. But in A'izaabul 
Mmyarid it appears in another form and on the authority of Sayyidina Ali 

At and its chain of narrators is free from any doubt. On the other hand, 
Iraqi has held the evidence of its authenticity to be of the highest order. 



it." 



(Tabarani) 




Book of Prayers 



285 



not permit prayer to be said at the time of the sermon on the 
strength of the Traditions in which it is urged that the worshippers 
should keep quiet during it and listen attentively and is consistent 
in behaviour of a number of Companions c^> and Taba'een. They 
offer various interpretations of the above incident concerning 
Sulaik Ghatfani. The arguments of both the sides being equally 
weighty, prudence demands that on Firdays one should take care to 
reach the mosque early enough to offer, at least, the two rak'at 
before the commencement of the sermon. 

bl ^3 iJJl JU> Jjl Jji} Jll Jl5 iy_jA ^ (V Y Y/Y o . ) 

(l»JL-a el jj) . \ju'j\ \aJJu J-aJiJ AjJtJ^l\ ^ Xy-S ^JJp 

(722/250) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4#b that the Messenger 
of Allah lH said: "When anyone of you offers the Friday 
prayers, he should offer another 4 rak'at after it." (Muslim) 

i &\ ^\ Jl5 ji£ JjU^ j£ (VYWYM) 

((JL-» j iSjbtJl al j j) 4sIj *i j ^I j lA i3j*aii ^j^- A*»J*Jl 1*j ^^LflJ 

(723/25) Abdullah bin Umar relates that the Prophet % did 
not offer any prayer after the Friday service till he returned 
home from the mosque, and, (then), he offered two rak'at at 
home. (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: In the Tradition regarding the Sunnal after the 
Friday prayer two as well as four and even six rak'at are 
mentioned. 

It is related by Imam Tirmizi about Abdullah bin Umar 4fe> 
himself that he used to offer two, and, then, four rak'at after Friday 
prayer (making 6 in all). 

The views of the legist-doctors, too, are divergent on it. Some 
of them prefer 2 while others 4 and even 6 rak'at. 



EIDUL FITR AND EIDUL AZHA 



Every community observes some festivals. On such occasions, 
people, according to their circumstances, put on good clothes, eat 
nice dishes and express their joy in various other ways. The 
festivals fulfil a fundamental human need, and, hence, a few days 
are set aside for rejoicing and entertainment in evey nation and 
country. 

In Islam, also, two such days have been fixed, those of Eidul 
Fitr and Eidul Adha. These, alone, are the real religious and 
communal festivals of Muslims. Whatever festivals they celebrate, 
aside of them, have no religious basis. From the Islamic point of 
view, most of them are pure nonsense. 

As everyone knows, Eidul Firt is celebrated on the 1st of 
Shawwal, after the month of Ramadan, and Eidul Adha on the 10th 
of Zul Hajjah. Religiously and spiritually, Ramadan is the most 
blessed month of the year. It was, in it, that the Qur'an was 
revealed, fasting for the whole of the month was prescirbed, an 
additional congregational prayer was enjoined for its nights, and an 
increase in every kind of good-doing was earnestly demanded. In 
short, the whole Ramdhan was declared to be a month of rigrous 
self-disciplene, of the sacrifice of carnal desires, and of profusion 
in worship and other acts of fealty and obedience to Allah. 
Evidently, the day that falls on the close of the month is most 
deserving, from the viewpoint of religious and spiritual excellence 
to be made a special day of celebration for the whole of Ummah. 
This very day has, as such, been named Eidul fitr. 

In the same way, the 10th of Zul Hajjah is the historic day on 
which the founder and progenitor of Ummat-i-Muslima\ Sayyidina 
Ibrahim had given a glorious proof of submission and 
self-abnegation by placing the knife on the thorat of his son, Ismail 

O. Signifying the Community of the Faithful. 



288 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part HI 



il, and offering him as a sacrifice to Allah on receiving the 
inspiration, according to his lights, from the Lord. Allah declared 
Ibrahim $0s\ successful in the supreme test of love and sacrifice, 
and keeping Ismail S0\ safe and unharmed, accepted the offering 
of an animal in his place. He had placed the crown of the religious 
and spiritual leadership of the entire mankind on Sayyidina 
Ibrahim's head and proclaimed the simulation of this act of his 
to be the "ritual of love" till the end of time. Thus, if a special day 
was to be appointed for celebration for the Muslim community, 
which was the rightful successor to the community of Ibrahim 
and representative of the way of the Friend of Allah, to honour the 
memory of the wonderful episode, it could only be the lOthe Zul 
Hajjah, This day was, thus, fixed as the second Eid. The annual 
congregation of the Hajj of the whole of the Muslim World with its 
rituals like he sacrifice of animals in the barren land {Wadi-i-Ghair 
zi zar'a x ) in which the heroic event of Ibrahim's sacrfice had 
taken place marks the true and foremost commemoration of it 
while the ceremonies of Eidul Adha like prayer and Qurbani 2 that 
are observed in all the places where the Muslims live constitute its 
re-enactment and comemoration in the second grade Anyhow, both 
the 1st of Shawwal and the 10th of Zul Hajjah have been appointed 
as the Eids or festivals of the Muslims owing to these reasons. 

Origin 

j^J j 2uxJl pLuj Jjjl ^\ f aj JlS jS\ (V X i/Y o Y) 

^jj 'j^- U^j iiJi Jul JLd aJJIp iiJi Jui> aIIi J}^3 J 1 ** 

(724/252) It is related by Anas 4^> that when the Prophet lH 
arrived in Madinah, two special days were observed there for 
feasting and celebration. On enquiry about these festivals, he 
was told that the people of Madinah had been celebrating them 
as occasions of social entertainment since the days of Ignorance. 
The Prophet all, thereupon, remarked, "God has provided you 

O. Literaly meaning a valley which is devoid of vegetation. 

©. Ritualistic sacrifice of animals. 



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289 



with better festivals in their place, Eidul Filr and Ekiul Ac/ha." 

(Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: Festivals are typically representative of the beliefs, 
ideals and traditions of the people who celebrate them and reflect 
their collective character and temperament in an unmistakable 
manner. The two festivals the people of Madinah observed before 
the advent of Islam and during the period of Ignorance would, 
naturally, have been based upon and illustrative of their paganish 
creeds and customs. The Prophet, or as the above Tradition 
candidly denotes, the Almighty, put an end to these ancient 
festivals, and, in their place, appointed the two special days of 
Eidul Filr and Eidul Adha for celebration which are richly 
indicative of the Monotheistic temperament and way of life of the 
Muslims and in keeping with their beliefs and practices. 

Praye And Sermon of The Two Eids 

\ / f, f (S 6 s s 3 

. t-ij-AJ <b y>\ j^gj-io IjjI <Uia3 text ^aJb jl JbjJ jlT jtj ^ 

(725/253) Abu Sa'eed Khudri 4l> narrated that the Prophet H 
used to go to the Eid-gah^ on the days of Eidul Fitr and Eidul 
Adha. First of all, he led the service, and, after that, stood up 
facing the people for the sermon while the people kept sitting in 
their rows. Then he preached to them, advised them and gave 
orders to them, and if he wished to send out an army or an 
expedition somewhere, he did so (after the prayers and the 
sermon), and if he wanted to give an order concerning a 
particular affair, he, also, did that, and, then he departed. 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: It shows that the Prophet lH used to offer the Eld 

prayers in an open ground he had selected for Eid prayers outside 

the populated area of Madinah. At that time, no boundary wall had 

O. Meaning an open ground where the Muslims assemble for prayers of Eid day 
(or mosque). 



290 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



been built around it. It was just a piece of vacant land lying about a 
thousand feet away from the Prophet's Mosque. Once the Prophet 
iH is. also reported to have offered the prayer in the Mosque when 
it was raining. 

We, further, learn that bands of cursaders were, also, organised 
in the Eid-gah, on the Eid day, after the sermon and the prayer, and 
sent out from there for the glory of the World of Allah. 

Without Azan And Iqamat 

&£> iJJl jLfi Jjl J^Jlij g> cJX^> JlS ~a'jL*> jj\Jr jp (V Y V Y ° t ) 

(726/254) Jabir bin Samura related that "he offered the prayers 
of the two Eids, not once or twice but several times, with 
Propeht £§b, (and) always without Azan and Iqamat. (Muslim) 

aJJi JLp J^Jl ^ oo^i. Jli Jjialc- J>\ ^ jp (V y V/ Y o o ) 
^jUi Jkpjj aIIp ^Ij ilJlJUAi J*>Q ^ u£w Sji^aJl ^^Jai 

(727/255) Jabir bin Abdullah 4fe> related that on the day of Eid 
he went to the Eid-gah with the Prophet %° for the prayer; he 
observed prayers before (delivering) the sermon and without 
Azan and Iqamat. After gthat, he got up for the sermon, with the 
support of Bilal 4|&. At first, he hymned praises of Allah and 
gave good counsel to the people and exhorted them to be 
faithful to Allah. Then, he went towards the assembly of women 
and Bilal, too, was with him. On reaching there, the Prophet all 
urged them to lead a life of piety and God-fearing and gave 
them good advice. (Nasai) 

Commentary: It tells that the Prophet iffl addressed the women 
separately after he had delivered the Eid sermon to men. In another 
Tradition, quoted in Sahih Muslim, on the authority of Abdullah 
bin Abbas 4fe, it is mentioned that the Prophet H did so because 



Book of Prayers 



291 



the ladies had not been able to hear the sermon. 

Note: During the days of the Prophet, women, generally, were 
urged to take part in the Eid prayers. The Prophet £$$1, in fact had 
commanded them to do so. But, later on, as corruption spread in 
the Muslim society, the legists felt that women should no longer go 
to Eid-gah, for the Eid prayers' in the same way as they did not like 
them to go to the mosques for the Friday and the five daily prayers. 

No Nafl Rak 'at Before or After, Eid Prayers. 

3 3 ' ^ & ' t& £1 ^ <Si " 6 

Ja&\ ^ JJfi p^} a2s> aJU( jLfi ^\ j I J>\ (V Y A/ Y o 1) 

(728/256) It is related on the authority of Ibn Abbas 4#b that the 
Prophet 111 offered two Rakats on the day of Eidul Fitr and he 
did no offer any Nafl before or after it. (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Time 

<4-*-Us> j-h jj 4lJljLlP> jfy- J15 j^^-^jd j£(VYVY°V) 

(729/257) Yazid bin Khumair Ar-Rahbi, a Taba'ee, said that the 
Prophet's Companion, Abdullah bin Busr 4^e> (once) came to 
Eid-gah, with (other) people, to offer the Eid prayers on the day 
of Eidul Fitr or Eidul Adha. (When the Imam did no turn up at 
the excepted time), he declared the delay of the Imam to be 
annoying (i.e., condemned it, and said) that "We used to get 
done with the prayer by this time." (The narrator adds that) it 
was the time of Nafl prayers. (Nafl prayers, here, probably, 
mean the nafl rak' at of Chasht). 

Commentary: Abdullah bin Busr had migrated to Syria where 
he died at Hams in 88 A.H. The incident narrated above, perhaps, 
took place there. 

The most explicit Tradition concerning the time at which the 
Prophet ii? offered the prayer of Eidul Fitr and Eidul Adha is the 
one reproduced by Hafiz bin Hajr in Talkhees-ul-Hubayr from 



292 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part 111 



Ahmad bin Hasan-al-Banna's Kitabul-Adahi and on the authority 
the Prophet's HH Companion, Jundub 4^>. It reads: 
"The Prophet used to offer the 

prayer of Eidul Fitr at such a jiJLij Os- <dJl { J^p ^\ jl5 " 
time that the sun had moved 



upwards by two lances and the 



prayer of £/c/w/ at such a J]£ ^^'ij ^lAij Jjs 
time that the sun had moved **" * (J 
upwards by one lance." • £-\>4«? 

The £7d prayers, these days, are, generally, held very late which 
is contrary to the confirmed practice of the sacred Prophet wfe. 



6 6s* s 

*>Uzi j!» IjJLaj jt ly^Jsl 1 ji ji j^kii ^kyfa j^i^. J*^' jtj 

(730/258) Abu Umayr bin Anas related to us on the authority of 
severals of his uncles who were the Companions 4s» of the 
Prophet ^ that once a company of travellers came (from 
somewhere) to the Prophet and testified to having sighted 
the moon on the previous day (while travelling). The Prophet 
Hi, thereupon, ordered the people to break the fast and come to 
the Eid-gah to offer the Eid pryaers the next morning. 

(Abu Dawood and Nasai) 

Commentary: It shows that as once, during the days of the 
Prophet Hi, the moon was not sighted on the 29th of Ramdan, and 
everyone kept fast on the next day, according to the rule, but at 
some time of the day a caravan arrived in Madinah from some 
place whose members testified that they had seen the moon last 
evening. Accepting their evidence, the Prophet HB> ordered people 
to break the fast, but about Eid prayer he said that it would be held 
the next day. 

Apparently, the caravan had reached Madinah late in the day 
when the time for the Eid prayer had passed. The legal position, 
also, is that if the news of sighting the moon is recieved when Eid 
prayers cannot be held at the right time, it should be offered the 



Book of Prayers 



293 



next morning. 

Recital of the Qur'an 

^iTU JiijUi Jt-j <_jlk?Jf 'J> jis- £l (vr \/y o<\) 

(731/259) Ubaidullah bin Abdullah bin Utbah bin Masud.'a 
Taba'ee related that (once) Ulnar bin al-khattab 4fe enquired 
from Abu Waqid al-Laythi which surah of the Qur'an the 
Prophet Hi recited in the prayer of Eidid Fitr and Eidul Adha. 
Abu Waqid Al-Laythi replied: "Oaafwal Ouran-ul-Majeed and 
Iqlarabutis Sa'ulah." (Muslim) 

Commentary: I does not stand reason that sayyidina Umar ^& had 
forgotten what surah the Prophet lH used to recite on two Eids. 
and, therefore, he enquired from Abu Waqid Al-Laith. What is 
more plausible is that he wanted to test the knowledge of Abu 
Waqid Al-Laithi or had put the question for further satisfaction. 

j0s- Jx^> Jji j_^3 ^ jiS Jj^> J> jUiJi (vrx/n.) 

((U-^ »' jj) . j^jUJ l ^ 

(732/260) It is related by Numan bin Basheer 4^> that in the 
prayers of the two Eids and Friday the Prophet lH used to recite 
Sabbih-isma rabbikal a'ala and Hal ataaka hadeelhul 
Ghashiya, and when, by chance a Friday and Eid coincided even 
then he recited the two surah in both the prayers. (Muslim) 

Commentary: There is no contradiction between the statements of 
Abu Waqid Al-Laithi and Numan bin Bahseer. Sometimes the 
sacred Prophet Hi recited the surah Qaaf and Al-Qamar on the two 
Eids, and, sometimes, the surah Al-A'la and Al-Ghashiya. 



294 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Pari III 



£7*/ Prayer in The Mosque Due to Rain 

(2L?-u jji j ijb ^ji ai j j) . JL?«-Ljt ^ o'jLi? j^L-<ij <}4^ 

(733/261) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4fe> that once it rained 
on the Eid day upon which the Prophet all led the Eid prayer in 
Masjid-i-Nabawi (the Mosque of the Prophet). 

(Abu Dawood and Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: The Eids being the festivals and religious 
celebrations of the Muslims, it is in the fitness of the things that the 
Eid congreagational prayer is held in an open ground and such 
also, was. the practice of the sacred Prophet Hi. Hence, it is the 
Simnah in normal circumstances, but as the above Tradition shows, 
the Eid prayer can be held in the mosque as well if it is raining or 
there is any other cogent reason. 

Eating Before or After The Service? 

. ts s^»'ift fie* "i j jiiiaj ^ ^^kill 

(734/262) Buraydah 4fe narrated that the Prophet Hi used to eat 
somehing before proceeding for prayer on the day of Eidul Fitr 
but on the day of Eidul Adha he refrained from eating anything 
until he had offered the prayers. (Tirmizi, Ibn Majah and Daarami) 

Commentary: It is stated, further, in Sahih Bukhari, on the 
authority of Sayyidina Anas 4|e>, that the Prophet £H ate a few dates 
before going out for the prayer of Eidul Fitr, and the dates used to 
be in odd numbers. 

The reason for eating nothing no the day Eidul Adha before the 
prayers, perhaps, was the consideration that the meat of the 
sacrificed animals should be the first thing to be eaten that day 
which, in a way, was the feast of Allah, and something was eaten 
on the morning of Eidul Fin before the prayer probably, because 
on that day it was allowed to eat and drink during the day by the 
same Allah by whose command eating and drinking in the day time 
had remained forbidden throughout the month of Ramdan, and His 



Book of Prayers 



295 



good pleasure, at that time, lay in it. The Prophet KH. like a needy 
and ardent bondsman, started partaking of these blessings at the 
dawn of the day. 

Changing of The Route 



(735/263) It is related by Jabir 4#b that the Prophet H used to 



Commentary: What it denotes is that on the day of Eid the 
Prophet III used to return, after offering the Eld prayers, through a 
way different from that by which he went. Of the different 
explanations furnished by the authorities, the most appealing, in 
our view, is that the display of the religious practices and solidarity 
of the Muslims took place on the largest scale. The aspect of 
celebration and entertainment, also, required that people passed 
through different routes or parts of the town on the day of Eid. 

Sadqatul-Fitr 

^>Jlj j4*1i ^Js- ^s*-i> l^U^jl jaj ja ^daiJt 'j^j (*-^J 
JjJ iS^'y ^ j^'j Jr *- ^ *-^ ot js^'j j -. , *- fl ^J t5^^'j 

(736/264) Abdullah bin Umar 4<k> related that the Messenger of 
Allah a§l had enjoined the payment of Sadaqat ul-Firt a sa'a of 
dates or a sa'a of barley — on every Muslim slave and freeman, 
male and female, and old and young, and (ordered) that Sadaqat 
tu-Firt was to be given away before proceeding for the Eid 
prayer. (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: Like Zakat, Sadaqat ul-fitr, also, is enjoined upon 
the well-to-do members of the community but it has not been 
clarified in the above Tradition because those for whom it was 
meant could, themselves, appreciate it very well. As for who are 
well-to-do and what is the standard of properity in Islam, we will 




change the route on the day of Eid. 



(Bukhari) 



296 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



take it up later, in course of our dicussion on Zakat. 

In it. the payment of a sa'a of dates or barley, on behalf of every 
individual, has been prescribed. In those days, dates and barley 
were, generally, used for food in Madinah and its suburbs, and, 
hence, only these have been mentioned in this saying. According to 
some commentators, a sa'a of dates or barley was considered 
sufficent for a da'ys needs of an average family at that time. Thus, 
it was made compulsory for every member of a well off family to 
give as much in charity on Eidul Fitr as could be adequate for the 
food requirements of an ordinary home. A Sa'a is roughly equal to 
l-'/3 kilos, or VA Seers. 

(737/265) Abdullah bin Abbas ^fe related that the Messenger of 
Allah enjoined Sadaqatul Fitr to purify the fasts from the 
effects of foolish, vain and lustful conversation and to provide 
for the food of the needy and the indigent. (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: In it. two special benefits of Sadaqatul Fitr have 
been mentioned. Firstly, through it the poor and the needy will be 
able to eat to their satisfaction on the day of celebration, and, 
secondly, it will serve as' an atonement for the indiscretions of the 
tongue during the fasts of Ramdan. 

Qurbani 

pLij aJs- <UJi jLe> 4JU1 jis cJi3 i-ioip If (vrA/nt) 

Jj jl^lij Jjt £i3 ^iJl j!j ^^U?! j ^j^'j Lgjj^ftj 4 a 1 , all ^ 

f ^ } fiy j" f " ''fit 



the day of 2sk/w/ Adha, no act of son of Aadam is more pleasing 
to the Allah than qurbani 1 . On the Day of Judgement, the animal 
of qurabani, will come with its horns and hooves. And before 
the blood of qurbani touches the ground it gains the propitiation 




Book of Prayers 



297 



and good pleasure of Allah. So, O bondsmen of God! perform 
qurbani with full willingness of the heart." (Tirmizi and Ibn Majah) 

Up Ul Jl^> Ul J^j JL>\^>\ Jll Jll ffi J> 4J3 ^P (Vr 1/Y 1 V) 

^>Clit Up ^i^^Li ali jil ?ui b ^lWi ej^u 

jjij J-o^i aijj) .2j~»J- t-j^oJl j^e^iii JSj Jl3 aJUI Jj-^j 

(739/267) It is related on the authority of Zayd bin Arqam 4fe 
that some Companions asked the Prophet lH what was the 
history and signifance of qurbani? Upon it, he replied: "it is the 
Sunnah of your (spiritual and racial) progenitor, Ibrahim, (i.e., 
first of all, it was enjoined upon him by Allah and he used to 
perform its. It has been commanded to me and my followers, 
also, to emulate the example and act of qurbani of Sayyidina 
Ibrahim). " The Companions 4k then, said: "O Messenger of 
Allah ! What is the recompense for us on these offerings?" "A 
virtue in return for every hair of the slaughtered animal", replied 
Prophet k§I. The Companions c^>, again asked: "Does it apply to 
wool also (meaning will the sacrificial offering of animals like 
sheep and camel which have wool instead of hair fetch the 
reward in the same proportion)?" "Yes" replied the Prophet III. 
"In the same proportion. A virtue in return for every hair." 

(Masnad Ahmad and Ibn Majah) 

(jLj Up Hjl jU> Jjt J^j fill Jll ji£- tf\ 'J. (Vt «/YlA) 

(740/268) Abdullah bin Umar 4& related to us that the 
Messenger of Allah stayed in Madinah for ten years (after 
migration), and performed qurbani regularly (i.e.. every year)." 

(Tirmizi) 

?(jLabo ti ciil jli-^j Jy^t ^4'3 ^ (vn/Yni) 

bll <LP & (*- 1 ~"J ^ J^e Jj~°J d\ 

> 

O. Meaning sacrifical offering of animals. 



298 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



(741/269) Hanash bin Abdullah narrated "I saw Sayyidina Ali 
4fe performing the qurbani of two rams (upon which) I asked 
him about it (i.e., why he was performing the qurbani of two 
rams instead of one). He replied: 'The Prophet had exhorted 
me to make an offering on his behalf, also, and, so, I perform 
one qurbani in his name'." (Abu Dawood and Tirmizi) 

Commentary: We learnt from Sayyidina Abdullah's narrative, 
quoted earlier, that the Prophet Hi used to perform qurbani 
regularly, year after year, since the time he migrated to Madinah 
and frm the above report we find that the Prophet Hi had told 
Sayyidina Ali to make the sacrifical offering on his behalf, after 
his death. Sayyidina Ali 4fe>, thus, used to perform it regularly in 
the name of the Prophet Hi. 



sacrificed two grey, horned rams. He slaughtered them with 
his won hand, and, at the time of slaughter, recited Bismillaah 
wa AUahu Akbar. I saw that, at that time, he was placing his 
right foot on their flanks and saying Bismillaah wa AUahu 



(743/271) It is related by Jabir <t&> that on the day of qurbani 
(i.e., Eidul Adha) the Prophet Hi sacrificed two grey, horned 
(and) castrated rams. When he had set their faces in the right 



Method 




Akbar." 



(Bukhari and Muslim) 




Book of Prayers 



299 



direction (i.e., towards the cjiblah), he recited the prayer: I have 
set my face toward Him Who has created the heavens and the 
earth (and) in the manner of Ibrahim the upright and I am not of 
those who believe in many gods. My prayer and my worship and 
my sacrifice and my living and my dying are for Allah alone, the 
Lord of the Worlds. He is without a partner and to it have I been 
commanded and I am of those who obey. O Allah! This qurbuni 
is from You and by Your favour and for Your sake (and) on 
behalf of Your servant, Muhammad and his followers -Mp. 
BismiUaah wa Alluhu Akbar. After reciting the prayer the 
Prophet iH* set agoing the knife (on the thorat of) the ram and 
slaughtered it. (In the last part of another report referring to the 
same incident it is told that after saying for Your sake, he 
slaughtered the ram with his own hand and recited: 

aJJI^ ^ JVflj aJyj £ji yi\ j ijb ^1 j jUj>- ^ Jjljj 

JjA tfJ^AL ,ii jli j lift j^Ui 

BismiUaah wa Allahu Akbar! O Allah! It is on my behalf and on 
behalf of my followers who may not have performed the 
qurbani. (Musnad Ahmad, Abu Dawood, lbn Majah and Daarami) 

Commentary: That, at the time of Qurbani. the Prophet Hi said 
that it was on his own behalf and on behalf of his followers, or 
such of them, as had not performed it was indicative of his deep 
affection for the Ummah. But it does not mean that the Prophet 
had carried out the qurbani for the whole of the Umamh and the 
duty had been fulfilled from the side of all of his followers. It. 
simply, shows that the Prophet prayed to Allah to include, with 
him, his followers, also, in the reward on the observance. Inclusion 
in the reward in one thing, fulfilment of the duty of qurbani is 
another. 

Instructions Regarding Animals of Qurbani 

Jii ^L*j HJl JU» 4lJl J^>3 0* ^ cH iffl ^ (V 1 1/ Y V Y ) 

(744/272) It is related by Bara' bin 'Aazib that (once) it was 



300 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



enquired from the Messenger of Allah what kind of animals 
should be avoided in Qurbani (i.e., what are the defects which 
render an animal unfit for it). The Prophet Hi gestured with his 
hand and said: "Four (i.e., there are four defects, the presence of 
anyone of which in an animal, makes it unsuitable for qurbani). 
(i) A lame animal whose lameness is very much apparent (i.e., 
which may be finding it difficult to move about owing to the 
infirmity); (ii) An animal with a defective eye and the defect is 
plainly visible; (iii) An animal which is very sick: and (iv) An 
animal which is so weak and thin that no marrow is left in his 
bones." (Muwatta Imam Malik, Musnad Ahmad, Tirmizi, Abu 
Dawood, Nasai, Ibn Majah and Daarami) 

Jkjiti ' 0 \ pL>j tilt JU Jji Sjl>j J# jis "Js> (vio/xvr) 

(745/273) It is related on the authority of Sayyidina Ali 4&> that 
the Messenger of Allah lH forbade us against (performing) the 
Qurbani of an animal whose horn is broken or ear cropped." 

(Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: In truth, qurbani is an offering to Allah on behalf 
of the bondsman. It is, therefore, necessary that a good animal is 
selected for the purpose, within one's means. Sick, weak and 
crippled animals should not be offered in worship to Him. In the 
Qur'an the guiding principle is set forth that: 

"You will not attain unto piety ^ - J, jQ 'J 

until you spend of that which ' ; 

you love." (Aal-e-Imran3:92) (\ jlj** J1) - h'^rV 

This inded is the spirit behind the instruction of the Prophet iH 

for qurbani. 

Shares 

(746/274) It is related by Jabir that the Prophet ill said: 
"The sacrifical offering of a bullock or cow be made on behalf 
of seven persons, and, in the same way of a camel on behalf of 



Book of Prayers 



301 



seven persons." (Muslim and Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: The buffalo is not found in Arabia, and. so, it has 
not been mentioned in this saying. But, like a cow, its Qurbani can 
also be performed on behalf of seven persons. 

Qurbani After Prayers 

j&\ pL*j -ds- illl JL> ^Jt U3a> Jl5 (IVl/YVo) 

iJb%fr j»AJ sli jk UJli ^jLaJ £>l J4s ^vji jij luu-li <1a3 i^^Jli 

(747/275) It is related by Bara' bin 'Aazib 4fe that the Prophet 
li§l delivered a sermon in the day of Eichd Adha, and, in it, he 
said: "The first act among the acts of today is that we offer the 
Eid prayer, and, then, on returning from it, perform the 
Qurbani. Whoever act like that will be acting correctly, 
according to our way, (and the Qurbani will be carried out in a 
fitting manner), and whoever will perform Qurbani before the 
prayer, his Qurbani will remain unfulfilled (and it will amount 
to no more than this that) he killed a goat so that his family may- 
eat the meat." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

g> f£ < >w9^l do$i> JlS JJIaIp J) ^JX^r j£ (VI A/YVt) 

(jJL~<>j ^jbJl at .t£ ^tjJ-ij t5 JUoi jt ^jXflj jt J3 £ji 

(748/276) Judub bin Abdullah related that (once) on the day 
of E/V/;// Adha, he was in the company of the Prophet lH. As 
soon as he had finished the prayer, he noticed the meat of the 
sacrificed animals. These animals had been slaughtered before 
the conclusion of the Eid Prayer. The Prophet Hi remarked: 
"Those who have performed the Qurbani before offering prayer 
should do it again (since it has not been correct, being 
beforer-time)'." (Bukhari and Muslim) 



302 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



Superiority of the 'Ashra of Zul Hjjah 

As Allah has endowed Friday among the seven days of the 
week, the month of Ramdan among the twelve months of the year 
and the last 'Ashra ] among the three 'Ashrus of Ramdan with 
superiority, so, aslo. He hes declared the frist 'Ashra of the month 
of Zul Hajjah to be a period of exceptional benevolence. It is for 
this reason that the Hajj (Pilgrimage) has been enjoined during 
those days. Anyway, it is a speial period of Allah's grace. A 
virtuous deed performed in it is outstanding value and most 
pleasing to Allah. 

(t£ jbUi *\ j j) . Vjliis £l#t a JJa. Jjl J\ £JCaJl J^jl 

(749/277) It is related by Ibn Abbas 4&> that the Messenger of 
Allah lH said: "A virtuous act performed during these ten days 
is more pleasing to Allah than one any other day." (Bukhari) 

lit j^Lij aIIp Hjl J^> Jjl J_^> JlS dill UL» (Yo ./YVA) 
(^ 4, JJ) 

(750/278) It is related by Umm-e-Salmah i^ii^j that the 
Messenger of Allah $=1 said: "When the first' Ashra of Zul 
Hajjah begins (i.e., the moon of Zul Hajjah is sighted) and 
anyone of you intends to perform Qurhan, he should not cut his 
hair or nails till the Qurbani is done. (Muslim) 

Commentary: The first 'Ashra of Zul Hajjah is the Ahsra of the 
Hajj which is the most remarkable event of this period. But the 
Hajj can be performed only by going to Makkah and it has been 
enjoined only once in a lifetime, and, that too, upon those who can 
afford the journey. The bondsmen who go to Makkah and perform 
the Hajj can, alone, partake of its choicest blessings but the 
Almighty has mercifully made it possible for all the Believers to 
forge an identity, during the days of the Hajj, with the pilgrims and 
the pilgrimage, even while staying athome, and participate in some of 
its rites. Herein lies the real significance of the Qurbani of Eidul Adha. 
O. Meaning a period of ten days. 



SAL A TAL-KUSOOF AND 
SALA TAL-ISTISQA 



The prayer of a Friday and the two Eids are the congregational 
prayers that are offered on a particular day or date. Apart from 
these, there are two other prayers which, also, are observed 
congregationally, but not on a fixed day. These are Salat al-Kusoof 
which is offered at the time of the eclipse of the sun and Salat 
al-htisqa which is offered as an invocation for rains during a 
drought. 

Salat al-Kusoof 

The eclipse of the sun or the moon is among the signs of the 

Power and Majesty of Allah which are revealed occasionally and 

whose clain is that when they occur, the bondsmen should bow 

down, in all humbleness, before the Absolute, the All Powerful 

One and beseech Him for mercy and forgiveness. During the 

lifetiem of the Prophet iH the sun was totally eclipsed about 1 Vi 

years 1 . The Arabs, in olden days, believed that the eclipse was 

caused by death of some great man when the sun covered itself 

with a black sheet as a mark of mourning. The chance darkening 

of the sun on the day of the death of the Prophet's son could 

lend encouragement to the belief. In fact, according to some 

reports, a few persons, openly said so. The sacred Prophet ill, 

upon it, offered two rak'at prayer with extraordinary feelings of 

awe and reverence. It was an unusual prayer in which he made very 

long recitals. During the recitals he would bow, and, then, stand 

erect again and resume the recital. Similarly, he carried out 

O. The authorities are agreed that the Prophet's son, Ibrahim, died in 10 AH. 
Some, also, say that his death occurred in the month of Rabi-ul-Awwal. bu the 
great astronomer of the 19th Century, Mahmood Pasha, has calculated that the 
eclipse had taken place about8. 30a.m. on Monday, the 29th ofShawwal, 10, AH. 



304 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



prolonged ruku and sajdah and supplicated Allah most humbly and 
earnestly. After the prayer he delivered a sermon refuting the idea 
that the sun or moon was ecliped because of the death of a great 
man. He said that it was mere superstition and had no basis in 
truth. The sun and the moon were the two signs of Allah which did 
not suffer an eclipse on account of the birth or death of anyone. 
When such a thing occurred, one should turn to Allah and beseech 
Him with fear and deep devotion. 

i , i , , . , , , , , , 

(751/279) It is related on the athority of Mughirah bin Shu'bah 
4§e> that in the lifetime of the Messenger of Alah the sun 
eclipsed on the day on which (his sonO Ibrahim died. So people 
said that the eclipse had occured because of the death of 
Ibrahim. The Prophet iH, observed "The solar or lunar eclipse 
did not take place because of the death or life (i.e., birth) of 
anyone (but it was the sign of the Power and splendour of 
Allah). Thus, when you see the eclipse, pray and remember 
Allah much." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: The above Tradition is very brief and it does not 
mention even the offering of prayer by the Prophet lH. In other 
Traditions, however, the prayer of the Prophet £H and the 
exceptional manner of offering it have been described in detail. 

jj^JV 4JJ1 J~i^j ^iJl oli^i oJJ* J^j ^ $'j*~*J £.J^JJ 

(752/280) It is related by Abi Moosa Al-Ash'ari 4fe "(One day), 



Book of Prayers 



305 



as the sun was eclipsed, the Prophet t$k rose with such anxiety 
as if he feared that the Hour (of Doom) was about to strike. He, 
then, came to the mosque and offered prayer with the longest 
qiyam, ruku and sajdah I have ever seen him perform. After it, 
the Prophet iH> said: 'These signs (of the Might and Majesty of 
Allah) which Allah reveals do not occur owing the death or life 
(i.e., birth) of anyone but are revealed in order to instil His fear 
into the hearts of bondsmen. (So), when you see a thing like it, 
turn to Him with awe and anxiety and remember Him and seek 
His forgiveness." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

f^ 1 44*- ij 1 ^ c-lli" jil ^"^1 (Vor/YA^) 
ci<ti\ 6&* uli jia diu-ij 3j^>\ p fOii u^s jifts 

(753/281) It is narrated by Qabisah al-Hilali that there was a 
solar eclipse in th days of the Messenger of Allah Hi. He came 
out deeply worried. (He was so worried that he had not placed 
his mantle over him properly so) his mantle was being dragged 
as he walked. (Qabisah said that he was with the Prophet $m in 
Madinah and his qiyam was very long. Then he finished his 
prayer and, meanwhile, the sun was (out of the eclipse and) 
shining brightly in the normal way. He (addressed the people 
and) said, "These signs are meant to create fear of Allah in the 
hearts of people (and they keep away from disobedience). So, 
when you see such signs, then pray as you prayed the Fard a 
while go (that is, two, raka'at like the Fajr prayer at the time of 
eclipse). (Abu Dawood, Nasa'i) 

^ ls^'$ fl^w Ji J^'jiSXs- (Yo 1/ Y AY) 

J«JtS AjJo £3 j 5'jJUaJl j> pSi jij <LuJl3 J IS ( J JL£ l\ ^j'jlS ^s 



306 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part 111 



, > t'tsi. s , t .tit ' - > " - ' * '." > ' " \ f y> - 

^jJjj-jI jS IfyS- UJi L£iP ^jv »U^sjj j->oj J4$JJ 

(754/282) Abdur Rahman bin Samurah narrated that one 
day, during the lifetime of the Prophet III, I was practising 
archery with my (bow and) arrows that, suddenly, the sun 
eclipsed. I left my arrows where I was and decided to go and see 
what new thing had happened to the Prophet H§l at the time of 
the eclipse and what new act he had done. When he came to the 
Prophet $P&, he was standing and offering prayer. In the same 
condition, he raised his hands (as one does in supplication) and 
entreated Allah for a long time with Tasbeeh\ Tahleefi, Hamd^ 
and Takbeer 4 till the sun came out of the eclipse (i.e., the 
Prophet kept himself engaged in prayer and supplication as long 
as the eclipse lasted). In this prayer, the Prophet Hi recited two 
surah and offered two rak'at. (Muslim) 

Jlt-l* ^lli ^Ub 4JJ1 JJfi Jjl Jjlt] JJe& ^Ljj a2£ aJJi 

ft S/i\ ftili 6jS y>j fOli J&J f li f} ^jt ! J\ Jifti ft ^ Oil 
Jj Jifeii JU«-> Jj^ ^jJ^Ji £^3 

J-U-^Jl ^1 Jl3 ^Ij 4JUlJU*ii JjbJl cJa^ j—i-^Jl cJb»cJ 

^0 £1 & \j Jli jji ijil^jj jL>j ij^Tj iUt (JSOli 

(jJL-" j lSj^J' a' jj) . cilj Jj^l iJIsT ^4^J ">Q3 ^Jh^ai 

(755/283) It is related by Sayyidah Ayshah i^ii^j that 
(when) in the lifetime of the Messenger of Allah Hi the sun 

O. The act of praising Allah by repeating the formula of Subhaan Allah. 

©. Acknowledging the true God by repeating the formula of Laa ilaha illallaa 

M u h am mad u rrasoo- 1 u 1 1 aah . 
©. Praise of God 

O. The.act of repeating the formula of Alltth-u-Akbar. 



Book of Prayers 



307 



eclipsed, he offered prayer with the people, (i.e., led the 
congregation) in which he made a very long qiyam, and, then, 
bowed low and performed a very long ruku. He, then, stood up, 
and again, made a very long qiyam but it was a little shorter 
than the earlier one, and, then, he bowed low and performed a 
very long ruku but it was a little shorter than the previous ruku, 
and, then, he prostrated himself and performed a very long 
sajdah. The Prophet iaH did in the second ruk'at what he had 
done in the first rak'at, and, then, brought the prayer to an end 
(after the prescribed q'adah and salaam), and, by then, the 
eclipse was over and the sun had become (as) bright (as ever). 
The Propeht iH, then, delivered a sermon in which, after 
praising Allah, he said: "The sun and the moon are two signs 
among the signs of the Power and Majesty of Allah. They do 
not suffer an eclipse because of the death or life (i.e., birth) of 
anyone (but like all other created things in the world), the sun 
and the moon, also, carry out the command of Allah and their 
light and darkness are in His control. So, when you see the 
elipse, glorify Allah and offer prayes and give alms (to the 
poor)." After that, the Prophet said: "O followers of 
Muhammad! No one is more displeased at fornication 
committed by his male or female slave than God is displeased at 
fornication committed by His bondsman or bondswoman. (So, 
fear His Might and Anger and keep away from every kind of 
sin. O followers of Muhammad! By Allah, if you knew what I 
know (bout the Might and Anger of Allah), you would laugh 
less and cry more." After that, he remarked: "Beware! I have 
conveyed the whole thing to you (and done my duty)." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: The event of Salat al-Kusoof was an unusual one 
and the Prophet Hi had offered the prayers in a remarkable manner. 
It has, therefore, been related by a number of Companions 
Here, we have quoted only five Traditions appertaining to it, but in 
the standard compilations more than twenty reports are found. In 
Sahih Bukhari the nerratives of nine Companions are 
mentioned from which full details of the incident can be known. 

One thing that is common to these Traditions is that the Salat 
Al-Kusoof 'was a rare event for the Companions and none of 
them had offered it before. It is, further, clear from all the reports 



308 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



that the eclipse had occured on the day on which the Prophet's 
infant son, Ibrahim ^fe, had died, and the authorities are almost 
unanimous that his death took place in 10 A.H., i.e., just a few 
months before the passing away of the Prophet iH himself. It is, 
thus, apparent that the Prophet Hi had offered the Salat Al-Kusoof 
only on the occasion mentioned in the Traditions. The comand to 
offer prayer at the time of the lunar eclipse is, also, distinctly given 
in these sayings but none of the authentic Traditions shows that the 
Prophet Hi ever offered it, probably, for the reasons that the order 
was communicated to him by Allah on the afore-mentioned 
occasion and since be lived merely for a few months after that. The 
opportunity to offer prayers at the time of the eclipse of the moon 
did not arise. 

The Prophet Hi offered this prayer with a unique state of 
feeling and was seen doing some extraordinary things during it. 
Firstly, he offered a very long prayer while his usual practice was 
not to offer long prayers in congregation and has, actually, 
forbidden the Muslims against it. It is related by Sayyidah Ayshah 
i^p M that "As far as I remember, he recited surah al-Baqarah 
in the first rak'at and surah Aal Imran in the second". And 
Sayyidina Jabir &\ said "Some persons could not remain 
standing in this pryer and they dropped on the ground." In a few 
other reports, it is stated that some of the participants fainted and 
water had to be poured over their heads. Secondly, during qiyam 
the Prophet Hi praised Allah for a long time with Tasbeeh, 
Tahleel, Tahmeed and Takbeer. Thirdly, he bowed low during 
qiyam and stood erect again, after remaining in that posture for a 
considering length of time, and did the recital, and, then, performed 
ruku and sajdah. Some Traditions have it that he did it not once 
but several times during qiyam. According to some other 
narratives, in this prayer he, once, moved backwards, and, then, 
forward, and, also stretched out his hand as one does for taking or 
grasping something. Later, in the sermon he said that several truths 
appertaining to the "world of absence" were revealed to him at that 
time and he saw Hell in front of him and some other things, also, 
which he had never seen earlier. The unusual behaviour of the 
Prophet Hi was, perhaps, due to it. 



Book of Prayers 309 

Observation: The solar ecplise coincided with the death of the 
Prophet's Hi son. However, he made it clear that it was not linked 
to the sad event in his family. This speaks highly of his truthfulness 
and should convince the greatest denier and infidel unless he is lost 
completely at heart. 

Salatal-Istisqa 

Rain is an essential need of all living things. It can correctly be 
said that life is dependent of it. Drought and dryness anywhere is a 
calamity of the first order and a sort of punishment from Above. 
For the removal of this great misfortune, which is not limited to 
any class or section of the population, the Prophet Hi has taught a 
collective namaz and prayer, and Salat-i-Istisqa is their systemized 
form, in the same way as he has prescribed Salat-i-Haajat for an 
individual need. Literally, Islisqa means asking for water or 
moisture. 

£ ✓ i i ,* ^ * * t ) * } s s 3 3 f^fi * 

fl^PJLJ jJS\y>\ Jiij ji^iP AjUj jdl j£ Ja^\}\JtzL>\ j ^ 'jib C)3Jr 

•jl 4J1 Villi CJl JbyU Jiil 4JJ1 i\ ii\ f>; ^JU 

5 s 0 , * 3 3s 3 ^ S3 ' * ^ 3 3' f ^ S >3 j, ^ ^ Jj S3 ^ 3s 

J\ J> 4&1 JpG \x> £'J\ ^J'yk ft #4 ?* ' i^I 
Jjjj ^bJi ^ JJi jJj ajJ^ ^313 i*J * *'^J J J^J 1 S-^J e ^ a - ^' 
^JLd 4JU( ^ib o^i^i ^5 cJjjj diJs-'jh Xj\3x^> 4JU1 LiJls j^'3 <^-^ 
<^£*3y& j^lll ^1 ji^spj-*' t^'3 ^**^ J Jr*J' cJb^i ^jS^ el^i-L» Ob 

JiJiJL> ^(j ^45 jr aj( 0' if*' J 1 ^ ^ f J*- 



310 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



(756/284) It is narrated by Sayyidah Ayshah if* *>>i that 
(once) people came to the Prophet ill and described to him the 
acute suffering caused by drought. The Prophet iHl decided to 
offer up Salat Al-Istisqa at the place where the prayer of Eid 
was held (outside the inhabited area of Madinah), and, told the 
people to go with him on a certain day and offer Salat 
Al-Istisqa, and (also) ordered that his pulpit be taken and placed 
there (for the occasion). The pulpit, accordingly, was carried to 
that place. When the day arrived, the Prophet lH went to the 
appointed place soon after sunrise. He sat on the pulpit and 
praised Allah, and, then, said: "You have complained about lack 
of rain and drought in your region and it is the command of 
Allah that you pray to Him in your need and He has promised to 
answer your supplications. Then, the Prophet lH beseeched 
Allah in these words: 

l#p o^j cj' ^ *J» Viilt cj* J4i( i^tf JiJ; 

Alahumdu lillaahi rabbil 'aalameen, ar-rahmaan-ir-raheem, 
maaliki yaum-id-deen, laa ilaaha il-AUahu yafalu maa yureed, 
Allahumma anlAllahu laa illaha ilia ant-al-ghaneeyu wa 
nahnul fuqarait-ianzila 'alainal ghaitha waj'al maa anzalat 
lana quowatan wa balaaghan ila been. 

All praise blongs to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds, the 
Bneficent, the Merciful, the Owner of the Day of Judgement. 
There is no deity save (one) Allah. His power is that He can do 
whatever He likes. O God! You are the Lord Sovereign; there is 
no god aside of You. You are the Wealthy and we are Your 
poor slaves. Send rain upon us and make the rain that You send 
a source of strength for us and a means of sustenance for a 
(long) time (to come)." 

The Prophet iHl, then, raised his hands (meaning, perhaps, 
that he raised them higher than they were at the time of 
supplication) and prayed for a long time with the hands raised in 
the same way, and raised them' so high that (though he was 
wearing the mantle) the whiteness of the armpits could be seen. 
Afterwards, he turned his face towards the Qiblah and back 



Book of Prayers 



311 



towards the people, and altered the mantle he was wearing, and 
his hands were still raised in prayer. He, again, turned his face 
towards the people, and getting down from the pulpit, offered 
two rak'at prayer. At that very time, a cloud appeared by the 
command of Allah in which there, also, was thunder and 
lightning, and, then, by the command of Allah, it rained heavily 
(and such was the downpour) that before the Prophet Hi could 
return to his mosque, the paths were filled with water and the 
drains and rivulets were overflowing. After it, when he saw that 
the people (who were complaining of drought) were rushing to 
sheds and thatched roofs for shelter from rain, he broke into a 
smile so much so that his teeth became visible, and, he said: "I 
affirm that Allah has power over all things and 1 am His slave 
and Messenger." (Abu dawood) 

pL->j As- 4JJ1 4JJ1 J)^ ^y- Jii aJj J> tti\JLS- If (V o y/y A o) 

x *- 3 si s s s ******* J 9 ' ) "* t ■** ^ 

. aJbijl Jlillil j*^ * *'^J Jj^J j J*&. 3il£*l J-^-^'j 

(757/285) Abdullah bin Zayd 4^ related that the Messenger of 
Allah £§l went to Eid-gah with the people for Salat Al-Istisqa. 
He offered two rak'at in this prayer and recited the Qur'an with a 
loud voice and invoked Allah with his face towards Qiblah and 
his hands raised, and he wore his mantle inside out while he 
faced the Qiblah." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

^3 aIIp 4JJ1 JU J]t J)^ ^y- Jll ^llp J>\ J. (YoA/\Al) 

fi * *" *" * 0 l * 1 ** ** J .# . s ' y .? % s" * » 3 > » f. 9 • > >s 

(758/286) Abdullah bin Abbas 4fe related to us that when the 
Messenger of Allah Hi went out for Salat Al-Istisqa, he was 
wearing a very ordinary dress and his demeanour was that of 
meekness and humility. (Tirmizi, Abu Dawood, Nasai and Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: As we have seen, salat Ab-Istisqa is a collective 
prayer for the dispersal of the general calamity of drought. From 
the aforementioned Traditions we learn the following details. 



312 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



(i) It should be observed at a desolate and uncultivated 
place outside the populated area of the town or village and 
directly on the ground, i.e., without a mat or carpet. 

(ii) One should not take a bath and change into a clean dress 
for this prayer as is done for the prayers of a Friday or the two 
Eids. Very ordinary clothes should be worn and appearance 
made before Allah like a beggar. 

(iii) The supplication should be made with deep earnestness 
and humbleness of spirit, and, for it, the hands should be raised 
unusually higher towards the heavens. 

It is, also, stated in the first two narratives that, on facing the 
qiblah, the Prophet Hi wore his cloak inside out. It was intended to 
express the idea "Oh Allah! As I have altered the cloak, in the same 
way You, too, alter the situation by sending down the rain." Like 
the raising of the hands, it, too, was a part of the supplication. 

In Sayyidah Ayshah's iin report it is stated that a cloud 
appeared as soon as salat Al Istisqa was offered by the Prophet and 
it rain heavily. The same has been stated in the Traditions related 
by some other Companions 4^ as well. 

By the grace of Allah, similar is the experience of the general 
body of Muslims. The present writer has had the occasion to offer 
Salat Al-Istisqa thrice, once in his childhood at his home-town of 
Sambhal (District Muradabad, U.P.), then, some fifteen years ago, 
at Lucknow, and, lastly, in Madinah, probably in 1945, and 
everytime, God mercifully sent down the rain as soon as the prayer 
was held. 

Sayyidah Ayshah's if* -Sit ^ j narrative, finally, tells that when 
the rain fell heavily as a result of Salat '-Al-Istisqa, the holy Prophet 
Hi said: 

3j &\xs> £\j y.Ai ^li) JS" 'Js- & JLgiil 

"I affirm that Allah has power over all things and I am His slave 
and Messenger." 

It is indeed the peak of devotion and worship and self-denial 
that although the rain fell in response to the prayers and 
supplication of the Prophet lH he thought it necessary to 
acknowledge publicly that it was all due to the Power and Mercy of 



Book of Prayers 



313 



Allah and He, alone, was worthy of praise and gratitude while the 
Prophet iH, himself, was no more than an humble bondsman and 
Messenger iH. 



NAMAZ-I-JANAZA AND 

OTHERRELATED MATTERS 

It is a common practice with the scholars of the Traditions 
that, at the end of Kitab as-Salah i.e., the Book of prayer, they 
mention sayings regarding death, the last illness, or illness in 
general, and all the other calamities and misfortunes, and the way 
one should behave and conduct oneself when confronted with 
them, as well as in relation to the bathing and shrounding of the 
dead body and burial, condolence and visiting of the graves, under 
the title of Kitab-ul-Janaiz (the Book of Funerals). Adhering to this 
practice, we, too, will discuss, here, reports of the sayings and 
doings of the sacred Prophet life concerning them. The sum and 
substance of these Traditions is that since death is certain and no 
one knows when it will strike, a Muslim should never be heedless 
of it. He must always keep himself in a state of pre-paredness for 
the last journey, and. specially, when he is ill, he should take 
greater care to put right his religious and spiritual condition and 
mend his affair with Allah. His friends and relatives, on their part, 
should try to bring good cheer to him through service and 
sympathy. They should pray for his recovery, and, talk hopefully, 
in his presence, of Divine reward, mercy and benevolence. In 
particular, when it appears that the chances of the patient's recovery 
are remote and his time is near, every thing possible should be 
done to turn his heart towards Allah and put him in mind of the 
cardinal principle of Islam, i.e.. the kcdimah. Finally, when death 
occurs, the kinsmen should show patience and forbearance and 
believing death to be the Will of Allah, yield themselves to it like 
dutiful bondsmen and hope and pray for reward on their loss. The 
dead body should, then, be batched and wrapped in a good, clean 
shroud and perfume should be applied, and, after it, the funeral 
prayer should be held consisting of the praise and glorification of 



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Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



Allah, the affirmation of His Might and Magnificence and the 
invocation of blessings on the Prophet Muhammad lH through 
whom Guidance had reached the dead person as well as the 
participants in the prayer and a fervent supplication for mercy and 
forgiveness for the deceased brother. The dead body should, 
thereafter, be buried with due reverence and people should try to 
relieve the distress of the bereaved family by sharing its sorrow and 
bringing succour to it by word and deed. 

The aim and wisdom of these precepts is self-evident, and, as 
we all know, much peace and comfort is derived by acting upon 
them in sickness and in death and in all other forms of sorrow and 
suffering. Every teaching of the Prophet H, in that regard, serves 
as a balm for the heart. And death, as a necessary prelude to 
meeting Allah, begins to look like an ageeable event. 

These are the ready gains and worldly advantages of these 
insturctions. What has been promised in the Traditions, given 
below, will Insha Allah be seen and experienced in the fullest 
measure, in the Hereafter. 

Remembrance of Death 

(759/287) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4|s> that the Messenger 
of Allah iH said: "Remember death much and often. It is the 
terminator of worldly pleasures." (Tirmizi, Nasai and Ibn Majah) 

^j^^l^U* Jjt JjJ/jipM Jll^ii JjU^J* (V"\ ./YAA) 

(760/288) Sayyidina Abdullah bin Umar 4p> has said that the 
Messenger of Allah took him by the shoulders and said, "Be 
in the world as though you are a stranger or one who is passing 
thourgh." Ibn Umar 4$t> used to say, "In the evening do not 
expect to see the morning and in the morning do not expect to 



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317 



see the evening, but take something when in health to serve you 
in time of illness and something in your life to serve you in your 
death." (Bukhari) 

. a frliJ fljT frliJ a ^5 jij a ttaJ *JJt 4*^-1 4JUt tliJ e^-t IJL^ij 

(761/289) Ubadah bin as-Samit quoted the Messenger of 
Allah iH as saying, "If anyone wishes to meet Allah, Allah 
wishes to meet him; but if anyone does not wish to meet Allah. 
Allah does not wish to meet him." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: This very Tradition narrated by Ubadah bin 
as-Samit 4§£> continues that when the Prophet $H said that, the 
Mother of the believers, Sayyidah Ayshah if* in or one of the 
other of his noble wives submitted to him, "Messenger of Allah Hi, 
our state is that we (fear death and) 'o^Ji a^&ut do not like to die." 
He said, "That is not what I mean (that one should love death). 
Disliking death is a natural thing. What I meant that when death 
comes to a believer, he is given glad tidings of Allah's pleasure and 
nothing is dearer to him than what lies before him. When a slave's 
position is like that , Allah loves him and it is dear to Him to meet 
him. But when a disbeliever approaches death, he is given tidings 
of Allah's punishment so nothing is more unpleasent to him than 
meeting Allah and Allah also does not like to meet him and dislikes 
him. This explanation of the Prophet HI elucidates that the meeting 
reffered to here is not death in itself but the consequences after 
death. In a hadith of the same import narrated by Sayyidah Ayshah 
if* ajii the Prophet Hi is quoted in the concluding words as 
sayii g (death before meeting Allah), -iutfJ Jj o j*Ji j. 

Shah Waliullah Up i»i has explained this hadith. When 
death is very near the ugly covering of beastly and material 
character come to be raised. The soul seems to see the angelic 
world and the unseen world and the hereafter come before the eyes 
about which the Prophets ^fi* have told us. At that time the 
believer who had always curbed his animals instincts and tried to 
raise his angelic characteristics sees the blessings of Allah and 



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Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



craves for them. He wishes to get to them as quickly as he can. On 
the contrary, the soul of an unbeliever and the one who has been 
neglecting Allah sees what is in store for him when he is about to 
die. Therefore, he does not wish to go away from this world. These 
are the two states represented by wishing to meet Allah and 
disliking to meet Allah. The words Allah likes to meet him and 
Allah dislikes meeting him represent the pleasure and displeasure 
of Allah. 

ds- iJJl JL> aJJi J}ij Jll JlS jjIp Jt aJJI-Lp (V1Y/Y <\ • ) 

(767/290) It is related by Abdullah bin Amr 4|& that the 
Messenger of Allah said: "The gift of the Believer is death." 

(Baihaqi) 

Commentary: Death is not pleasant to anyone but the bondsmen 
who are blessed with Faith remain mentally eager for it owing to 
the Divine rewards, the special propinquity to Allah and the 
ecstatic joy of seeing Him that await them in the After-life. It is 
like this that though no one, by natural inclination, finds it pleasing 
to have an eye-operation, rationally he prefers it for himself in the 
hope that vision will be restored by it. The difference, however, is 
that while the restoration of eyesight is not certain after the 
operation and, sometimes, it proves unsuccessful, the choicest 
favours of the Lord, His closeness and the delightful experience of 
seeing Him are bound to be the lot of a truthful Believer in the 
Hereafter. Hence, death is a priceless gift for the bondsman with 
faith and sincerity. Another example of it is that marriage and the 
resultant separaton from parents, brothers and sisters is most 
painful for a girl in the sense that she has to leave the loving, 
parental home and spend the rest of her life in new surroundings 
but the peculiar expectations that are associated with marriage 
produce, in her, a fondness for it. The same is the case with earnest 
and believing bondsmen of the Lord. Death appears attractive to 
them owing to the heavenly boons and blessings they confidently 
look forward to in the life to come. 



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319 



It is Prohibited to Desire or Pray For Death 

Somethimes people get disgusted with life and begin to pray 
for death. But it is the height of foolishness and cowardice and a 
sign of weakness of Faith. The Prophet Hi has forbidden it. 

(763/291) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4fe> that the Messenger 
of Allah said: "No one of you should wish for death. If he is 
virtuous, it is hoped that the stock of his good deeds will go on 
multiplying as long as he lives, and if his deeds are not good, it 
is possible that he earns the good pleasure of Allah through 
sincere repentance etc., in later life." (Bukhari) 

Commentary: The version in Muslim has a slight difference in 
wording. With wishing for death it also says one must not pray for 
death. 

jJLii y&ti Stf $ &u>fjj> o}ji 

(764/292) It is related by Anas 4fe> that the Messenger of Allah 
lH said: "No one of you should desire (or pray for) death owing 
to a distress or suffering. Should he feel utterly helpless, he 
might pray: "O Allah! Keep me alive as long as life may be 
better for me and let me be dead when death may be better for 
me." (Bukhari and Muslim) 



Illness is A Blessing And An Atonement For Sins 

Just as the Prophet Wt has taught about death that it is not an 
extinction and utter annihilation but the beginning of a new 
existence which will be supremely happy and blissful for the 
faithful bondsmen, and, thus, is a wonderful gift for him, in the 
same way he has, also, informed us that illness is not out and out 



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Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



misery and suffering but a blessing as well and a means of 
purgation from sins, and taking sickness and other forms of loss, 
pain or grief to be a warning from Above, the truthful bondsmen 
should devote themselves to correcting and reforming their ways 
when they are striken whith disease or any other misfortune. 

44^> jJLj A* iftt JU 15*' If (vi o/x <\r> 

(765/293) It is related by Abu Sa'eed Khudri 4§g» that the 
Prophet $m said: "Whatever pain, sickness, loss or suffering 
afflicts a Muslim, so much so that a thorn pricks him, God 
expiates his sins through it." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

<u aJJi Jfl^- *ij ai Ui (_^_/» t£^' (•4****' <>? ^ f^J 

(766/294) It is related by Abdullah bin Mas'ud J&> that the 
Messenger of Allah lH said: "Whatever suffering reaches a 
Believer, in the form of a disease or any other thing, Allah lets 
fall his sins from him through it in the same way as a tree sheds 
its leaves in the autmn." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

(767/295) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4e> that the Messenger 
of Allah Hi said: "Misfortunes and afflictions come down to 
some believing men or women from God, sometimes, on their 
bodies, sometimes, on their goods, and, sometimes, on their 
progeny, (and, as a result of it), their sins fall away to the extent 
that, after death, they make their appearance before Allah in 
such a state that not a single sin is left." (Tirmizi) 



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321 



cr*^' 4^-° ( v w v <n ) 

<cU*j l$iLluj (iJ 2d jii Jj* J» ^ C. ifi> ll*h ^! (i^J *^ *^ 

(ijb jji j JU?-t oijj) . 4JU1 ^0 oil^ *J ^uJt 

(768/296) It is related by Muhammad Ibn Khalid Sulami on the 
authority of his father, and he on the authority of Muhammad 
Ibn Khalid's grandfather, that the Prophet sH? said: "For some 
Believers Allah ordains a high station which he does not attain 
by his own efforts, so Allah afflicts him with a physical or 
material distress or grief from the side of his children, and then, 
grants him the good fortune to be patient till (in return for these 
troubles and calamities and his patience and forbearance), He 
makes him attain the high station decreed for him beforehand." 

(Musnad Ahmad and Abu Davvood) 

■ Commentary: Allah is lord Sovereign. If He likes. He can grant 
the highest place to anyone without anything to show. But His 
Wisdom and Attribute of Justice demand that bondsmen should be 
kept at grades and stations they deserve by their deeds and states. 
Thus, the practice of Allah is that when, on being pleased with an 
act or manner of a bondsman or in acceptance of prayer of his own 
or some other person for his sake, He decides to elevate him to a 
rank or position he does not merit by his conduct. He causes the 
deficiency to be removed by means of pain and suffering and by 
granting him the good fortune to be patiently persevering in 
adversity. 

jil i y m *L>j <d& till jU Jjl Sj^j JlS Jl5 jAsrje (VWY1Y) 

(769/297) Sayyidina Jabir 4® has said that the Messenger of 
Allah all said: "On the Day of Resurrection, when people who 
have suffered affliction are given their reward, those who are 
health) will wish their skins had been cut to pieces with scissors 
when they were in the world." (Tirmizi) 



322 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



fa &\ jl> Jjl Sj^j & y** (VY./Y^A)" 

(770/298) It is related on the authority of 'Aamir ar-Rami that 
once the Messenger of Allah £§l spoke on diseases (i.e., he 
described their philosophy and the aspect of goodness in them). 
In the course of it, he said: "When a truthful Believer falls ill, 
and, after it, Allah grants him recovery, the illness becomes an 
atonement for his sins of the past and a warning for the future, 
and when (heedless) Hypocrite falls ill, and, then, gets well, (he 
learns nothing from it, and) his similitude is of the camel whose 
owner tied it up, and, then, untied it, and it had no idea why it 
was tied or untied." (AbuDawood) 

Commentary: The chief moral teaching these Traditions contain 
is that illness or any other loss or calamity, which, anyhow, is apart 
of living, should not be wholly looked upon as a misfortune or 
manifestation of the displeasure of Allah. There is, in them, a great 
deal of virtue and cause for gratitude for the devout bondsmen. 
Through them, sins are expiated, worthiness for the special graces 
of Allah increases, the shortage of good deeds is made up and the 
inner diciplining of fortunate and dutiful bondsmen takes place. 

Those of Allah's slaves who know the truth of these sayings 
endure the severest of trials and illnesses and feel stronger for that. 

Reward of Deeds of The Days 
of Good Health During Illness 

\i\ faj *h\ jj* Jji $ joy ^ «S* (w^/y<h) 

(ij jUJl 4 1 j j) . \*tLpyp J**! jlS'l* Jfci & ^r^J^^J^ J? J* 

(771/299) It is related by Abu Musa Al-Ash'ari 4fe> that the 
Prophet Hi said: "When a bondsman is sick or in a journey (and 
cannot carry out the daliy routine of worship etc.,) his deeds are 
recorded in the sake way with Allah as when he was healthy or 
staying at home." (Bukhari) 



Book of Prayers 



Commentary: It, again, is a great favour of the Lord thai if a 
person cannot perform his duties of Zikr and worship owing to thC 
constraints of illness or travel, he, by His command, causes the 
duties to be recorded in his balance-sheet of deeds which he used 
to observe during the days of good-health or staying at home. 

Visiting of The Sick 

The Prophet HI has declared the visiting of the sick and tending 
to their needs to be a virtue of the highest order and an act of 
worship. He used to visit the sick himself and talk to them in a 
comforting manner. He, also, blew on them after reciting the 
Names or words of Allah and exhorted others to do the same. 

j&ij ^ip till JU 4U1 Sj^j J^y lJ> iS* (VY Y/r • • ) 

(t^jUtJl al jj) . ^1*11 j>Jj (jisj j-ii^J Sj&J ' J+*^ 

(772/300) It is related by Abu Musa Al-Ash'ari 4^>that the 
Messenger of Allah &H said: "Feed the hungry, visit the sick, 
and seek the release of those who have been made captives 
unjustly." (Bukhrai) 



(773/301) It is related by Thauban 4fe that the Messenger of 



believing bondsman, he is, sort to speak, in the Garden of 



from heaven, "May you be good, may your walk be good, and 




Paradise until he returns. 



(Muslim) 




may you come to an abode in Paradise! 



M 



(Ibn Majah) 



324 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



s & s 5* (5 i * ^ s ^ ^ s- 

\i\ pL*j iUl Jl> 4JJ1 J 1 * J 15 ^ 0* (Wo/r . r> 

(775/303) It is related by Abu Sa'eed Khudri 4fe that the 
Messenger of Allah is§l said: "When you visit a sick person 
make him happy about his age (i.e., talk to him in a reassuring 
manner about his life, as for instance, say to him that he was 
looking better, and, God willing, would soon be well). Such a 
thing will not prevent what is decreed (i.e., it will happen in any 
case) but make him cheerful (and this is the main object of 
visiting the sick.)." (Tirmizi and Ibn Majah) 

JJJi JU> ^Ji fxju tji'jfe 5^ Ji5 j»n (vvn/r . t> 

s s s s y s ^ a s i J (S ' 6 

ii Jliii kJ\") JLp JbiflS Oiyu <Qp iUl jJU? ^Jl 0U13 jii ^L*J 

iJ^p j^-Ji ^U3(IjI J Us oJLp- ^»3 

(t5 jU>Ui si j j) . jLJl j-» sJLail t^iJl *JU JUAJl J jii 3*j pl^3 *^ 

(776/304) Anas 4ie> narrated that a Jewish boy use to attend to 
the Prophet HH. When he feel ill, the Prophet lH went to him 
and sat at the head of his bed and said: "Accept the Divine 
faith." The boy looked at his father who, (also), was present. 
"Do so Abul Qasim (i.e., the Prophet) says," his father told him. 
The boy, thereupon, embraced Islam. As the Prophet &§l came 
out, he said: "All praise to God who took the boy out of Hell." 

(Bukhari) 

Commentary: It shows, firstly, that some non-Muslims, too, used 
to serve the Prophet Hi; secondly, that he visited the sick among 
the non-Muslims as well; and, thridly, that the non-Muslims who 
had the opportunity of coming close to the Prophet lH, were so 
greatly impressed by him that they preferred Islam as the religion 
of their children. 

Blowing on The Sick Person 
and Praying For His Recovery 



Book of Prayers 



l_Jj jalGl (wJSil Jli j»J <t?t~L» jL*jl L« ^jXxJil lit j»-LjJ < ^^ t 

(777/305) It is related by Sayyidah Ayshah ^ in "When 
anyone of us fell ill, the Prophet JH used to move his right hand 
on his body and recite the prayer: Az-hibil baasa rabban-naasi 
washfi antash-shaafi laa shifa-a ilia shifaa-uka shifaa-an laa 
yughaadiru saqma. [O Lord of mankind! Remove his suffering 
and grant him recovery. You are the Healer. Your healing is the 
healing. Grant him a complete healing that may leave not (a 
trace of illness)]." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

aJJI jU &\ Jj^J Jl tS^* & uf^ ^ lH' 'J- (VVA/r « i) 

I»JLjj «JJ\ ( _ S L> J J- 1 J ^ J^* CS? 6J ^H jU- J J 

o)^ ^ Jij Lu 4Ul Jij Of^- ly> (JJU t^Ill j^Ap L_y Jb 

(fL*»\jj) .{ft 

(778/306) Sayyidina Uthman bin Abut Aas 4& said that he 
complained to the Messenger of Allah £§1 of a pain he had in his 
body. He said to him to put his hand on the part of his body 
which was sore and say three times "&\p~>" In the name of 
Allah," and seven times: 

"I seek refuge in Allah's might and power from the evil of what 1 
am experiencing and trying to avert." 

He said that he did so and Allah removed his trouble. (Muslim) 

'YyL pL>j iili J^> Jji Jj^ij 5iT Ji5 jii (v v Mr • v) 

j*j iaLij jjlJxLi JS* i^lsJl 4UI oUI£j US' JLPt jll?J(j j-*j«Jl 

s 3 " 3 , * * * ' s * S & * 3 * A A & 3s** 

(tS jWJl sljj) . Jjiwlj J .l * '«-.«'l l^j ij*l 0^ US'ljl jt Jj^dJ 4-"^ Js* JS* 

(779/307) Sayyidina Ibn Abbas 4& said that the Messenger of 
Allah lH used to command Hasan 4fe> and Husain to Allah's 
protection saying: 



326 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



L»V Js> JiT j^j ^La j jlkli JT ^« 5»y I aU( oUisj US' JlIpI 

With the perfect Words of Allah, I command you to Allah's 



protection from every evil and poisonous creature and from 
every evil eye." 

And he used to say: Your ancestor (Ibrahim) used to commend 
Isma'il and Ishaq (•V-Ji with these words to Allah's 



Commentary: The perfect words of Allah could be His commands 
or His Book. He used to suplicate Hasan and Husain in this manner 
and blow on them or gave them an amulet. 



(780/308) Sayyidah Ayshah tf*<5ii said that when the 
Prophet all had a complaint he would blow on himself reciting 
the nut'awwizat 1 ', and wiped himself with his hand. She said, 
"When he suffered from the pain of which he died, 1 would 
blow on him and recite the nut'awwizat as he did and would 
lake his hand to wipe him." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: The mu'awwizat are the last two surah of the 
Qur'an. It could also mean the supplications in such refuge is 
sought w ith Allah. We have already seen some of them and will see 
more in the Kilab Ad-Da'wat. 



(781/309) It is related on the authority of Abu Sa'eed Khudri 4p> 
and Abu Hursyrah that the Messenger of Allah said: 
"Instruct the Kalima of Laa ilaaha il-lallaah to the dying men." 

(Muslim) 

Commentary: Here the "dying men" denotes those who are at the 
point of death and the word Talqeen (i.e., to teach, to instruct, to 



protection. 



(Bukhari) 





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327 



inform), occurring in the original, means that the Kalimah of Lau 
ilaaha il-lallaah should be reited before them so that at the dying 
moment the doctrine of the Oneness of God might be upper-most 
in their minds, and if the tongue was in a position to respond, they 
could refresh their Faith by uttering the Confessional Formula, and 
depart from the world in that state. 

fUp iUl jU Jjl J}^3 Ji5 Jl5 ^Jr J>\ aUU (V A Y/r \ • ) 

(782/310) It is related by Mu'az bin .labal 4& that the Prophet 
said: "He shall go to Heaven whose last words are: Lau 
ilaaha il-lallaah." (Abu Dawood) 

,JLij tip ilit JU> Jj» Jj-^J J^-i J?' (VAT/r \ > ) 

(783/3 1 1 ) It is related by Ma'qil bin Yasar that the Messenger of 
Allah £H said: "Recite surah Yaseen to those of you who are 
dying." (Musnad Ahmad, Abu Dawood and Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: Here, too. the dying men denotes those in whom 
the signs of death may have appeared. Allah alone knows what is 
the aim and significance of this command but this much is evident 
that this Chapter of the Qur'an contains some remarkable truths 
concerning Faith, and what is to follow after death has been 
described in it most vividly. The last verse of it: 

Therefore glory be unto Him in Whose hand is the dominion 
over all things: Unto him you will be brought back. (Yasin 36:83) 

is, particularly, appropriate for recitation when the end is near. 

ijli y\f: J- (VAi/nY) 

(784/312) It is related by Jabir 4»> " I heard the Prophet H say 
only three days before his death that 'Everyone of you should die 
in the condition that he has a good assumption about God." 

(Muslim) 



328 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



Commentary: It shows that faith in Allah and the awareness of 
Him require that while the bondsman feared Him, and, at the same 
time, was hopeful of His Mercy during the last moments of life, the 
pleasureable expectation of Divine benevolence and forgiveness 
should predominate. The sick person should strive to produce this 
state within himself and his attendants and visitors, too, should talk 
to him, or within his hearing, at that time in a way that was 
conducive to it and made him hopefully expectant of Divine mercy. 

Things To Be Done After Death 

^ 'js. ^L> 3 aJJi JU j>5 ciiS j»i 'J- (VAo/r \ r) 

ls? c^j'j 2L *J L -' ffi <J^ J* 

(785/313) Umm Salmah iii ^ related that the Prophet Hi 
came (to her house at the time of the death of her husband, Abu 
Salmah). His (i.e., Abu Salmah's) eyes had remained open; the 
Prophet Hi closed them and said: "When life departs, vision, 
also, departs with it. (The eyes should therefore, be closed after 
death)." One hearing it, the members of Abu Sfalmah's family 
began to cry very loudly (and in their grief they uttered words 
that could have the effect of calling down God's Anger on 
themselves). The Prophet iH, thereupon, said: "O people! Pray 
for what is good for you because the Angels say Aameen on 
what you are saying. "He, then himself prayed:"0 Allah! 
Forgive Abu Salmah and raise his rank among Your rightly 
guided bondsmen and protect and support his survivors in his 
place, and O Lord of the Worlds, forgive him and us and 
illuminate his grave, and make it spacious." (Muslim) 

}y> U ^3 Jjiii J-e Jji jj^j jil cJ \£ uL^i^vAi/n i) 

*£\ *JJ 131 4j iJJl iy>\\j> JjfJ i-lsfli illsfflJ 



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329 




(786/3 1 4) It is related on the authority of Umm Salmah & 
if* that the Prophet Hi said: "When a misfortune befalls a 
believing bondsman (and he suffers a loss), he should say what 
he is commanded to say: "In-na lillaahi wa in-na ilaihi rqji'oon. 
Allahumma ajirni ft musibati wakhluf li khairam minha (To 
God we belong and to Him do we return. O God! Recompense 
me in this misfortune and bestow on me a better thing in place 
of what has been tken away). God will, then, surely grant him a 
better thing." (Umm Salmah went on to relate "When my first 
husband, Abu Salmah died I though who could be better than 
him. He was the first Muslim to migrate towards the Prophet 
with his family and belongings. Bu I prayed as taught by the 



Prophet ap and Allah gave him to me in place of Abu Salmah 



(787/315) Husayn bin Wahwah narrated that when Talha bin 
Bara' fell ill, he said to others: "I feel the time of his death is 
near. (If he dies), I should be informed and (the bathing and 
shrunding of his dead body) should be done quickly because it 
is not proper for the dead body of a Muslim to rem in for long in 
the midst of the family members." (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: It shows that after death has taken place shrouding 
and burial etc, should be done quickly. 

Bewailing And Breast- Beating 

It is natural to feel grief at the death of a dear one, to shed tears 
and to show other spontaneous manifestations of mourning. It 




(i.e., the Prophet married me). 



(Muslim) 




330 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



shows that one has not ceased to be human. The Shari'ah, as such, 
has imposed no restiction on it. It commends and appreciates it. 
But loud lamentation and breast-beating and deliberate bewailing 
and crying are strictly prohibited. First, these practices are 
opposed to the spirit of submission to the Divine Will. Secondly, 
ceremonious mourning amounts to ingratitude and unthankfulness 
at the priceless gift of thinking and reasoning Allah has conferred 
upon man. Thirdly, it adds to one's own mental suffering as well as 
that of others and paralyses, at least for the time being, the faculties 
of thought and action. Crying and breast-beating, further, is hurtful 
to the dead body. 

oUll ft Is j£i Sillp jj JUJ J&j\ JlS yJ- JjLLp jP (VA A/r \ \ ) 

* } ' ' ' ' s 3 $ 3* " * £ " 3 \ 3 3 ** 3 s ' £ s 

^■l^pk li Jlas aI&Ip ^? sJi^rj &s> J>S uii ^ji-li Uij4pj l5j 

a£j f jaii Jfj itu jJL. j up JU ^ » ^ ui jjij u v » jiis 

^1 Jlis IjSo jfrJU-j Up Ul JL* I 

<Sjj (•^'jij' fi^**4 U^! j^'j *S^j &'j* t ->. *ij <js^' 

(j,JLwo j t5 jb*Ji si jj) . Up mJLaI s-lSw o JjLJ c-laJ' 

(788/316) Abdullah bin Umar *s§£> narrated that when Sa'd bin 
Ubadah 4§e> fell ill, the Prophet 111 came to see him with Abdur 
Rahman bin Awf Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas 4§£> and Abdullah 
bin Mas'ud 4|e>. When the Prophet life came in, he found him in 
a very critical condition (or in such a condition that many 
people were surrounding him). The Prophet lH, on seeing it, 
said: "(He has) passed away." (He might have guessed it from 
his condition or wanted to enquire from the people who were 
arond Sa'd bin Ubadah whether he had died). "No, 
Messenger of Allah replied the people. "He is not dead." 
The Prophet HH, (then), burst into tears and when people saw it, 
they also, began to cry. He, thereupon, said: "O people! Listen 
carefully. Allah does not punish upon the tears of the eyes and 
the grief of the heart (because one has no control over them, 
and, then, pointing towards the tongue, he added), but He does 
punish upon the (misconduct) of this tongue (i.e., upon 



Book of Prayers 



331 



lamenting and mourning with it) and blesses (those who say 

In-na lillaah and beg His forgiveness), and it, too, is a 

fact that chastisement is inflicted upon the dead body for the 
bewailment of the family members." (Bukhai i and Muslim) 

Commentary: The main purport of the above Tradition is that 
bewailment and loud lamentation should be avoided on the death 
of anyone. It is a source of the anger and punishment. On the other 
hand, In-na lillaa and other Kalimah of prayer and repentance 
ought to be uttered which are the means of earning His good 
pleasure. It, also, tells that the dead body is punished for the crying 
and breast-beating of relatives. 

Besides Abdullah bin Umar 4fe>, his father, Umar bin al-Khattab 
4^>, and some other Companions, also, have related that the 
Prophet Hi said so. But Sayyidah Ayshah in and, with her, 
Abdullah bin Abbas reject it. In the source-books of this very 
Tradition — Sahih Buhari and Sahih Muslim — it is stated that 
when the narrative of Sayyidina Umar and his son, Abdullah 
bin Umar was mentioned to Sayyidah Ayshah ^ ^ in this 
connection she remrked. "Both of these gentlemen, indeed, are 
truthful, but in this case, either their memory did not serve them 
well or they failed to hear or understand correctly what the Prophet 
Hi said. The Prophet Hi did never say that." Sayyidah Ayshah 
i^pAi , also referred in her support, to the Qur'anic verse: 

(T A: or ^Jl) 55j Sjjlj jjj^ 

That no laden one shall bear anohter's load. (Al-Najm 53:38) 

And observed "in this verse the rule has been laid down that no 
one will be punised for the sin of any other person. How, then, can 
it be that wailing is done by the members of the family and 
punishment is meted out to the deceased?" 

But the manner in which Sayyidina Umar 4§& and Abdulah bin 
Umar 4fe have related the incident leaves no room for believing 
that they erred or mistook the emaning of the Prophet's words. At 
the same time, the argument of Sayyidah Ayshah \$s- &\ ^ h too, 
cannot be ignored. Commentators in their attempt to reconcile the 
two viewpoints have advanced various explanations, the most 
appealing of which is that the narratives of Sayyidina Umar 4fe and 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



Abdullah bin Umar 4fe appertain to the situation in which the fault 
or negligence of the deceased, too, had something to do with the 
wailing of his relatives, as for instance, he might have exhorted 
them to do so, as the custom was among the Arabs in olden days, 
or, at least, failed to advise them against it. The same view was 
been taken by Imam Bukhari as well. 

It has, again, been suggested that when people wail over the 
death of a near kinsman and extol his virtues to the skies, the 
Angels ask him. "Why, were you really like that?" The same thing 
has been mentioned in some Traditions also. 

Those who want to know more should see Lath al-Mulhn. It 
must be known that Sa'd bin Ubadah 4fe recovered from the illness. 
He died after the Prophet 0 had died in hands of Sayyidina Abu 
Bakr 4fe or Sayyidina Umar 4fe>. 

• 

j»t &y\ cjM J^>y JLp Jll iSy. 'J} 'J- (VA^/r \ V) 

• cJj^J J^J Jl3 jjlij *11p ,J~p 

(789/317) It is related on the authority of Abu Burda, son of 
Abu Musa Al-Ash'ari 4fe>, that once Abu Musa (fell ill and 
became) unconcious upon which his wife, Umm Abdullah, 
began to cry loudly. Later, as Abu Musa's ^k> condition 
improved and he regrained consciousness, he said to her: "Do 
you not know that lite Prophet has declaed that Be will have 
nothing to do with anyone who shaves his head, raises long, 
sorrowing cries, tears his clohes and follows ways of the Days 
of ignorance on the occasion of death or any other misfortune?" 
(Abu Burdah went on to add that Abu Musa Ash'ari used, 
often to relate this saying to his wife). (Bukhari and Muslim) 

dp Jill JU Ajj-j JtS J> Jiu£ (Y^./rU) 

(790/318) It is related by Abdullah bin Mas'ud 4fe that the 
Prophet said: "Whoever slaps his cheeks, beats his face and 



Book of Prayers 



333 



tears his clothes and bewails in the manner ofthe (polytheistsofold, 
in moments of loss or grief), isnotoneofus." (Bukhari and Muslim) 



(791/319) Anas 4fe> narrated "1 went with the Messenger of 
Allah to the house of Abu Saif. the ironmonger. Abu Saif 
was the husband of the wet-nurse ofthe Prophet's Hi son, 
Ibrahim 4^&. (and, according to the custom of those days, 
Ibrahim used ot live with her). The Prophet |jl lifted Ibrahin (in 
his arm) and kissed himand placed his nose (on his cheeks as 
people do when showing affectin to a child). Afterwards, we 
went there once (during the last illness of Ibrahim). At that time, 
Ibrahim 4fe> was on the point of death. Seeing his condition, 
tears began to flow from the eyes of the Prophet Abdul 
Rahman bin Awf 4|e> (who believed, owing to ingorance, that 
the Prophet &§l could not be affected by such things) exclaimed: 
'You, too, O Messenger of Allah?" The Prophet ^ replied: 
'(There is no harm in it. On the contrary), it is love and 
sympathy.' Then, as the tears rolled down his cheek, once again, 
he said: The eyes shed tears, and the heart is stricken with grief, 
but by the tongue I will say only what is pleasing to Allah (i.e., 
ln-na lillaahi wa in-na liaihi raji'oon). And O Ibrahim! 1 am sad 
at your parting." (Bukhari and Muslim) 



Commentary: It shows that the Prophet &m was duly moved by 
situations of sorrow and suffering, and, he, also, shed tears in such 
circumstanes. To feel happy at things of joy and sad at events that 
cause grief and distress is a fundamental characteristic of human 
beings. If any one behaves differently, it is a failing, not a virtue. 



Tears of Eyes And Grief And Heart 





Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part 111 



Sheikh Ahmad Farooqi Mujaddid Alf-Thani *JIp <Sii s^-j writes 
in one o his letter "One the condition of my heart was such that I 
neither felt happy at things that caused joy nor sad at things that 
caused grief. During those days I forced myself to look happy or 
dejected (as the case was)with the intention of complying with the 
practice of the sacred Prophet III. Later, the state of indifference 
disappeared and, now, my condition is that I react in the natural 
way to sad or joyful events." 

Condolence 

To grieve in sympathy with any one who is in distress and to 
try to lessen his grief is a noble quality of the mind. The Prophet 

did so himself, and, also, advised the Companions to share the 
sorrow of others and express sympathy for them. 

(A^-U ji\ j ij ju jA\ »\ j j) . 6j5^ Ji^ 4JL9 bLi* t£jP Ja jiA^fj 

(792/320) It is related by Abdullah bin Mas'ud 4& that the 
Messenger of Allah HH said: "whever consoled or comforted a 
person in distress, for him is the same reward as for the 
distressed one." (Tirmizi and Ibn Majah) 



Sending Food to The Family of The Deceased 

On the day of their bereavement, members of the house-hold of 
the deceased are not in a fit condition to arrange for their meals. 
Companionship and fellow-feeling, therefore, require that their 
freinds are relatives send them food. 

^JjJi Jli jiuor Ju frbr U Jli Ji 4D1 xs- (V^r/m) 

(793/321) It is related on the authority of Abdullah bin J'afar 4fe 
that when news was recieved of the martyrdom of his father, 
J'afar bin Abu Talib, the Prophet Hi said: "Food should be 
prepared for J'afar's family. On the receipt of the news they will 
not be in such a state as to attend to needs like that." 

(Tirmizi, Abu Dawood, and Ibn Majah) 



Book of Prayers 



335 



Showing Patience at Death 

J j£ Up *JJ( JU> aJJI J J-'J J 1 * J 1 * ^ J* (V\ 1/VY Y) 

(794/322) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4fe> that the Messenger 
of Allah lH said: "Allah says "When I take away (i.e., send 
down death upon the dear one of a faithful bondsman (or 
bondswoman) and he (or she) shows patience (on it) in the hope 
of recompense, I have no reward for him (or her) save Paradise." 

(Bukhari) 

*Jlp till JU> aJJi Sjltj JlS Jl5 s ^) jp (y<\ °/r Y T) 

I £ & ) # % j i" lis* s s 

(795/323) It is reported by Sayyidina Abu Musa Al-Ash'ari 4|fe> 
that the Messenger of Allah W$ said: "When a child of a slave of 
Allah dies. He says to His angels, 'Have you taken the soul of 
the child of My slave?' They say. "Yes!" . so. He says. 'You have 
taken away the fruit of his heart.' They say, 'Yes'. Then I le says. 
'What did My slave say?' They reply, 'He praised You and said 

"We belong to Allah and to Him will we return."(ul-Buqarah2:156) 

Then Allah says. 'Build for My slave a house in Paradise and 
call it Bayt Al-Hamd (the House of Praise)." (Ahmad. Tirmizi) 

A Letter of Condolence by The Prophet H 

1* ^ s J s s s ' 1 



336 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



o'jJLaJ* j^T j^-b uJ^ij A-iaJSj JJj-^J aJoje. ^? ** ^ 4£OjS~LgJl 

. ^dlij jdi 5^ J j* *i! j ^ ^ t.^ 1 & ^'-J 

(796/324) It is related by Mu'az bin Jabal 4& that when his son 
died, the Prophet iil sent him a letter of condolence: 

"In the name of Allah the Most Kind, the Most Merciful! 

"From Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah to Mu'az bin 
Jabal 

"Salaamun 'Alaika, 

"First of all, 1 relate to you the Praises of Allah save Whom 
there is no deity. (After it), I pray that Allah may recompense 
you most bounteously on the loss and endue your heart \\ ith 
patience and grant you and me the good fortune to be thankful 
(to Him) for His favours. Our lives and our possessions and our 
wives and our childen are the gifts of Allah and the trusts He 
has placed in our charge. (Your son, also, was a trust fo Allah, 
given in your keeping), as long as He wished, He gave you the 
opportunity to profit from him with joy and to make yourself 
happy, and when He willed, He took back the charge from you. 
He is going to recompense you with a plentiful reward. (There 
are glad tidings of) the special favour of Allah and benevolence 
and guidance from Him if you show patience in the confident 
expectation of reward and with the intention of willing 
surrender to His Will. So, O Mu'az, be patient and let not 
bewailing and loud lamentation ruin th recompense, lest, you 
feel sorrow (over suffering the loss, and yet, remain depreived 
of the reward). And, believe it, no dead person returnst (to the 
earth) by mourning and lamentation, nor does it lessen the grief. 
And the Command that comes down from Allah shall be 
fulfilled. In truth, it has been fulfilled (already). Was-Salaam." 

Commentary: In the Qur'an good tidings of three things have been 
given to those who show patience: 



Book of Prayers 



337 



Such are they on whom are blessings from their Lord, and 
mercy. Such are the rightly-guided. (al-Baqarah 2: 1 57) 

Alluding to the afore-mentioned verse, the Prophet il> has 
observed in his letter to Sayyidina Mu'az 4fe that if he remained 
patient in his bereavement with the propitation of Allah and Divine 
recompense as the objective, there were for him the glad tidings of 
the special favour of Allah and mercy and guidance. 

Bathing And Shrouding of The Dead Body 

The Shari'ah has prescribed a precise method of sending off. 
with proper solemnity and honour, a person who leaves this world 
for the ultimate abode of the Hereafter through the pathway of 
death. It is a most cleanly, noble and glady way of doing so. First, 
the dead body should be washed throughly as a living person takes 
a bath for making himself clean. Apart from cleansing and 
pruification, due regard ought to be paid to the proprieties of a 
bath. The cleansers that are , generally, used in a bath for removing 
the grime and filthiness should be added to the water used in it. 
Odorous substances like camphor should, also, be finally mixed 
with the water so that the dead body becomes fragrant. It should, 
then, be shrouded in a neat and clean cloth, but wasteful 
expenditure to be avoided. Afterwards, the funeral prayer has to be 
offered in which an earnest prayer is made for Divine mercy and 
forgiveness for the departed soul. People, then, should accompany 
the corpse to the graveyard to bid it farewell. Lastly, it should 
aparently. be consinged to the grave reverentially, and, in reality, 
entrusted to the mercy of Allah. 

aJs- <dJi JU? J^~>3 J^S dJti ilkp ji- (vi v/rr °) 

s 3 y - s S s * ^ s y % s ,J y ^ 

j^jsiils /jalS' jfi ulijt 'jJ* 1 ^ Yjt^ o^r ] 3 j^j ^ <-Joii 

y t tii ' y * " ' " f ' * ' y" " J ^ " " ' " & " " y * c " 

aj!j3 ^ij aCl l$i 'j*j>\ Jlfli syLr- \^\ atiil is-ji Uii ^jili 



338 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



L^u ^&\y>j jUjtj Ul-ijl L~»j~j\ I^jj LgJL^Pl 

(797/325) It is related by Urn 'Atiya "When we were bathing the 
Prophet's HI daughter who had died, the Prophet Hi came and 
said to us: 'Bathe her three or five times or even more if you 
think it proper with water boiled with jujube leaves, and, also, 
add caphor to it when you bathe the body for the last time, and 
let me know when you finish.' So, when the bathing was 
completed, we informed the Prophet life, then, he threw his 
tahbund towards us and said: 'First of all, dress her in it'." In 
another version of the same incident, it is stated that the Prophet 
Hi said: "Bathe her odd numbers of times, three, five or seven, 
and begin with the right side and with parts that are washed in 
ablution." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: From the report quoted in Sahih Muslim, it appears 
that it was the Prophet's Hi eldest daughter, Sayyidah Zaynab 
if* <&i, who was married to Abul 'Aas bin Rabi', the bathing and 
shrouding of whose dead body is described in the above Tradition. 
She had died in the beginning of 8 A.H., and Umm Atiya Ansariya, 
who is the narrator of this Tradition and was among those who had 
given the bath, was a prominent Companion. She always offered 
herself for such a service and was specially skilled in it. A 
renowned legist-doctor like Ibn Sireen says that he had learnt the 
correct way of bathing the dead bodies from her. 

The above narrative speaks of bathing the dead body with 
water boiled with jujube leaves. These have a marked cleansing 
effect on the body and were used, in olden days, for the same 
purpose for which we use soap now. What it under lines is that 
fullest care should be taken to remove dirt from the dead body. For 
the same reason, it has, also, been stressed that the body should be 
washed thrice and even more than that, and since odd numbers are 
more pleasing to Allah, the bathing should be done three or five or 
even seven times if necessary, and camphor should be added when 
the body is washed for the last time for it has a very strong, 
agreeable and long-lasting smell. 

The giving by the Prophet t§l of his own Tahbund for 
O. A cloth worn round the waist. It is not passed between the legs nor fastned 
behind. 



Book of Prayers 



339 



shrouding the dead body of his daughter — in some reports it is 
distinctly stated that when the Prophet Hi was informed that the 
bathing had been completed he removed the Tahbund from his 
body and gave it for shrouding — , with the instruction that it was 
to be used as an under-garment has induced some authorities to 
conclude that it is propitious to use the dress etc., of virtuous 
bondsmen of Allah for such purpose. But to attach an exaggerated 
importance to these things and grow negligent of one's duties 
because of a belief like that is. of course erroneous. 

It does not show how many pieces of cloth were used for 
shrouding the Prophet's £§l daughter but in Fath-Baari, Imam Ibn 
Hajr has quoted Jauzqi, as an addition to Uram Atiya's l$a* &s 
narrative. 

^J|^>u US La U t-H'jj' X^J- ^4 IaLa££ 

"We shrouded her in five clothes and, also, covered her with 
Khamcit^ as is worn by living women." 

It is on the basis of it that five pieces of cloth are accepted as 
Musnoon for shrouding the dead body of a woman. 

Shrouding 

pL*j ds- tilt J-p Jji Jji] HjIp (v^A/rvi) 

(798/326) It is related by Sayyidah Ayshah l^-^i^j that (when 
the Prophet iH> died) he was shrouded in three (pieces of) white 
Yeminite cloth that were Saholi. In these was included neither 
the shirt nor the head-gear." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: A ccording to some commentators, Saholi was the 
name of a place in Yemen which was famous for cloth-weaving. 
The Prophet W$ used to wear Yemenite sheets and when he died, 
he was, also, shrouded in them. His shroud did not include the shirt 
or the turban. For the shrouds of men only three peices are required 
according to the Shari'ah. 

lit JLj tin JU Jji Sj^j J 1 * y&cf (vwrvv) 

) 

O. A cloth worn by Muslim ladies to cover their head and the upper part of the 
body. 



340 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



(799/327) It is related by Jabir 4fe that the Messenger of Allah 
said: "When anyone of you gives the shroud to his deceased 
brother, he should give a good one." (Muslim) 

Commentary: It tells that no one possessing the means should 
shroud a dead person in old and rotten clothes thinking that now he 
will, after all. be buried in the grave and turn to dust. He should 
cover him with a good shroud. Reverence for the dead body 
requires it. 

\'yL2\ pLj dJ,&\J*0iU\ Sj^j ji JlS jfe J>\j* (A • • /r Y A) 

(800/328) It is related on the authority of Abdullah bin Abbas 
4fe> that the Prophet iH said: "Wear white clothes: these are 
good clothes for you: and, also, shroud your dead in them." 

(Abu Dawood, Tinnizi and lbn Majah) 

Jt^'^j^iAJl JL*4Jl Jjijjlijli^o* (A • \/VY \) 

(801/329) It is related by Sayyidina Ali 4& that the Messenger 
of Allah iH said: "Do not use a very costly shroud for it is going 
to perish." (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: It shows that just as it is improper to shroud the 
body in the cloth of a poor quality, while one can afford a better 
one, it is, also, unjustifiable to use a very expensive cloth. 

It is worth remembering that to shroud men in three and women 
in five pieces of a good, white cloth is applicable only when the 
family of the deceased can spare the money for it without difficulty 
or else an old cloth and only one piece of it can, also, suffice and 
there is nothing to be ashamed of in it. 

The Prophet's Hi own uncle, Sayyidina Hamza 4fe, who had 
been killed in the Ballte of Badr was shrouded in a single piece of 
cloth which was so small that it could not cover the whole body. If 
the head was covered, the feet became bare, and if the feet were 
covered, the head became bare. At last, at the command of the 



Book of Prayers 



341 



Prophet &§l, the head was covered with it and the feet with the 
grass oflzkhar and he was buried in that condition. 

Following The Funeral Procession 
And Offering The Funeral Prayer 

ja pL>j aBi JU Jjl J^j J\J JlS VJijk (A • Y/YT < ) 

Cjt £_y^J i^*^ ls 1 ^ 0^\j j (♦4**"" 

£i l^ip J~p jjJ-i jL Jsl^a? ji" ^ jr? («r^d £sl* ifia 

(802/330) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4#b that the Messenger 
of Allah said: "Whoever, with the attribute of Faith and the 
intent to earn the Divine reward, follows the funeral procession 
of a Muslim and remains with the dead body till the funeral 
prayer is observed and the burial is completed, he will return 
home with two Qirats of reward, each of which, so to say. w ill 
be equal to the Mount of Uhud. and whoever departs after 
offering the funeral prayers (and does not stay on for the burial), 
he will return w ith only are (such-like) Qirat of reward." 

(Bukahri and Muslim) 

Commentary: 1- vidently, the object of this Tradition is to induce 
people to accompany the bier and take part in the funeral prayer 
and burial. 

Qirat was an Arab coin worth one-twelfth of a dirham or two 
pice in Indian money. Since, in those days, the labourers were paid 
in Qirat, the Prophet has used the same expression. At the same 
time, he has made it clear that it should not be taken for the Qirat 
of this world. It was the Qirat of the reward of the Hereafter w hich, 
as compared to it, will be as big as the Mount of Uhud. 

The Prophet iS> has, further, emphasised that the reward will be 
obtained only when the vvohle thing is carried out as a religious 
duty and for the sake of earning Divine recompense, that it, is 
prompted mainly by a firm belief in the word of Allah and w hat the 
Prophet has said or revealed and inconfident expectation of the 
reward of the Hereafter. Thus, if anyone follows the l'ucnral 
procession and participates in the funeral prayer and the burial 
simply out of the considerations of relationship or affection or with 



342 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



the object of pleasing the family of the deceased and is not mindful 
of the command of Allah and the Prophet iH and the reward on the 
Day of Final Judgement, he will not be worthy of it. 

Walking at a Brisk Pace With 
The Bier And Need For Dispatch 



of Allah said: "Take the dead body (for burial) at a brisk 
pace. If he is virtuous, (the grave for him) is (a) good 
(destination), and you will make him attain it in a short time (by 
walking briskly), and if he is otherwise (i.e., not a virtuous 
person) then there is an evil (load on your shoulders). You will 
remove it (quickly) from you shoulders (by moving with greater 
speed)." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: It shows that the burial should be expedited as 
quick as possible and unnecessary delay avoided in bathing and 
shrouding the dead body. When the bier is taken to the graveyard, 
those carrying it should not, needlessly, move slowly but at a 
reasonably brisk pace. 

Funeral Prayer And Solemn 
Entreaty For The Deceased 



(804/332) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4$b that the Messenger 
of Allah HH said: "Whenever you offer funeral prayer of anyone, 



Commetnary: The chief purpose of a funeral prayer is the making 
of supplication for the departed soul. The glorification of Allah 
after the first Takbir and Durood after the second, in fact, are a 
prelude to supplication. The supplications the Prophet 0 made in 





pray earnestly for him. 



M 



(Abu Dawood and Ibn Majah) 



Book of Prayers 



the funeral prayer, which are given in the folowing Traditions, are 
most suitable for the occasion. 

1 a i > i - - 

^ip iUi Jl> J_^ij Jii (^iCJU 'J, (A . o/rrr) 

ijA £ ^Jl J ^AiJl J fi.UJL 4l>-*La £-»>JJ 4J ^ C^AP^J 

^3' 3 03*0 3. 3 " * <!• s> & <>>s s * s 3 

(805/333) Awf bin Maalik narrated that "the Messenger of 
Allah Hi offered the funeral prayer of a person who had died 
and he remembered the words of the supplication (he made in it 
for the deceased). He beseeched Allah (in these words): 

s g ^ ' > ^$ * s S > #s 3 3& 3 

^pijjl Ja~fi\ OjiJi c-a» UTUtk^tJi <u;j jj-Jij ^^'j 

AUaahummaghfirlahu wa arhamhu wa 'aafihi wa' afu 'cmhu wa 
ikrim nuzulahu wa was-si'a miid-khlalahu waghsilhu bil-ma-i 
wath-thalj i wal-bardi wa naqqihi minal khalaya kama 
naqaitath thaitbal-abyadhu minad-danasi wa abdilhn daaran 
Khairan min daarihi wa uhlan khairan min ahlihi wa zaujan 
khairan min zaujihi wa adkhil-hul-jan-ata wa 'a-izha min 
'azaabil qabri wa min -azaabin-nar 

(O Allah! Forgive this, bondsman, bestow Your blessings on 
him; favour him with safety; pardon him; extend respectful 
hospitality to him: widen the grave for him; (instead of the Fire 
of Hell and its scorching heat) give him a bath of water, ice and 
hail (and make him cool), and purify him from the filthiness of 
sin as You have made white cloth clean of dirt: and grant him 
and good above of the Hereafter in place of the above of this 
world, and a good household in place of his own household, and 
a good spouse in place of his own spouse; and save him from 
the chastisement of Hell and firm the chastisement of the grave). 



344 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



(The narrator. 'Avvf bin Maalik. adds that on hearing this 
supplication.) he wished that it was his dead body)." (Muslim) 

iSl pLj 4* & JU Jjl J^j & ^ (A • 1/YT 1) 

iL;i^j bualij ikij L^J^l j^il JlS SjU^J) JU 

. aiii Lab V j ajjr-l Li y4j ^ 1$\ jUJVi Ji* -Wj^ 

(806/334) I is related by Abu Hurayrah 4© that when the 

Messenger of Allah offered prayer on a dead body he used to 

supplicate, in these words: Allahummaghfir lihiyyina wa 

maiyyit ina wa shaahidina wa gha-ibina wa sagheerina wa 

kaheeri-na wa zakarina wa onthaana. Aliahumma ahyaitahii 

min-na Ja-anyeehi 'alal-islanti wa man tawaffaitahu min-na 

fatawafuhu alal-imaan. Aliahumma laa tuhrimna ajrahu wa laa 

taf-linna h'adahu (O Allah! Forgive our dead and living, present 

and absent, old and young, men and women— all and everyone. 

O Allah! Whoever of us You may keep alive, keep him 'alive in 

the state of Islam, and whoever of us You may take away from 

this world, take him away in the state of Faith. O Allah! Deprive 

us not of recompense on his death in hereafter nor plunge us in 

trial and mischief in the world after him). 

(Musnad Ahmad Abu Dawood, Tirmizi and Ibn Majah) 

, i t \ , , i - - , ,> 
J>, 0^ & h\ ffi J>1 LUls yt J^-j JIp 

(807/335) It is related by Wathilah bin al-Asqa' "The Messenger 
of Allah led the funeral prayer of a Muslim. I heard that, he 
suppicated: Aliahumma in-na jalaanab net fitlaanin fi zimmatika 
wa habli jaarika faqihi min fitnatiil qahri wa 'azaabin-naari wa 
anta ahlul wafa-i-walhaqqi. Alliihummaghfirlihtt wa arhamhu 
in-naka antalghafoorur raheem (O Allah! This bondsman of 
Yours, so-and-so. son of so-and-so, is in Your refuge and 
protection. Keep him safe from the mishcief of the grave and 



Book of Prayers 345 

the punishment of Hell. You are the One Who Keeps His 
promise in Truth. You are Oft-forgiving. Merciful)." 

( Abu Dawood and Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: Other supplication, also, are reported to have been 
made by the Prophet during the funeral prayer but the three 
mentioned above are more popular. One. however, is free to recite 
any one or several of them. 

The narrative of Wathilah bin Asqa' shows that the prophet 
used to make these supplications so loudly that the Companions 
heard them and preserved them for posterity. The Prophet 
often, said some supplication in prayers with a loud voice so that 
others could hear and learn them by heart. The saying aloud of 
these supplication in the funeral prayer, probably, was for the same 
reason, otherwise, as a general principle, it is better to make 
entreaties to Allah quiet. In the Qur'an, too, it is stated: 

And do thou remember thy Lord within thyself humbly and with 
awe, below thy breath. (Al-'Aral'7:205) 

Propitiousnes of A Large Number 

of Men Participating in Funeral Prayer 

(808/336) It is related by Sayyidah Ayshah if* & that the 
Prophet said: "The dead body on which a large number of 
Muslims as many as a hundered — offer prayer and plead 
solemnly with Allah on behalf of the deceased (i.e.. pray for 
mercy and forgiveness for him), their prayer and intercession 
will, positively, be granted." (Muslim) 

is 6U 4i\ j»ts- j>\ aJJiaIp jit* j\\ Jy> <J{jt 'jt> (A • ^/rrv) 

C^r[f - Jlfl j>\^\ ja il U c-JjS" U J 124 i^jlLjo j\ X>SJl> j>\ 

eyr JlS Jll ti'yu'j j'jAj Jlil iS 'jk^Jr\ ii J-U I ill 



346 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



OjAJ J4-J J* La Jjjj (»i^J Alii ^J~P <UJl J J-* 1 J 



(809/337) The freed slave of Abdullah bin Abbas 4&>, Khrayb, a 
Taba'ee, narrated "A son of Abdullah bin Abbas died at Qudayd 
or Usfa. (When some people had assembled), Abdullah bin 
Abbas told me to go and have a look at them. So, 1 went out and 
saw that a good number of men had collected. When I 
inoformed him about it, he asked; 'Do you think there are forty 
of them? 1 'Yes (1 am sure they are forty)', I replied. Abdullah bin 
Abbas said: Now take out the dead body. I have heard the 
Prophet £§1 say that if a Muslim dies and forty persons whose 
lives are wholly free from polytheism offer his funeral prayer 
(and, they ask for forgiveness for him), Allah, surely, grants 
their prayer and inercession on behalf of the deceased." (Muslim) 

Commentary: Qudaid was a town lying on the road between 
Makkah and Madinah, near Rabigh, and Usfan was the name of a 
settlement between Makkah and Rabigh, some 30 miles from 
Makkah. The narrator is not sure at which of the two places 
Abdullah bin Abbas's 4^> son had died. 

&s> JUi JU> cjL»j* Jis YJJ»> J> t-£JU j£ (awyta) 

iJCjj Jjli &t oju^Ji jit jtii iSi Jflu 

(ijb^laljj) -444^' 
(810/338) It is related on the authority of Maalik bin Hubayrah 
4fe that he heard the Prophet say: "If a Muslim bondsman 
dies and three rows of Muslims offer his funeral prayer (and 
beseech Allah, to forgive his sins and grant him Paradise), 
Allah, surely, makes forgiveness and Paradise his due." Merthad 
Yazni who related this Tradition on the authority of Maalik bin 
Hubayrah, adds that) it was the practice of Maalik bin Hubayrah 
when he felt that the number of participants in a funeral prayer 
was lot much he divided them into three rows in light of this 
saying. (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: Confident expectation of the acceptance of the 



Book of Prayers 



347 



supplication for forgiveness and Paradise has been expressed, in 
the first saying, on the participation of a hundred Muslims in the 
funeral prayer, in the second, of forty Muslims, and, in the third, of 
three rows of them. Apparently, it was inspired to the Prophet by 
Allah on three different occasions. At first, he was told that if a 
hundred Muslims offered up the funeral prayer of a Believer, and, 
supplicated, on his behalf, forgiveness and mercy, Allah will, 
certainly, grant it, then the number was reduced to forty, and, then 
again, to three rows. 

Nevertheless, the above narrative distinctly shows that it is 
good and a means of felicity and propitiousness that a large number 
of Muslims participate in the funeral prayer. Endeavour should, 
therefore be made, to a reasonable extent, to arrange for it. 

Burial 

(81 1/339) 'Aamir bin Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas 4#b, narrated "My 
father, (Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas 4fe>) had willed, during his last 
illness, that a grave with a niche in the side should be prepared 
for him and unbaked bricks placed in an upright position to seal 
it, as had been done for the Prophet ill." (Muslim) 

Commentary: It shows that the better and more proper way of 
preparing the grave was that a niche was dug in its side (in which 
the dead body was deposited), and it was closed with unbreaked 
bricks. The grave of the Prophet iH was made in the same way. 
But should the soil be so soft that a grave of this kind cannot be 
dug, the other type of grave (i.e., the straight one) should be made 
which is called, Shiqq. From varios accounts it appears that both 
kinds of graves were dug, as the circumstances required, during the 
days of the Prophet ill. But a grave with a small recess on one of 
its side is preferable. 



348 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Pari III 



Jl J> j^j^I 1 J^'j 'jH^'j 'jVj'j 

(812/340) It is related on the authority of Hisham bin 'Aamir 4*» 
that, on the day of Uhud, the Prophet Hi said: "Dig graves (for 
the martyrs) and make them wide and deep and prepare them 
well and bury two or three in one grave, and, among them, give 
perference to him who has more of the Qur'an." 

(Musnad Ahmad, Tirmizi, Abu Dawood and Nasai) 

Commentary: In the Battle of Uhud about 70 Companions were 
killed and it .was not easy to dig a grave for everyone of them. 
Besides, the Prophet also, had to set a precedent for such a 
situation. He, therefore, ordered two or three martyrs to be buried 
together in one grave which was to be deep as well wide. It was. 
further, indicated by him that when more than one martyr was 
buried in a single grave, he should be the first to be deposited in it 
and placed in the direction of the qibla who knew more of the 
Qur'an. On the strength of this Tradition, the principle has been 
enunciated that seveal corpses can be buried in one grave in a war 
or other extra-ordianary circumstances. 

ls^j ^33 • ^ <J*'j ^3 ^ f*H <3^j c4*J ( 

(813/341) Abdullah bin Umar 4ife> related to us that when the 
Prophet III lowered a dead body in the grave (or a dead body 
was lowered into it), he used to say: "Bismillahi wa billaahi 'ala 
millati rasidillah (We bury him in the name of Allah and w ith 
His help and in accordance with the way of the followers of His 
Messenger". (In some other versions of the same Tradition 'Ala 
Sitnnati rasidillah has been mentioned in place of 'Ala millati 
rasulillah). (Musnad Ahmad, Tirmizi, Ibn Majah and Abu Dawood) 

Jz'j <£ilj \*~**r £^ c>->aJt J?* 



Book of Prayers 



349 



(814/342) It is related, by way of Irsal, by J'afar Sadiq *ui 
a-U, on the authority of his father, Muhammad Baqar <ul* s^-j. 
that the Messenger of Ailah Hi took dust thrice in both of his 
hands joind together and threw it on a dead body (i.e., on its 
grave at the time of burial), and he poured water (or had it 
poured) on the grave of his son, Ibrahim, and caused gravel to 
be laid on it." (Sharh-us-Sunnah) 

aJip iii JU> Jl-Ji cJuLa Ji5 jj aJJijI*- (S^ (A ^ o/r i r) 

. O^Jl *-f^"J AwtJli 

(815/343) Abdullah bin Umar 4& related "1 heard the Prophet 
ic§l say: 'When anyone of you dies, do not retain his corpse in 
the house for a long time, but make haste in taking it to the 
grave and burying it. and (after the burial) recite the opening 
verse of surah Al-Baqarah (up to Muflihoon) on the side of the 
head and concluding verses of it (from Aamanar rasul up to the 
end) on the side of the feet'." (This Tradition has been quoted by 
Baihaqi in Sh'ab-el-Imam with the remark that, in fact, these 
are the words of Abdullah bin Umar ^k> and there is no 
documentary evidence on the basis of which they can be 
attributed to the sacred Prophet am. 

Commentary: The instruction not to delay the burial 
unnecessarily is contained in a number of Traditions of the Prophet 
&%. As for the recitation of the opening and concluding verses of 
Sura Al-Baqarah at the grave, Ibn Umar 4$k> could, not have 
prescribed it on his own. He must have learnt it from the Prophet 
k%. Thus, though the documentary evidence of the transmission of 
this Tradition may not be available, it falls in the category of 
Marfroo x according to the criteria laid down by the scholars of the 
Traditions and the jurists. 



O. Meaning a Tradition whose authenticity is established by an unbroken chain 
of transmission right up to the Prophet ■ 



350 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



Graves 

at j j) . >UiJj jij «LAp j^ij jlj j»<ui jp^e^u 

(816/344) It is related by Jabir that "The Messenger of Allah 
has ordered against making a solid grave by plastering it 
with lime or erecting a building over it or sitting on it." (Muslim) 

Commentary: Concerning the grave, the doctrinal point of the 
Shari'ah, on the one hand, is that it should be regarded with respect 
because of its association with the dead and everything that is 
desecratory to it is prohibited — that is why, it has been frobidden 
in the above saying to sit on it - — and, on the other, that it should 
be plain and simple, arousng in the heart of the viewer the 
realisation of the transitoriness of the world and an earnest 'anxiety 
for the Hereafter. It is for this later reason that it has been 
disallowed to build it at a solid, permanent or imposing sturcture or 
to erect a monument or any other building over it. Another wisdom 
of it is that when a grave will be plain, clay-built and 
unornamented, people with a polytheistic disposition will not be 
tempted to turn it into a place of worship. We, thus, find that 
absurd and un-Islamic practices are not carried out where the 
graves of the Companions spiritual mentors ^At- iii and 
other high-souled men have, in compliance with this command, 
been built of clay and kept strictly unadorned while most 
undesirable things are witnessed where mausoleums have been 
erected over the graves of holy men. 

j^Ltj <&* till JLi? Jjl Sj^j Jli Jli is jlid! &ja {J\ (A \ Y/Y t o) 

(tS jb*Jl a( jj) IjLaj *ij JJ*^ 1 (J^ lj-~^J *i 

(817/345) It is related by Abi Marthad Ghanawi that the 
Messenger of Allah lH said: "Neither sit on the graves nor offer 
prayer with your face turned towards them." (Muslim) 

Commentary: It is not only an act of irreverence to sit on a grave, 
but as we shall see in the next Tradition, also hurtful to the 
occupier. The object of restraining people from offering prayer 
facing the grave was to guard them even against the semblance of 



Book of Prayers 



351 



polytheism. 

(818/346) Amr bin Hazim related "Once on seeing me reclining 
on a grave, the Prophet life remarked: 'Do nto hurt its occupier." 

(Musnad Ahmad) 

Visiting The Graves 

(4jt\j> ji\ at j j) 

(819/347) It is related by Abdullah bin Mas'ud 4&that the 
Messenger of Allah life said: "1 had forbidden you from visiting 
the graves. Now, I allow you to visit them for it promotes 
disinterestedness in the material world and solicitude for the 
Hereafter." (Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: In the beginning when the Muslims had only 
recently come out of the fold of paganism and the creed of Divine 
Unity as not firmly entrenched in their hearts, the Prophet ® had 
prohibited the visiting of the graves to them because there lay the 
risk of their slipping back into the folly of polytheism and 
tomb-worship. But as they grew into staunch believers in 
Monotheism and revulsion to all forms of polytheism became a 
part of their nature and it was feared no more that by visiting the 
graves they would lapse back into polytheistic beliefs and 
observances, it was permitted to them. It was, however, made clear 
that permission was given because visiting of the graves was 
helpful in making a man think less of worldly desires and interests 
and more of afterlife. 

The above Tradition, also, underlines a fundamental principle 
of the Islamic Canonic law that if there is an aspect of goodness in 
anything but it, also, possesses the possibility of a grave harm, the 
element of virtue will be ignored and it will be prohibited. But it. at 
any time the circumstances alter and the fear of injuriousness 



352 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part 111 



disappears, it will be permitted. 



Salutation To Occupiers of Graves 




(820/348) It is related on the authority of Buraydah <#> that the 
Messenger of Allah Hi used to instruct the Companions c^> that 
when they visited the graves, they should greet their occupiers 
and pray for them in these words: As-salaamu alaikum 
ahl-ad-davari initial momineena wa muslimeena wa in-na insha 
Allahn hikitin lulaahiijoonu nas-alullaahu lama wa lakitmul 
'aafiyati (Peace be on you, the dwellers of these abodes, among 
thruthful Believers and Muslims! Allah willing we are going to 
join you. We pray to Him and beseech Him for peace and safety 
for ourselves and for you.) (Muslim) 



turned his face towards them and said: "As-salaamu alaikum 
yaa ahlal cjuboori, yaghfirullaahu lanaa wa lakum anlum 
salafuna wa nahnu bil asari (Peace be on you, O occupiers of 
the graves! May Allah forgive us and you. You have preceded 



Commentary: There is a slight difference in the phraseology of 
the formulas of prayer and supplication for the occupiers of graves 
indicated in the two Traditions. But their substance is the same. 
They simply contain salutation and supplication of mercy for them 
and the remembrance of one's own death. These two considerations 
should be the main object of paying a visit to anyone's grave. 




us; we are coming after you). 



(Tirmizi) 



Book of Prayers 



353 



Consigning Reward to The dead {Isaal Sawab) 

A way of doing service to the dead is to pray to Allah to forgive 
them their sins and to show them mercy. It is, also, the chief aim 
and purpose of the funeral prayer, and, as we have seen, in the 
Traditions appertaining to the visiting of the graves, too, the 
supplication for forgiveness has been made for those buried in 
them along with salutation. Apart from it, another method taught 
by the prophet Hi is to do an act of charity or any other noble deed 
on behalf of the dead and make a gift of the Divine recompense 
thereon to them. This is what is, commonly, meant by consigning 
reward. 

CJJUflJ d\ 4*i^ 4^ S-i 1 * \>S j C~-iy ^ ti\ J j-jj b JUS 

(822/350) It is related on the authority of Abdullah bin Abbas 
that the death of Sa'd bin Ubadah's mother took place at a 
time when he was not present. (He had gone on a military 
expedition with the Prophet (On his return), Sa'd bin 
Ubadah said to the Prophet Wt\ "O Messenger of Allah Hi My 
mother had died during my absence. Now, if 1 give away 
something in charity, will it be of service to her (i.e., will the 
Divine reward on it reach her)?" "Yes", replied the Prophet lH. 
"It will reach her". Then, Sa'd bin Ubadah said, "I make you a 
witness that I have given away my orchard (called, Mikhzaaf) in 
charity on behalf of my mother. (Bukhari) 

Commentary: The above Tradition, positively, settles the issue of 
Isaal 1 Sawaab. Another Tradition conveying almost the same 
meaning is quoted in Bukhari and Muslim, on the authority of 
Sayyidah Ayshah ^ in which though the name of Sa'd bin 
Ubadah does not appear, the authorities believe that it is related to 
the aformentioned incident. 



O. Isaal, literally, means to convey; to pass forward; to send; to transfer; to make 
over to another. In Islamic usage, Isaal Sawaab denotes conveying or making 
over the Divine reward on a good deed to the dead. 



354 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part III 



^j 1 Ji'j eft o*^ ^ <y-3y^-cy- ^'4^ & (A v r/r o \ > 

Jjsju jl Jj- 4 -*' A^jUIjIJ <U3 j t ^ .i. M ,.a. -» - r>L^A <UjI Jjs£l3 4-3 j 4ju <UP Jjau 
Ji\b jiJLij 4JJ( ^^U? iJJl J j~ij JUt J^- JlflS OGl j-~^«-*Jl <UP 
AJ>3 k'U Jaw ^ jl ^1 jl 4JUl J^»3 ^ J 15 * JUf ^1 

JUS -UP Js^lil <Lij j j-^>- C-t£j JfsPl ULL* jlj 

p.-JXsti'y <up ^JjJupli ULL» jlT Ail jJJLVj aIAp <dJl ^^U? ajJi Jj-jj 

(j jb jji sij j) . ^_5>Jii <uL <up jji^t^t^- jl <up 

(823/351) It is related by Abdullah bin 'Amr bin al-'Aas that his 
grandfather, Aas bin Waii (who had not embraced Islam) had 
told his sons to set one hundred slaves at liberty on his behalf 
(after his death). (So), one of his sons, Hishaam bin al-Aas, 
freed fifty slaves (as his share of the obligation), and (the other 
son), Amr bin al-Aas, also, decided to release the remaining 
fifty slaves, but he thought that he would, first, seek the 
Prophet's lH advice. He went to the Prophet Hi and said: "Our 
father had advised (us) to set one hundred slaves free (after his 
death), and my brother, Hishaam, has freed (his share of) fifty 
slaves on his own behalf. Now, fifty remain, and I want to know 
whether I should (also) set them at liberty in the name of my 
father." The Prophet ^ replied: "Had your father died in the 
state of Faith and Islam then if you freed the slaves or did 
charity or performed the Hajj (on his behalf) the Divine reward 
on these acts would have reached him." (Bukhari) 

Commentary: This Tradition is very clear regarding lsaal Sawaab 
(Consiging reward). In it, besides charity, the Hajj is, also, 
mentioned as a means to convey or make over the Divine reward to 
the dead and, in another version of the same Tradition related in 
Musnad Ahmad, fasting is stated in place of the Hajj. 

Anyway, it lays it down as a general principle that Divine 
recompense can be conveyed or passed forward to the dead through 
all these virtuous deeds but it is subject to the essential condition of 
Faith and Islam. 



FOREWORD 

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Dispenser of Grace 

AJ^ aU } h f nt l C u t0 ^ k 0f the Tuitions is the record of the 
Apostolic life of the Prophet Muhammad 0 which serves as a 
substitute for his presence. The Believers w?o did not have the 
^ fortune to see him in the life of this world can, to a large 
1 X 1^ hlm A b y mean * of ^ and comply with his orders, and 
follow his 'good example' almost with the same degree of 

ffiSS^ wh0 were biessed enough to *™ hfm with 

tn 7 h li m ?l n u bje f ° f the of 'Artful Hadith', simply is 

to enable the brothers who cannot read the original collections of 
he Traditions to .obtain the knowledge of the teachings and the 
good example' of the sacred Prophet ft and gain an access to his 

XS? H en , Ce Wh ? C u h l S n0W possibie onlv th ™g h the study of 
the books dealing with the reports of his sayings and doings 

It is hoped that the faithful bondsmen who will read the present 
Prnnhi I aW l em ^ the sentiments of love and reverence for the 
£ their u heaits and w i* earnest attention Wi\\, Insha 
Allah gam these objectives and it will be possible for them to 
partake of the effulgence and blessings of the TraditionHnd 
experience a peculair feeling of nearness and association with him 
in the innermost recesses of their existence 

Two volumes of the English translation of Ma'ariful Hadith 

T^l PPear ? d / lreaC l y --l n the firSt VoIume are included the 
Traditions relating to Faith, the Hereafter, and Softheartedness 
while m the second volume the plan was to present the Traditions 

DuHefff c fl B °M S ° f ?i CanlineSS and * e Four fundamental 
?T <v\ f ( Re S ul ar Worship), Zakah (Poor-due), 

torn - (Fasting) and Hajj (the Pilgrimage to Makkah), but as it was 
felt that it would grow too large, it was decided to bring it to a 
close with Kitabus Salah (The Book of Regular Worship) The 

? fk L »> Zakah < the Book of tA Poor-due), Kitabus 

Saum (the Book of Fasting), and Kitabul Hajj (the Book of the 
Pjlgrimage) is now being published in this, the third volume 

ihe Prophets are raised up, chiefly, to unite the bondsmen with 
tneir Lord and Creater and make them His devoted worshippers 



358 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



I created the jinn and humankind only that they might worship 
me ' (LI:56) 
Hence, after giving the call of faith in God and Divine Unity, the 
Apostles invited mankind to worship Him, before everything else. 
Among the human deeds it is the peculiarity of worship alone that, 
through it, the bondsman expresses his humbleness before God and 
his life gets dyed in the hue of servility and self- surrender. 
Moreover, the propinquity of the Lord is attained through worship 
and continuous advancement takes place in it. Thus, in all the 
Canonic Laws the greatest stress, after Faith, has been laid on 
worship, and the holy Prophet, too, has declared Salah, Zakah, 
Saum and Hajj to be the principal tenets of Islam, next only to the 
Oneness of God and Apostleship. The four fundamental duties of 
worship, in fact, constitute the substance of Faith and the felicity or 
otherwise of humanity is dependent, largely, on them. 

Out of these, the Traditions appertaining to the teachings, 
instructions and regular practice of the holy Prophet $| with regard 
to Salah have been discussed in the 2nd volume, and those relating 
to the other three duties i.e. Zakah Saum and Hajj are now being 
taken up in the present volume. 

As in the two earlier volumes, most of the Traditions included 
in the present one, too. have been taken from Mishkaatul 
Masabeeh or Jami'-ul-Fuwayid and reliance has been placed on it 
in the matter of references. Further, in confirmity with the pattern 
followed m.Mishkaat no other reference is given if Sahih Bukhari 
and Sahih Muslim or any of them are mentioned as the source of a 
Tradition for it would have been unnecessary to quote any other 
authority after stating that it was found in either of the two 
compilations. 

A few reports have, also, been adopted from Kanzul 'Ummal 
and some have been reproduced directly from the books of Sihah, 
such as,- Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Jami'-i-Tirmizi and 
Sunan-i-Abi Dawood. These are the narratives that do not occur in 
the same words in Mishkaal or Jami-ul-Fuwayid. 

May the Almighty bestow His acceptance upon this volume as 
well and make it beneficial to His bondsmen, and a source of 
Forgiveness both of the writer and the translator! 



Muhammad Manzoor Nau'mani 



Lucknow 
August 29, 1978 



yujAiJi jig 

$ CA f^'jj Ip' $ 1* 



IMPORTANCE OF ZAKAH 

After the affirmation of the Oneness of God and Messengership 
and the establishment of Worship, Zakah is the most important 
tenet of Islam. At over seventy places in the Qur'an, the 
establishment of Worship and the observance of regualr charity 
have been spoken, of side by side, in such a way as to show that 
their place and position is almost indenfical. Thus, when, after the 
death of the sacred Prophet iHl, the inhabitants of some regions 
who, apparently, had accepted Islam and acknowlged Divine Unity 
and Messengership refused to pay Zakah, Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4fe 
decided to wage war against them on the ground that they 
differentiated between the injunctions of prayer (salah) and Zakah 
which amounted to apostasy. It is stated in Bukhari and Muslim, 
that in reply to Sayyidina Umar he said, 

"By God! I shall wage war against them who will differentiate 
between prayer (salah) and Zakah." 

All the Companions agreed and consensus was reached among 
them on Sayyidina Abu Bakr's ^> viewpoint. 

We have, already, seen the Traditions in previous headings in 
which the Prophet Hi has, while indicating the basic essential 
doctrines and requirements of Islam, described the establishment of 
Salah, and payment of Zakah as next in importance only to the 
testimony of Divine Oneness and Messnegership. 



362 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



Three Aspects: 

There are three aspects of goodness in Zakah, 

One, the way the bondsman makes known by his tongue, body 
and soul, in Qiyam, Rukit and Sujood during salah, his servility and 
humbleness before the Lord so that he earned His good pleasure 
and propinquity, by paying Zakah he offers his monetary tribute to 
the Almighty with the same object and gives a practical 
demonstration of the fact that he does not consider his worldly 
possessions his own, but the Lord's. For this very reason, Zakah is 
regarded an act of worship. In the speical terminology of Faith and 
the Shari'ah. 'worship' denotes, as we have seen earlier, deeds and 
actions that are intended solely for giving expression to the bond of 
loyalty and submission before God and seeking His countenance 
and nearness. 

Two, Help and service is rendered to the needy and indigent 
bondsmen of Allah by means of Zakah, It, at once, makes Zakah a 
most important branch of ethics. 

Three, Zakah is a highly efficacious remedy against the 
excessive fondness for wealth which is a grievous sin. It purifies 
the soul from the filthy effects of greed. Says the Qur'an: 

(O Muhammad), take alms (Zakah) of their wealth, wherewith 
you may purify them and may make them grow.(Al-Tawbah 9: 1 03) 

Far removed from it (the flaming Fire of Hell) will be the 
righteous who gives his wealth that he may grow (in goodness). 

(Al-Layl 92: 17-18) 

Literally, Zakah means 'cleanliness', and it is, perhaps owing to 
it that this fundamental duty has been called by that name. 

EARLIER CANONIC LAWS: 

On account of the extraordinary importance and worth and 
usefulness of Zakah the command for it has, uniformly, been given 
in the Canonic laws of their earlier Prophets together with that for 
worship. For instance, in surah Al-Anbia, it is stated, in relation to 
Sayyidina Ibrahim and his son, Sayyidina Ishaq and, 



Book ofZakah 



363 



then, Sayyidiha Ishaq's $0, son, Sayyidina Ya'qub f3£B that: 
. jifcl* U 1 jSi^j 5 jtSJi fill j ol j^Jl Jis ,^Jl b> jlj 

We inspired in them the doing of good deeds, (particularly), the 
establishment of worship and the giving of charity, and they 
were the worshippers of Us (aione). (Al-Anbiyaa21 :73) 

And, in surah Ma/yam, it is said about Sayyidina Ismail 

He enjoined upon his people worship and regualr charity. 

(AWvlaryam 19:55) 

Concerning Sayyidina Isa $M it is stated that to his community 
he declared: 

(rw-m^) . l!^<iJ3USj^jj!3SjLtfJlb 

I am the slave of Allah. He has given me the Scripture and 
appointed me a Prophet, and has made me blessed wheresoever 
1 may be. and has enjoined upon me worship and Zakah as long 
as I remain alive. (Ai-Maryam 19:30-3 1) 

Moreover, in surah Al-Baqarh where the covenant of the 
Israelites and the basic injunctions they had undertaken to fulfil 
are mentioned, the following commandment is included among 
them: 

And establish worship and pay Zakah. (Al-Baqarah2:83) 

Likewise, it is set forth in surah Al-Ma\dah, in connection with 
the covenant of the Children of Israel, that: 

• &>'j\ Sj^jJi ' j sjU^i (iltsi q£ U ^&u> JlS3 

Allah said: Lo! I am with you if you establish worship and pay 
Zakah, and believe in My Messengers f%Ji (t ^Jip(AI-Ma , idah5:]2) 

The above verses of the Qur'an clearly show that prayer and 
Zakah have always been the main commands of the Canonic Laws. 
Differences of detail and scope, of course, were there but such 
differences were, also, found between the initial and ultimate 



364 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



stages of our own Shari'ah. For instance, formerly, prayer (salah) 
was to be offered three times a day which, afterwards, was raised 
to five; or, in the beginning, every obligatory prayer consisted of 
only two rak'at but later the nubmer of rak'at was increased in all 
the prayers except Fajr; or, in the earlier days, it was permitted to 
greet or talk to one another in prayer but, at a later time, it was 
forbidden. In the same way, Zakah was prescribed before 
Migration, when the Prophet S used to live in Makkah the 
establishment of salah and the payment of Zakah are mentioned as 
the distinguishing qualities of the Believers in the surah of 
Al-Moominoon, An-Naml and Luqman, though these were revealed 
during the Makkan phase but, at that time, Zakah merely signified 
the spending of one's wealth on the poor and needy bondsmen of 
Allah and on other items of good-doing. Detailed rules and 
regulations had not been prescribed till then. Hence, what the 
authorities mean when they say that the commandment of Zakah 
was revealed a year or two after Migration, or even later, probably 
is that its complete rules and principles of guidance were laid down 
at that time otherwise the actual order concerning Zakah had been 
given much earlier at Makkah. This wiew is supported not only by 
the aforementioned Qur'anic verses but also by Sayyidah Umm 
Salmah's if* narrative in which she has reffered to the short 
speech delievered by Sayyidina Jabar Tayyar 4& in the Court of 
Negus when a small group of Muslims had migrated from Makkah 
to Abyssinia during the early days of Islam. According to her 
report, Jafar Tayyar 4& had told Negus about the call of the sacred 
Prophet HI 

"He also made it incumbent on us to offer prayer and to pay Zakah." 
It is, further, stated in Sahih Bukhari and other standard 
compilations that, on being questioned by the Roman Emperor 
about the Prophet S, Abu Sufiyan who, at that time, was among 
his inveterate enemies, he said: 

"He gives the command of prayer and Zakah and exhorts us to 
show kindness to kinsmen and obsreve piety." 



Book ofZakah 

365 

It settles beyond doubt that the PronhPi a 
of prayer and Zakah ^m^s^^^T^T ^ Cal1 
The detailed rules indeed f y + m , Makkah . be ^e Migration. 

Madinah and the ^entml or^ T ^ the M ^ atl0n to' 

was set up in 8 A.H °^™on for the realisation of Zakah 

n ^oiZakahAiUrmth^Salah 

^^^^^^^^^ 

reveaied and contained ," tl S^ V'T* * ^ 
there invite them to the truth ™h } '. e " you reach 

and affirm it, teli ,„e m A | ian ^ ™ ^ lf *<* accept 
them during the day and nieh, F,h . PrayerS u '°" 

that, in addition to it A S t. y aTCpt also ' te " *™ 

*hich wi„ be :r ^rr:? «ir upon them 

Muslims) and distributed ,„ thos thS t Lor ' ~' ty ^ 
« - we„, desist fro™ Iayi „ g hands ^ ' ' ^^e to 

(white realising Zakah), and fear the cry of ,ht * e "' g ° 0ds 
there is no curtain between them and L Lort ' ** 

Commentarv: Thoupb .hi. t j v , C*'*'' 3 '' 1 and Muslim) 

«*r vol Je S*^? r ~ ed 
sufficien detail it seemed »™ meocC£ > s >°n to comment upon it in 

too, with it i„ emu S „f T ,'° B °° k ° f Charit * 



366 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV . 

The incident of the appointment of Sayyidina Mu'az bin Jabal 
k& as the Governer of Yemen, alluded to in the above narrative, 
took place, according to most authorities, in 9 A.H., but Imam 
Bukhari and some other scholars believe that it occured in 10 A H 
In Yemen, apart from the People of the Scriputure, there, also, 
lived the idolatrous Polytheists but owing to their special 
importance, the Prophet S specified only the People of Scripture 
and enunciated the very wise principle of preaching and 
propagation of Faith that all the tenets, commands and obligations 
should not be placed before the people at once for, in that case, 
they would feel discouraged and Islam would appear to them to be 
an unbearable burden. As a first step, therefore, the doctrinal 
bedrock of Faith i.e., the testimony of Divine Oneness and 
Messengership ought to be presented to them which a right-minded 
person can easily be persuaded to accept. For the people of the 
Scripture, particuarly, there is nothing odd or strange in it. When 
the heart and mind of the listener have opened to it and he has 
acknowledged this fundamental reality, he should be made 
acquainted with the duty of paryer which is the most perfect design 
and arrangement of worship with the tongue, the body and the soul 
and when he accepts it as well, he should be told about the duty of 
Zakah, and, with it, it must, also be made clear that the preacher 
and the giver of the Call of Islam did not want it for himself but it 
would be spent, according to a fixed law and rate, on the poor and 
indigent people of the community or the region from whose 
well-to-do persons it was realised. The Prophet 0, further 
stressed upon Sayyidina Mu'az 4fe that the collection of Zakah 
should be carried out with a full snese of justice and fairplay and it 
should not be that the best part of the assessee's produce or his 
most valuable cattle were taken from him. 

In the end, the Prophet S advised Sayyidina Mu'az 4fe who 
was going as the Governer of a Province to refrain from being 
cruel and unjust to the people for when an oppresed person calls ' 
down God's anger upon a tyrant and usurper, his imprecation 
reaches the ninth heaven directly. 

Only the affirmation of Divine Unity and Messengership and 
the duties of Salah and Zakah have been mentioned in this 



Book of Zakah 



367 



Tradition, to the exclusion of the other fundamental tenets like 
Fasting and the Hajj, though both of them had been prescribed 
before Sayyidina Mu'az 4& was sent to Yemen. It is so because the 
object of this Tradition was simply to indicate the elementary 
principle of the preaching of Islam and not to teach its fundamental 
duties. Sayyidina Mu'az 4& did not stand in need of such an 
instruction. He belonged to the class of Companions who were 
distinguished for knowledge of Faith. 

Punishment on Non-Payment of Zakah 

% fltt'l tf, j^Ujj &s>%S JJfifa Jj-1>j Jl5 J IS ijtjA lj\ jt- (A V o/Y) 



Allah sp said: "Whoever was granted wealth by Allah but did 
not pay Zakah on it, on the Day of Resurrection his wealth will 
be brought before him in the shape of a hooded snake which 
will be so poisonous that hair will have fallen from its head and 
there will be two white spots over its eyes (which are, generally, 
supposed to be the marks of an extremely venomous snake). 
The snake will, then, be made the band of his neck (i.e., it will 
entwine itself round the neck of the defaulting miser), and it will 
seize both the corners of his lips between its fangs,' (and bite 
him), and say: 'I am your wealth. I am your treasure. 1 After 
saying it, the Prophet ill recited the following verse of the 
Qur'an: 



that which Allah has bestowed 




And let not those who hoard up 



upon them of His bounty (and 
do not pay Zakah on it) think 
that it is better for them. Nay, it 
is worse for them. That which 
they hoard will be their collar 
on the Day of Resurrection." 





(Al-e-Imran3:180) 



(Bukhari) 



368 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



Commentary: There is always a special likeness between deeds 
and the reward or punishment indicated on them in the Qur'an and 
the Traditions. Sometimes, it is so obvious that even common 
people like us have little difficulty in knowing it, and, sometimes, 
it is so subtle that only the sages and savants of the community can 
appreciate it. 

The punishment mentioned in the above saying on the evasion 
of Zakah bears the same similarity to the misdeed on account of 
which the miser who clings to his wealth and does nor spend it is, 
often, compared to the serpent guarding the treasure. A stingy and 
avaricious person, also, sometimes sees the dream of a like nature 
because of this affinity. ■ 

The words 'Day of Resurrection' used in this Tradition as well 
as in the aforementioned verse of surah Aal-Imran show that the 
pnishment will be inflicted on the last Day before the 
pronouncement of the Lord's Judgement. In another Tradition, 
related by Abu Hurayrah 4& and quoted in Sahih Muslim, it is 
stated, after indicating the same kind of punishment for the evaders 
of Zakah: 

"The punishment will continue 

till God's Judgement is SC*Ji £ J^. 

pronounced after the Final , , 6 " ^ 

Reckoning. Subsequent to the Jl Wi J\ &\ Kt? 
Judgement the man will go to jj, 
Heaven or Hell (depending on - 
the verdict)." 

Or, in other words, if the chastisement the defaulting bondsman 
had borne before the Final Requital was enough, in the sight of 
God, for his guilt, he would be freed from it and sent to Heaven, 
and if his account would not be cleared with that punishment, he 
would be thrown into Hell to undergo further chastisement. 

J J*i f^j ^Ap At J^fi ,.fit Jj^j diw dill iL*t£ (a y Vr) 

(826/3) Sayyidah Ayshah if^Ai^*, related "I heard from 
Messenger of Allah S 'when the goods of Zakah will get 



BookofZakah ^69 

mixed with other goods, they will, surely, destroy them." 

(Musnad Shaf ee, Tarikh Kabir Bukhari and Musnad Humaydi) 

Commentary: According to Imam Bukhari's mentor, Imam 
Humaydi, what it shows is that if anyone on whom Zakah is due 
does not pay it, the curse of it will fall on all of his worldly 
posessions and he will, ultimately, be ruined. 1 

Imam Baihaqi, on the other hand, observes in Sha'ab-il-Iman, 
on the authority of Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal, that if a fully 
well-to-do person who does not deserve to receive Zakah 
wrongfully accepts it, it will destroy the rest of his goods on 
getting mixed up with them. 

We, however, believe that both the interpretations of Sayyidah 
Ayshah's i^Ai^j narrative are possible and there is no 
contradiction in them. 



Purification of Wealth 

CJiljt jU&j ajtf eX» dJjJ LSJ Jll j& J>1 & (A Y Y/i) 

jpjk ^ Si Jia i$\ s> Jswi^i yp 4ii h jia 

&tyyh <>? C4kj s/jji 

^^WTjis^ j^j^JuS^^J5j&" lar 

(827/4) Abdullah bin Abbas narrated that when the verses 
(of surah At-Tauba) were revealed: 

"They who hoard up gold and CJ&\ '* y& "AJf 

silver and spend it not in the j, ' J * ^Jir^ cM- J 

way of Allah, unto them give Jjl Jl^ 'J> ty'&k Tj 

tidings (O Muhammad H) of a , ■ , /- I tf - - 

painful doom; on the day when **** ?•* V • t**^ 

it will (all) be heated in the fire p ^ ifcfe 

of Hell and their forehead and , t /,* t -/,^ 

their flanks and their backs will * f*m*3 f** 1 *^ 



O. Musnd Humaydi (Majlis Ilmi) Vol. I, p. 1 15. 



370 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



be branded therewith (and it 
will be said to them): Now 
taste of what ye used to hoard, 




(Al-Tawbah 9:34-35) (r°<ri:^ .kjxJl) 

The Companions felt very much burdened by it (and were 
greatly worried). Sayyidina Umar said: 'I will try to remove 
your distress.' He, thus, went to the Prophet and said: 
Messenger of Allah Hi! Your Companions feel weighed down 
by these verses.' God has prescribed Zakah, repled the Prophet 
ill, 'for the reason that whatever goods are left after paying it 
may become purified, and, (in the same way), the law of 
inheritance has been provided (Ibn Abbas 4^ tells that here the 
Prophet ill said something which he had forgotten but about 
the law of inheritance he was sure that the Prophet ill had said 
that it had been sent down so that) it might be a support to your 
dependents'. (On hearing it), Umar ^> (joyously) exclaimed: 
Allah-u-AkbarV The Prophet H, then, said to Umar 'May I 
tell you of the best of weatlh which is worth acquiring and 
keeping with care and affaction? It is a good-natured, chaste and . 
virtuous spouse who may bring joy to the man's heart when he 
sees her and obeys what she is told and when the huband goes 
out somewhere, protects his household goods and (guards) his 
trust during his absence.' (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: When the verse of surah At-Tauba, mentioned in it, 
was revealed the Companions ^imagined from its phrasing that it 
implied that nothing should be saved from one's earnings and 
wealth was not to be stored up at all; everything must be spent in 
the way of God. This, naturally, was a very hard proposition. 
Sayyidina Umar 4&, therefore, enquired about it from the Prophet 
iH. The Prophet iH explained that the verse was for those who 
hoarded up wealth and did not pay Zakah on it. But if Zakah was 
paid, the rest of the goods became pure. It was emphasised by him 
that God had enjoined Zakah so that wealth became purified with 
its payment. He, also, pointed out that the very purpose of the 
enactment of the law of inheritance was that it served as an 
assistance for descendants of a man after his death. Had it been 
totally prohibited to save wealth, there would have been no 
command of Zakah and no need of the law of inheritance in the 



Book of Zakah 



371 



Shari'ah for both of these measures were related to accumulated 
wealth. The question of Zakah , ox inheritance would not have arisen 
if it was not allowed to possess worldly riches. 

After replying of Sayyidina Umar's 4& enquiry, the Prophet iH 
observed for the illumination of the companions that more valuable 
than worldly possessions and by far the greatest source of mental 
peace and happiness in this world was a loving, understanding and 
faithful life-partner. 



RULES AND REGULATIONS 



In a nutshell, Zakah denotes that a part of one's possesions be 
spent in the way of God and for His propitiation. In it lies its 
fundamental significance, and, as we have seen earlier, this was 
what had been briefly enjoined during the first phase of Islam. The 
detailed rules and regualtions, governing, for instance, the 
categories of goods, the lowest taxable limit, the time of payment 
and the heads of expenditure followed later. 

Minimum Wealth That Attracts Zakah 

faj jU Jjl <J>-3 JtS Jt5 jJLAJl ^ (A Y A/°) 

jijl j**"*** - t3ji (j—jJj AsJ^fi jasj* ^ ij*»>j' d.i.i..Q.r>- ^jji L*J jj*— J 

j» - ' ' ' * " 

tete tUT o* 5 lt*^ l**? J41j (3jjJ' <S? 

(828/5) It is related by Abu Saeed Khudri that the 
Messenger of Allah i§l said: "There is no Zakah on less than 5 
Wasaq of dates, and there is no Zakah on less 5 Awaq of silver, 
and there is no Zakah on less than 5 camels."(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: In the life-time of the Prophet ill, particularly in 
and around Madinah, whealth, in the main, consisted of three 
categories: fruit-crops, silver and herds of camel. The Prophet HI 
has, in this Tradition, laid down the Nisab 1 of Zakah on all the 
three categories. He has shown what will be the lowest limit of the 
three kinds of possessions, i.e., how much of these goods a man 
must possess to make him legally obliged to pay Zakah. About the 
dates he had indicated that Zakah will not be payable on less than 5 
Wasaq of them, one Wasaq being equal approximately to 2-Vi 

O. Meaning the lowest limit of worldly possessions on which the payment of 
Zakah becomes obligatory. 



374 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 

quintals; about silver that Zakah will not be payable on less than 5 
Awaq of it, one Awaq being of the value of 40 dirhams; and about 
camesl that it will not be payable on less than 5 heads of them. 

In the above Tradition the Nisab of only these three kinds of 
possessions has been described. 

As Shah Waliullah h remarks, "Five Wasaq of dates 
can suffice for the sustenance of a small family; in the same way, a 
year's expenditure can be met with 200 dirhams; and from the point 
of view of valuation 5 camels are of equal worth." 

Jt u^j (►*>$ o&J lP j* 9^ 1 oZjh j 

(j jlijjl _j tfiJu jsJl etj j) 

(828/6) Sayyidina Ali 4fe reported the Messenger of Allah HI as 
saying, "There is an exemption on horses nd slaves; with regard 
to coins, however, you must pay a dirham for every forty, but 
nothing is payable on a hundred ninety. When the total reaches 
two hundred, five dirhams are payable."(Tirmizi and Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: According to the next hadith narrated by Samurah 
bin Jundub Zakah is payable on horses and slaves if these are 
merchandise of trade. If they are not for trading but for personal 
use riding and domestic help, etc, then no matter what their value, 
Zakah is not payable on them and this is what Sayyidina Ali 4fe 
refers. He then says that Zakah is payable on silver if it is worth 
two hundred dirham at 1/40 rate. 

Zakah on Goods of Trade 

(830/7) Samurah bin Jundub 4^> related that the Messenger of 
Allah ill had commanded us to pay Zakah on every thing we 
may have in stock for buying and selling (i.e., for trade and 
commerce). (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: It shows that Zakah is to be paid on goods of trade 



Book of Zakah 



375 



and industry as well. 

Payablat The Expiry of A Year 

(tfjjt . t jj) . J <3* 'SA & */j ^ & 

(831/8) It is related by Abdullah bin Umar 4fe> that the 
Messenger of Allah S said: "Whoever may earn or obtain 
wealth from any source, Zakah will not be payable on it unless a 
year expires." (Tirmizi) 



Jwellery 

juS v^S # -o<&& £ 'J, 4 j ^ & 

(832/9) Abdullah bin 'Amr bin al-'Aas 4& narrated that (once) a 
woman took her daughter to the Prophet S. The S^ was 
wearing heavy gold bracelets on her wrists. The Prophet gp, (on 
seeing it), enquired, "Do you pay Zakah on these bracelets? 
"No," she replied, "1 do not." The Prophet iH observed: "Will it 
be a matter of joy for you that, on the Day of Resurrection,. God 
made you wear bracelets of iron for (not paying Zakah on) these 
bracelets?" Upon it. the good lady took off both the bracelets, 
and, placing them before the Prophet S said: "These now 
belong to God and His Messenger S." (Abu Dawood) 

j^>; cM ^u}' J4 cJis aaifi (Ar r/ \ . ) 

(833/10) Ummi Salmah i^ii^j related "I used to wear Awzab 
(a kind of ornament) of gold. (Once) 1 enquired from Prophet 
H if it, was included in the category of Kanz (i.e., treasure) 
about which the warning of He!! had been given in surah 



376 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



At-Tawba. The Prophet m, replied, 'Whatever of the 
possessions become so much that Zakah is due on it, and, then, 
Zakah is paid according to the Shari'ah, it is not Kanz." 

(Mowatta Imam Maalik and Abu Dawood) 
Commentary: It is on the basis of these Traditions that Imam Abu 
Hanifah has concluded that Zakah is binding on ornaments of gold 
and silver (provided that their value exceeds the lowest limit) on 
which Zakah is paid. But other exegesis like Imam Maalik, Imam 
Shafi'ee and Imam Ahmad held that Zakah is payable on such 
ornaments alone that are meant for trade or have been caused to be 
made with the object of the preservation of wealth. According to 
them, Zakah is not obligatory on ornaments that are intended solely 
for use and adornment. The holy Companions fa also, have 
expressed divergent views on the point. But the Traditions, on the 
whole, appear to be in favour of the stand taken by Imam Abu 
Hanifah, and, hence, even some theologists of the Shafi'ee school 
have preferred it. In Tafsir kabir, Imam Raazi, for instance, arrives 
at an identical conclusion. 

Zakah Can be Paid in Advance 

(834/1 1) It is related by Sayyidina AH 4^ that (when) Abbas 4fe 
enquired from the Prophet H about paying Zakah in advance, 
the Prophet H permitted him to do so. 

(Abu Dawood, Tirmizi, Ibn Majah and Daarami) 

Beneficiaries 

# olr $ fjJri L;Ui Ufjy y»^J-J^ o&LaJi 



Book of Zakah 



377 



(835/12) Zayd bin Haarith 4§£> narrated "I went to the Prophet 
Hi and took the vow of allegiance to him." Zayd, then, related 
to us a long Tradition in the course of which he recounted the 
incident that, at that time, a person came to the Prophet ill and 
said: "Please give me something out of the goods of Zakah." 
The Prophet HI remarked, "God has left the expenditure of 
Zakah neither to the choice of Prophet nor of any else. He has 
- determined it Himself and divided it into eight parts (i.e., 
catagories of beneficiaries). If you belong to one of them, 1 shall 
give you from Zakah." (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: The reference made by the Prophet Hi to the 
commandment concerning the expenditure of Zakah is contained in 
the following verse of surah at-Tawba: 

The Zakah is only for the poor 

and the needy, and those who 

collect it, and those whose 

hearts are to be reconciled, and 

to free the captives and the 

debtors, and for the ause of 

Allah, and for the wayfarers. 

(AI Tawbah 9:60) 

Some remarks, here, may be helpful in understanding the 
scope, and intent of the verse. 

1. Fuqara: Meaning the poor. In Arabic the word Faqir 
(Al-Fuqara) is used as an antonym of Ghani, i.e., the well-to-do. 
Thus, all the poor people are included in this category who are not 
rich i.e., do not possess enough wealth to make Zakah a legal 
obligation. We have, already, seen Sayyidina Mu'az's narrative 
in which the Prophet HI has formulated the fundamental principle 
that Zakah should be collected from the Aghniya (plurar of Ghani) 
and disributed to the Fuqara of the community. 

2. Masaakin: i.e., the needy who are excessively indigent and 
cannot meet even the daily needs on their own. 

3. 'Aamilin: denotes the functionaries i.e., collectors, 
accountants, controllers of expenditure, auditors of accounts etc., 
This category, in fact, comprises the entire administration, civil, 
military and diplomatic. They can be remunerated for their time and 
labour, out of Zakah even if they are well-to-do. This was the practice 



378 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



during the time of the Porphet iH. 

4. Muwallafatul Quloob.The category of those whose hearts 
are to be reconciled in the interest of Faith and the Muslims. It 
includes the riches as well. 

5. Riqaab: or freeing the necks. By this term one has always 
understood two kinds of expenditure; liberation of slaves and 
ransoming of the prisoners of war held by the enemy. 

6. Ghaarimin. It denotes the category of those who are heavily 
indebted or confronted with any other difficulty or disaster with 
which they cannot cope on their own. 

7. Fi Sabilil-laah: Meaning "in the path of God." In the Islamic 
terminology it signifies every charitable cause, and, according to 
some legists, the needs relating to defence and protection of Faith 
and supremacy of the Word of God, also, are covered by it. 

8. Ibnus Sabii. It signifies the wayfarers who may be in need of 
help, and also, includes construction of bridges, roads and transport 
and security of the roads and extension of hospitality without 
charge to the travellers. 

The Holy Prophet Hi, as the above Tradition shows, told the 
person who had begged him for something out of the Zakah that 
God Himself had delienated the eight heads of expenditure 
concerning goods collected as Zakah. The Prophet III could give 
him out of Zakah if he fitted into any of those catagories otherwise 
he was helpless. 

(Only a few remarks have been offered here about the kinds of 
beneficiaries by way of the elucidation, of Zayd's narrative. Detailed 
rules and principles can be learnt from the standard work of Islamic 
Jurisprudence or directly from the Muslim jurists and theologians). 

j4 ^Lj dp iJJl jL> JlJl JlS JlS iy.'j* lj j£ (AY"iA r> 

(836/1 3) It is related by Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of 
Allah III said: "The needy person (who should be helped with 
charity) is not the one who goes to the people (to solicit alms) 



Book of Zakah 



379 



and comes back (satisfied) with a morsel or two (of food) or 
acouple of dates (that are placed on his hand), but the needy (in 
the real sense) is he who has nothing with which to meet his 
needs (and since he hides his condition from others), no one 
becomes aware of his distress so that he may be helpt j with 
charity, nor does he beg from others." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: It shows that professional beggers and shameless 
solicitors of alms are not deserving of charity. For giving away in 
the path of Allah one should look for self-respecting men who do 
not disclose their indigence. Such, indeed, are the needy to help 
whom is an act of great worthiness in the sight of Allah. 

(^jiaJi j j jb y\ j tsJu jJi flijj) .i£j~* \yt tJ^\ *i j ^>*\ iiLUaJl Jf"^ 

(837/14) Sayyidina Abdullah bin Amr 4fe said that the 
Messenger of Allah *i§l said: "Sadaqah may not be given to a 
rich man, or to one who has strength and is sound in limb. 

(Tirmizi, Abu Davvood, Daarami) 

rS, ,,,,,, i t 

(^L-Jl j ajbjjl aljj) *it J Lfci 

(838/15) It is related by "Ubaidullah bin 'Adi bin Al-Khayar, a 
Taba'ee, "Two persons told me that both of them went to the 
Prophet on the occasion of the Farewell Hajj. At that time, 
the Prophet l|& was distributing the goods of Zakah and they, 
too. requested him to give them something out of those goods. 
As the Prophet looked at them from head to foot, he found 
them healthy and strong. The Prophet 111, then, said to them: "I 
can give (it to) you if you want but (know that) there is no share 
in these goods for the well-to-do and able-bodied persons who 
can earn their living." (Abu dawood and Nasai) 

Commentary: The word "well-to-do" in it, probably, signifies 
those who can meet their basic needs, and do not, at the moment, 
require monetary help. If anyone, belonging to this category, does 



380 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



not possess the nisab, and Zakah is given to him, it will be deemed 
to have been paid but he should himself desist from accepting it. 
Similarly, a person who is in good health and is capable of working 
for his bread should accept Zakah. This general principle has been 
expounded in the above Tradition. But, in exceptional 
circumstances, such a person can accept Zakah and it was for that 
reason that the Propet $§1 told the men reffered to in the above 
narrative that he could give them out of the goods of Zakah if they 
wanted. 

Zakah And The Family of The Prophet H 

S S S 

(839/16) It is related on the authority of the Abdul Muttalib bin 
Rabi'ah 4sb that the Messenger of Allah lH said: "The alms are 
the dirt and scum of the people and are not permitted to 
Muhammad iH and his descendants." (Muslim) 

Commentary: In it Zakah and the alms have been described as 
"dirt and scum" because just as a cloth becomes clean when the dirt 
is removed from it, in the same way the rest of the wealth becomes 
pure, in the judgement of God, after Zakah, has been paid on it. It, 
also, shows that, as far as possible, one should refrain from making 
use of the goods of Zakah. On this ground, the Prophet has 
declared Zakah as forbidden to himself and his family, i.e., the 
children of Hashim, till the end of time. 

&jd\J, %y** 4* ifot ts^ s j> jr* <S* (At • A V) 

(840/17) Sayyidina Anas ^ narrated that (once the Prophet ill 
was going some where when) he saw a date lying in the way. 
On seeing it, he remarked: "If I did not fear that it might be of 
Zakah, I would have picked it up and eaten it." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: The Prophet's JH remark was, in fact, intended to 



Book ofZakah 



381 



impress upon the people that however insignificant God's provision 
or anything out of His bounty may be, if it is found lying 
unclaimed or thrown off carelessly anywhere, due reverence should 
be shown to it and it should be put to the use for which it was 
meant. The Prophet Hi, at the same time, added that he could not 
eat the date for the fear that it might have fallen down from among 
the dates of Zakah. He, thus, also, imparted the lesson of 
abstention from the use of doubtful things to men of piety and 
devoutness. 

iil^Jt j^j ja Yjij &\ Jl! s 'J(jk (A i\ I \ A) 

U( jis pi j& aJJ' ^ J 1 ^ & 'Jt 

(JU.»j <£ jbU( 9lj j) .AiJupi\ JS'U'i UlOyi-S> 

(841/18) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah <$>> said that the Hasan bin 
(Sayyidina) Ali 4|s> took one of the dates of the Sadaqah and put 
it in his mouth, whereupon the Prophet iil said: Leave it alone, 
leave it alone, " in order that he might throw it away. He then 
said, "Do you not know that we (Banu Hashim) do not eat the 
Sadqah?" (Bukhari and Muslim) 

'J\ \i\ pLj Up illl jU> Jj' JjK) hfi S 'J, 'J> 'J> If (A i 1/ \ <\ ) 

pjj i At\**x Jis Jj £ii ?iiu> ^ ^ju»i ilp jL ^uL 
j ts J^* Q>'r* feu J*? &3 J^ b - 

(842/19) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4i§& that the usual 
practice of the Messenger of Allah s$ was that when anyone 
brought to him something to eat, he used to enquire: "Is it 
Hadiya (i.e., a gift) or Sadaqah (i.e., charity)?" If he was told 
that it was Sadaqah, he would tell his Companions (i.e., such of 
them for whom there was no harm in eating things of Sadaqah, 
like Ashab us-Suffa) to partake of it and would refrain from 
eating it himself. If, on the other hand, he was told that it was 
Hadiya, he would stretch his hand towards it and join the 
Companions c^> in eating it." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: Whatever is given to a poor and needy person by 
way of help and with intention of earning the countenance of the 



380 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



not possess the nisab, and Zakah is given to him, it will be deemed 
to have been paid but he should himself desist from accepting it. 
Similarly, a person who is in good health and is capable of working 
for his bread should accept Zakah. This general principle has been 
expounded in the above Tradition. But, in exceptional 
circumstances, such a person can accept Zakah and it was for that 
reason that the Propet Hi told the men reffered to in the above 
narrative that he could give them out of the goods of Zakah if they 
wanted. 

Zakah And The Family of The Prophet S 

y j| (0 ijj S S / S / G > 

((JL-j.aljj) .-UsiijSl. 

(839/16) It is related on the authority of the Abdul Muttalib bin 
Rabi'ah <j^b that the Messenger of Allah $H said: "The alms are 
the dirt and scum of the people and are not permitted to 
Muhammad iHH and his descendants." (Muslim) 

Commentary: In it Zakah and the alms have been described as 
"dirt and scum" because just as a cloth becomes clean when the dirt 
is removed from it, in the same way the rest of the wealth becomes 
pure, in the judgement of God, after Zakah, has been paid on it. It, 
also, shows that, as far as possible, one should refrain from making 
use of the goods of Zakah. On this ground, the Prophet mt has 
declared Zakah as forbidden to himself and his family, i.e., the 
children of Hashim, till the end of time. 

jjJaJl J> Vj*i> 4^P J^> ^Jl y JlS (A t • / \ V) 

(840/17) Sayyidina Anas 4$k> narrated that (once the Prophet lH 
was going some where when) he saw a date lying in the way. 
On seeing it, he remarked: "If I did not fear that it might be of 
Zakah, I would have picked it up and eaten it." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: The Prophet's Hi remark was, in fact, intended to 



Book of Zakah 



381 



impress upon the people that however insignificant God's provision 
or anything out of His bounty may be, if it is found lying 
unclaimed or thrown off carelessly anywhere, due reverence should 
be shown to it and it should be put to the use for which it was 
meant. The Prophet iH, at the same time, added that he could not 
eat the date for the fear that it might have fallen down from among 
the dates of Zakah. He, thus, also, imparted the lesson of 
abstention from the use of doubtful things to men of piety and 
devoutness. 



(841/18) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4p> said that the Hasan bin 
(Sayyidina) Ali took one of the dates of the Sadaqah and put 
it in his mouth, whereupon the Prophet lH said: Leave it alone, 
leave it alone, " in order that he might throw it away. He then 
said, "Do you not know that we (Banu Hashim) do not eat the 
SadqahT (Bukhari and Muslim) 



brought to him something to eat, he used to enquire: "Is it 
Hadiya (i.e., a gift) or Sadaqah (i.e., charity)?" If he was told 
that it was Sadaqah, he would tell his Companions (i.e., such of 
them for whom there was no harm in eating things of Sadaqah, 
like Ashab us-Suffa) to partake of it and would refrain from 
eating it himself. If, on the other hand, he was told that it was 
Hadiya, he would stretch his hand towards it and join the 



Commentary: Whatever is given to a poor and needy person by 
way of help and with intention of earning the countenance of the 






(Bukhari and Muslim) 



382 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



Lord is known, in the special terminology of Islam, as Sadaqah, no 
matter whether it is obligatory, such as, Zakah and Sadaqatul fitr 
or supererogatory (which, in the common parlance, is called 
Khayrat or charity), and when soething is offered to anyone out of 
love and devtion it is described as Hadiya. 

The custom of the Prophet ill was, as we learn from the above 
Tradition, that if anyone brought to him something to eat with the 
intention of Sadaqah, he gave it to the Companions cjfe> who were 
poor and could justly partake of it and did not eat it himself, and 
when anyone brought it by way of Hadiya, he, also, ate it along 
with the Companions 

*>&3 ^ (^>J *fr ^ Jj-»J <S' £?' J 'J> If ( A t r/ Y • ) 
iili JU *J}\ J\ jlkiii ATii'ii jJLj iJJi JU dJ( J^j ^ 

(843/20) Sayyidina Abu RafT *fe has said that the Messenger of 
Allah Hi sent a man of Banu Makhzum to collect Zakah and he 
asked him to accompany him so that he might get some of it, 
but he refused to do so till he went to the Messenger of Allah 
and asked him. He went to the Prophet Hi and asked him 
and he said, "The Zakah is not lawful for us, and the slaves of a 
people are treated as being of their number. (So it is not lawful 
for you too)" (Tirmizi Abu Dawood Nasa'i) 

Commentary: The hadith makes it clear that just as Zakah is not 
lawful for the Prophet Hi and his family, so too it is not lawful for 
his and their slaves even after they are freed. We also learn that 
every collector of Zakah is paid out of the Zakah collected for his 
services (even if he is wealthy and liable to pay Zakah). The third 
thing we know is that the Messenger of Allah HH and the Islamic 
law raised the slaves to the level of family members of their owners 
and partners to an extent although in that age slaves enjoined on 
distinction (outside Islam). 

O. Bukhari has transmitted a hadith from Sayyidah Ayshah if* 4»i iS ^^. "The 
Messenger of Allah accepted a hadya and himself gav a return hadya to 
the one who presented it." 



Book ofZakah 



383 



When it is Not Permitted to 
Him to Beg and When it is 

The scholars of Hadith record in the Kilab Az-Zakah itself 
those Ahadith which tell us when one may not beg and when one is 
allowed to beg. We follow their procedure and reproduce the 
Ahadith on the subject. 

S ^ i t? i * t * s s * * „ 

pL-j Qs- aJJi JL> fill Sy^'} J 15 J 1 * SSlar # Jg-^- (A U/Y > ) 

(844/21) Hubshi bin Junadah 4^> has reported the Messenger of 
Allah as saying: "Begging is not allowable to a rich man, or 
to one who has strength and is sound in limb, but only to one 
who is in grinding poverty or is seriously in debt. If anyone begs 
to increase thereby his property, it will appear as a lacerations 
on his face on the Day of Resurrection and as heated stones 
which he will eat from Hell. So let him who wishes ask little, 
and let him who wishes ask much." (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: This Hadith too defines the rich as one who is not 
needy (even if he is not owner of nisab). Such a man and one who 
is strong who can earn his livelihood are not allowed to beg. such 
men should not extend a begging hand before other people. Of 
course, those who are deep in poverty or compelled because of a 
demand of ransom or penalty or debt, they are permitted to ask. If 
anyone, however, begs to augment his wealth then he will be 
punished on the Day of Resurrection and his face will bear an ugly 
scar and his earnings through beggary will turn into hot stones that 
he will have to eat. 

f^- J ili UJli \j&J $\'yA J-UH JL-. 'J* "OjljA ^ jt- (A t o/Y X ) 



(845/22) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4p> has said that the 



others to increase his own wealth is asking only for live coals so 





384 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



let him ask little or much." (Muslim) 

£ S il tf i> J s * * i 

^ip iUl JU> 4Ul Jjij JlS Jl3* A^ili AJLIIJ-^- ,S* (A 1 VY T) 

(846/23) It is related by Abdullah bin Mas'ud that 
Messenger of Allah $11 said: "Whoever begs from others when 
he has enough for his needs and does not have to look up to 
anyone for support, he shall come for the Final Judgement on 
the Day of Resurrection in such a state that his request (for 
alms) will be visible on his face in the form of wound." It was 
enquired from him: "O Messenger of Allah III! What is the 
quantity of wealth which you have described as adequate for 
one's needs?" "Fifty dirhams or gold of an equal value," the 
Prophet wi replied. (Abu Dawood, Tirmizi, Ibn Majah and Daarami) 

Commentary: In this Tradition the criterion of Ghina, after which 
it is not legitimate for anyone to beg, has been laid down as 50 
dirhams. In another, it is said to be one Auqia of silver, or 40 
dirhams in cash. There is, evidently not much difference between 
the two standards. But in a report quoted in Abu Dawood, on the 
authority of salah bin Hanzalah <S^>, it is stated that once the 
Prophet iH was asked: "What is the quantity of Ghina the 
possession of which makes it unlawful for a person to beg?" "So 
much", replied the Prophet Hi, "That from it one can eat a meal of 
the day and a meal of the night". It thus, shows that if anyone has 
enough to eat for a day, it is not proper for him to beg. 

The Ghina on which Zakah is obligatory is a settled fact and 
we have, already, examined the Traditions concerning it. But for 
the Ghina which prevents a an from begging, the Prophet Hi has 
set different standards on different occasions. This divergence, in 
our humble opinion, is in relation to men and circumstances. In 
case of certain men and in certain circumstance it may be 
permissible to beg even in the presence of a few assets. But there is 
no question of doing so if the assets amount to 40 or 50 dirhams, in 
vlue. 



Book ofZakah 



385 



On the other hand, there scan be some people for whom and 
some circumstances in which it is not permissible to beg even if 
there is enough to eat for a day. 

It can, again, be attributed to the difference between concession 
and resoluteness. The Traditions in which the assets worth 40 or 50 
dirhams have been declared to be the criterion appertain to the 
realm of leave and fiat while those which forbid begging even if 
there is provision for a day signify the station of high-mindedness 
and piety. 

Disgraceful in Any Case 

Js> 3*j jis (^Lj <&* Xlsi jj> Jji yj. j>\ ^ (A i v/y i) 

(847/24) It is related by Abdullah bin Umar that the Prophet 
HH, while exhorting the people from the pulpit to abstain from 
solicting for charity, said: "The upper had is better than the 
lower hand, and the lower hand is the begging hand." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: It shows that it is much better and nobler to be the 
giver than the recipient of charity. A faithful bondsman should try 
his utmost to be the giver and save himself from the ignomity of 
begging. 

If Begging is Unavoidable, One 
Should Beg From Virtuous Men 



(848/25) It is related by Ibn Al-Firasi that his father, 
al-Firasi said "I enquired from the Prophet iH if I could make a 
request to others for charity." The Prophet Hi replied: "Do not 
beg (as far as possible), but if you are compelled to do so, let it 
be from the virtuous bondsmen of Allah." (Abu Dawood and Nasa'i) 




386 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



Place Your Need Before God, Not Men 

4j lui JCAji aJJl ujjjii jij AsSvl jLj ^ ^uib wjjjjii alll 

(tsJUjsJljajby.flijj) ^^jt^lPOj^&L*]^ 

(849/26) Abdullah bin Mas'ud 4^> related to us that the 
Messenger of Allah Hi said: "Whoever is confronted with a 
severe need and places it before men (and begs them for help), 
he will never be relieved of it permanently, and whoever places 
it before God and beseeches Him (for it), it is confidently hoped 
that God will put an end to his need either by granting him 
death before long (if the appointed time of his death has arrived) 
or by bestowing prosperity upon him after sometime." 

(Abu Dawood and Tirmizi) 

Assurance of Paradise On Abstention From Begging 

% > 9 (5 y i* £ s s s s s 

J, I ji^^^Lij^lpilJi JUjaUi J^5 Jii JtijUji j£(Ao ./TV) 

(^•L.Jijijiayoijj) l4i 

(850/27) It is related by Thauban 4fe that the Messenger of 
Allah lH said: "I give him the assurance of Paradise who 
promises me not to entreat the bondsmen of Allah for any of his 
needs." Thauban 4^> went on to narrate that, he said to the 
Prophet Hi: Messenger of Allah Hi! I give you the promise." 
The narrator added "as a resutl of it, it was the custom of 
Thauban 4^> not to ask anyone for anything."(Abu Dawood,Nasa'i) 

If Anything is Given to You Without 
Solicitation or Greediness, Take it 

j&j iJJl JL> l J^\ jlf JlS otiUjl J> 'j^£> (Ao \/YA) 
Ui 4j Jjl^u'j AJ^isi oJU Jl5i i2\ 'J&\ AisA JjSli tlk*Jl ^?*t 

(851/28) Umar bin al-Khattab narrated (when) the 



Book ofZakah 



387 



Messenger of Allah all gave me something (as a gift) I used to 
say to him: 'Please give it to someone else who may be in 
greater need of it." The Prophet iHl would, then, reply: "Umar 
4fe>, take it and make it your property (and, then if you like, you 
may give it) to a needy person in charity, (and make it a 
principle that) when you receive anything in such a way that you 
have neither asked for it nor felt a desire for it in your heart, you 
will accept it (as a gift from Allah), and will not even look at a 
thing that does not come to you in that way."(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Do Not Beg As Long As You 
Can Earn By Work or Service 

(t£ jbtJi slj j) aj*i»ji fljlaPi j^Wi Jtu*j ji j* <0 j^-i^rj 

(852/29) It is related on the authority of Zubayr bin Al-Awwam 
that the Messenger of Allah said: "The attitude of a 
needy person (among you) that he goes to the forest with a rope 
and returns with a bundle of wood (for fuel) on his back and 
sells it, and, thus, by the grace of God, saves himself from the 
disgrace of begging is better than that he stretches his hand 
before others, and, then, they may give him (something) or not." 

(Bukhari) 

{Xoj i£± aJJi JU> j\ ^ ft ^\ jt> (A o rvr • ) 
<Uwj ia-LLij LzJu J~JU '^j Jlii ^li Ut Jlil iitlj 

<UJi Jj->3 U^j otfte U^j ^sS( JiS s-UJi & >L>'j£j 4***J 

UaJL^ 1 ! Ul Jjtj Jli VjjJLa <^ ^iAj Jl3j aJlL 4J£ aUi 
jlii jJj Ui JLss^*1 U( Jjtj ji vljL5 jl ^!y> j»j>ji Jbjj Jll 

lii <u elJll <u ^jU Uj.il jj-^h js-iij ^lUi Jji alJU UUt> 



388 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



(853/30) It is related by Sayyidina Anas 4^> that (once a poor 
and needy Ansar came to the Prophet ^ and, (after relating his 
neediness), begged him for something. The Prophet i|jl asked 
him: "Is there nothing, at all, in your house?" There is only a 
blanket," the Ansar replied," a part of which we use to cover 
ourselves with and a part from which we spread on the ground 
(lying), and thee is a cup from which we drink water." The 
Prophet said to him: "Bring both the things to me." The 
Ansar brought the two things and gave them to the Prophet Hi 
The Prophet £H took the cup and the blanket in his hand, and, 
addressing those present, (in the manner of selling at an 
auction), said: 'Who is willing to buy these things?" One of the 
Companions came up with the reply, "Messenger of Allah 
III! I can buy them for a dirham." The Prophet ill then, 
enquired, "Who makes a bid of more than one dirham? (He said 
it two or three times). Messenger of Allah Hi! I can buy for two 
dirhams," said another. The Prophet ill gave the articles to him 
and took two dirhams and, handing them over to the Ansar, 
said, "Buy some food stuff with one dirham and give it to your 
family and an axe with the other dirham and bring it to me." 
The Ansar acted accordingly and reported back to the Prophet 
$H with he axe. The Prophet III fixed a strong handle to it with 
his own hands, and said to him, "Go and cut wood from the 
forest and sell it and do not let me see you for fifteen days." The 
Anasr, thus, went away and fetched wood from the forest and 
sold it as the Prophet $m had told. Then, one day he turned up 
and he had earned ten dirhams by his labour with which he had 
bought some cloth and foodgrains. The Prophet Hi, on seeing 
him observed: "This earning by hard work is much better for 
you than that you appear, before the people, on the Day of 
Resurrection, with the mark of begging on your face. Begging is 
permissible only to three kinds of men: (i) He who has grown so 
weak owing to poverty and starvation that he can hardly rise 



Book of Zakah 



389 



from the ground ; (ii) He who is overburdened with a loan or 
penalty (to pay which is beyond his means); (iii) He who has to 
pay blood-money but cannot do it." (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: The moral of the above Tradition is self-evident. 
But as misfortune would have it, a whole class of professional 
beggars is thriving among the followers of the Prophet Hi. Then 
there are those who indulge in respectable begging by flaunting 
themselves as theologists or spiritual mentors. They are guilty of 
fraud and trading in religion as well. 

Monetary Good-Doing Apart From Zakah 

iJs> ^-P *Ul J J 1 * lt4* c-y J* (A o tlx \ ) 

J3 j 'jl jj o ( J4J ^ p \£ f s J 1 ^-" d\ 

(^jjdljisrU jjljt^JLtjJletjj) JLftM ^^iuJl j J 

(854/31) It is related by Sayyidah Fatimah bint Qays i^ibi^j 
that the Messenger of Allah Hi said: "There is the claim (of 
God) upon wealth besides Zakah." He, then, recited the 
following verse of the Qur'an: 

It is not righteousness that you 
turn your faces to the East and 
West : but righteous is he who 
believes in Allah and the Last 
Day and the angels and the 
Scripture and the Prophets 
^LJij^J*; and gives his wealth, 
for love of Him, to kinsfolk and 
to orphans and the needy and 
the wayfarer and to those who 
ask, and to set slaves free; and 
observes proper worship and 
pays the poor due. 

(Al-Baqarah2:177) 

(Tirmizi, Ibn Majah and Daarami) 

Commentary: The main object of this Tradition is to remove the 
misunderstanding that the bondsman is absolved of his 
responsibility to the poor and the indigent and no claim of God is 



Js^iij a^Idt j^Vt 

Sjifjjl ^jjij S^UiJl ^l3lj 

(^YY:X .SjiJl) ijfy 



390 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



left upon his wealth once he has paid the prescribed Zakah (i.e. 
l/40th of the worldly possessions that are in excess of his need). In 
fact, in special circumstances, the duty of helping the needy 
servants of Allah remains with the well-to-do people even after the 
payment of Zakah. For instance, a wealthy and prosperous person 
pays the Zakah that is due on him, and, then, he comes to know 
that a neighbouring family has nothing to eat or such-and-such a 
relation is in dire need or a good and respectable person 
approaches him in distress or a wayfarer comes to him for help, in 
that case it becomes his duty to render financial assistance to them. 

The Prophet H, then, recited the verse from surah al-Baqarah 
as an authoritative pronouncement in support of his view, in which 
the doing of monetary good to the orphans, the needy, the travellers 
and other indigent classes is mentioned after Faith under the head 
of righteous deeds. After it, the establishment of salah and the 
payment of Zakah are, also,-, set forth which shows that the 
monetary help of the weak and the poor stressed in it is in addition 
to Zakah. 

Charity is Enjoined Upon 
All Muslims, Rich or Poor 

<ulii ajJLj J^juii Jli Jjju jl9 ijJls aiJu? ( *Ll* JT ^js- ^L*j 

^ jll ijlll i?r\*x3\b Jll ^rrt' n \ ,iJ jli IjJlS jIJkjj 

4ju J-sJi jp jil jii; ^ ^\ ^ J^l 

(855/32) It is related by Musa Al-Ash'ari 4^> that the Messenger 
of Allah isH said: "Charity is enjoined upon all Muslims." He 
was asked: "If someone has nothing to give, what will he do?" 
The Prophet ^ replied: "He should work with his hands and 
benefit himself as well as give in charity (from what he earns)". 
It was, again, enquired from him: "If he cannot do even that?" 
The Prophet iH replied: "He should help the needy by rendering 
some (other) service to him. (It, too, is a kind of charity)." "If he 
cannot do even that?" It was, once more asked. The Prophet lH 



Book of Zakah 



391 



replied: "He should, then, exhort the people to good deeds." If 
he cannot do even that?" He was asked, once again The Prophet 
Hi replied: "He should (at least) keep away from wickedness 
(i.e., take are not to do harm or injury to anyone). It, too, is a 
kind of charity for him". (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: It shows that those, too, should practise charity on 
whom Zakah is not binding owing to want of worldly riches. 
Whoever is very poor should seek to earn the Divine reward on 
charity through toil and labour and by cutting down on his own 
needs. In case it, also, is not possible, he should try to serve the 
weak and distressed and bring solace to them if not with his hands, 
at least the tongue. 

The sum and substance of the above Tradition is that it is 
incumbent upon every Muslim, rich or poor, young or old, and 
strong or weak, to do whatever he can by way of helping the others 
in difficulty. 

Exhortation to Charity 

jl£jUxJ|«Ijj) i_ >jlfr U jjjl^Uj 



(856/33) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4^s> that the Prophet H 
said: "It is the message of God to every bondsman: O Son of 
Adam! Go on spending the wealth I have given you (on the 
poor, the needy and the destitute). I shall give you more from 
My treasure." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: It contains, as it were, the assurance from the Lord 
that whoever spends on indigent fellowmen shall not suffer a 
decrease in his goods on account of it. God will bestow more 
wealth upon him from His hidden treasure. 

Observation: We have said earlier that if the Prophet $H says 
anything as from Allah and it is not from the Qur'an then it is 
Hadith Qudsi. 

ij 'J&\ pLj ds- iJJl JLp 4JJI Sj^j Jtl cilS ^ (A o v/r i ) 
(l»JL~o j lSjUJi »\ j j) c. »kr >, J . i U 



392 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



(857/34) Asma bint Abu Bakr U^iii^j narrated that the 
Messenger of Allah Hi said to her: "Go on spending 
open-handed ly in the way of God, and on the strength of faith in 
Him, and count not (i.e., do not worry over what you have and 
how much of it will you give away). If you will count and 
calculate like that while spending in God's way, He, too, will 
give you thriftily. (If, on the other hand, you will spend, for His 
sake, without hesitation, He will, also bestow of His bounty 
upon you without measure). And do not hoard or else the Lord, 
too, will deal with you in the same manner and the doors of 
benevolence and abundance will close upon you). Spend freely, 
therefore, whatever you can for the sake of God." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

$ U AJUl JLp Sj^J J 1 * J 1 * J* (A°A/r<>) 

Jji» jAJtJjlj 

(858/35) It is related by Abu Umamah that the Messenger of 
Allah lH said: "O son of Adam, it is better for you to spend 
wealth that is in excess of your needs in the path of Allah, and 
to withould it is bad for you, and, of course, there is no harm in 
saving (for future use) to the extent of your living expenses; 
and, first of all, spend on those who are dependent upon you for 
support." (Muslim) 

Commentary: It shows that it is better for a man to keep with 
himself the wealth he may earn or obtain as much of it as is 
required for his needs, artd spend the rest on the bondsmen of the 
Lord, for His sake, and, among them, the foremost claim is of those 
the responsibility for whose maintenance God has placed upon him 
like his family and the needy near relatives. 

Only That Remains And Will be Used 
Which is Spent In The Way ofAUah 

^3 4JU1 JLi? ^jJi Jtfa 5LSiljs*ii jtgjl liJlp (Ao^/ri) 

((^JL. jsJt o\ Js. Jls l^isT *i\ \^ cJli 

(859/36) Sayyidah Ayshah l^p &\ related that (once) a goat 



Book of Zakah 



393 



was slaughtered (and its meat was distributed for the sake of 
God). The Prophet came (soon after it) and enquired, "What 
is left of the goat?' Nothing but one forequarter. (All the rest has 
been given away)". She replied. The Prophet llll remarked, "In 
fact, every thing that has been given away in order to please 
Allah is left except the forequarter and is going to be of use (in 
the Hereafter)." (Tirmizi) 

The Way of Men of Faith And Trust 
Concerning Expenditure in Allah's Way 

atfjJ <d* Jfrl Jufi Jj ( Jj-^j J 1 ^ J 1 ^ 5 Xr* 'J>> (A1 - /TV) 

jLb y\ ^jui> is* i^aIpjJU ^Ip C*^ ^ Jft; 

(t5jb«Ji sijj) ^jJ 

(860/37) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4fe that the Messenger of 
Allah ^§1 said: If I have gold equal (in weight) to Mount Uhud, 
it will make me most happy that before the passage of three 
night to I spend the whole of it in the path of God except that 1 
might save some of it for paying off the debt." (Bukhari) 

jz ,JLj 4* iii JL> *Ja\ # rjCjk ^ ^ ( ai \/r\) 

^UCi\^,JJ^S\6\ 3 y ) ■W&\J>si\^ 

(861/38) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4es& that one day the 
Prophet IH> went to the residence of Sayyidina Bilal and saw 
that a heap of dates was lying with him. The Prophet asked 
Bilal about it. He replied "I have made it a provision for future 
(so that I may have some relief from worrying about my 
sustenance)". The Prophet |§l, remarked: "Bilal Are you not 
afraid that tomorrow, on the Day of Resurrection, you see its 
heat and burning in the Fire of Hell? See, O Bilal! Spend on 
yourself and on others what comes to your hand and have no 
fear of scarcity from the Owner of the Great Throne (i.e., 
believe it God will go on giving you in future in the same way 
as He has done today. There is no dearth in His treasure. So, 



394 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



worry about making a provision for the future)." (Baihaqi) 

Commentary: Sayyidina Bilal 4^> was Among the Ashab As-Suffa 
who had made the Prophet's £H life of perfect reliance upon God a 
model for themselves. It was not proper for him to store up food 
for the days to come, and therefore, the Prophet $jl had given him 
this advice, though for the common people it is quite legitimate to 
do so. The Prophet HI had, in fact stopped some of his 
Companions c^> from spending everything in the path of God and 
keeping nothing for their dependants. But for the Companions who 
followed the example of the sacred Prophet or of Ashab as-Suffa, 
in the matter of a life of complete trust in God, such a course was 
not desirable. 

The last sentence of this Tradition imparts the assurance that 
whoever spends freely in the paths of goodness and virtue shall 
find no scarcity in the munificence of Allah. 

Rich People Who Do Not Spend Freely 
in The Way of God Are The losers 

'jkj JLj aIIp till JU JgJi J\ c4#y'i jvl jS {J j* (AlY/ri) 
ciis Ojj jii Jll ^jij ilii ZJ&S\ JJt JJuf 

* s * * s s } / / s y / / 3 " 3 ' & 

^JfeU J^lij "jJU-i jPj J J* J AjJU jl; ^» I JliOij 

(862/39) Abi Zarr Ghifari 4§& narrated that "Once I went to the 
Prophet HI and he, (at that time) was sitting under the shadow 
of the House of Ka'bah. As he saw me, he remarked: "By the 
Lord of Ka'bah, they are in great loss.' I said: "May my parents 
be a sacrifice to you? Who are in great loss?' The Prophet Hi 
replied: Those who are very rich and well-to-do. Among them 
only they are safe from loss who spend their wealth 
open-handedly in front and behind, let and right (i.e., in all 
directions on things of goodness and virtue). But such 
bondsmen are very few among the rich." (Bukhari an4 Muslim) 

Commentary: It shows that though, on the face of it, wealth is a 
blessing, in reality, it is severe trial and only those can come out of 
it successfully who do not get attached to it but spend liberally on 



Book ofZakah 



395 



good and noble causes. 
Auspiciousness of Charity 

(863/40) It is related by Anas that the Messenger of Allah 
ill said: "Charity cools down the fire of Allah's wrath and wards 
off and evil death." (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: Good and evil deeds are morals, also, possess some 
attributes and produce their own effects about which we can learn 
only through the Divine Prophet ill. Two peculiar properties of 
charity are described in the above Tradition: if the wrath of God is 
turned towards anyone due to a major transgression, Charity cools 
it down and instead of displeasure and chastisement, he becomes 
deserving of His mercy and good pleasure, and, secondly, it saves a 
man from an evil death, i.e., he dies a good death owing to the 
blessedness of charity or is spread the shame and agony of dying a 
death that, generally, is considered wretched and miserable by the 
people. 

(a*j>-i«ijj) <uSJU<? ^jj j^Jl 

(864/41) Marthad bin Abdullah 4» related that some 
Companions 4gs related to him that they had heard from the 
Messenger of Allah iH that there would be the shadow of 
chritable deed on the faithful bondsman on the Day of 
Resurrection." (Musnad Ahmad) 

Commentary: About many virtuous deeds it is told in the 
Traditions that they will become a source of shelter on the Last 
Day. In this Tradition it is stated about charity that one of its 
auspicious effects that will be manifest on the Day of Final 
Judgement is that the charitable deed of a person will become a 
shade for him which will protect him from the intense heat of the 
Day. 



396 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



Increase in Wealth 

(865/42) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4^> that the Messenger of 
Allah ill said: "The wealth of no one suffers a decrease on 
account of charity, and no one loses in honour by forgiving, nay 
God raises him in dignity and he becomes more respectable, and 
whoever will obseerve himility, God will make him exalted." 

(Muslim) 

(S^s-S oljj) Jb y£\ aUULpj 4i£Ua* 3\jup\ 

(866/43) It is related by Abu Umamah 4i§£> that (once) Abu Zarr 
said, O Prophet of Allah, tell us what is charity (i.e., what 
reward is it going to fetch from Allah)? "The Prophet lH 
replied: "Several (i.e., whatever a person spends in charity, he 
will get back many times of it in return) and there is much with 
Allah." (Musnad Ahamd) 

Commentary: It says that Allah will grant a manifold increase in 
what one spends in charity. In some other sayings, the increase 
from ten to hundred times is mentioned, but it, too, is not the limit. 
God will bestow even more on whomsoever He likes. 

According to some commentators, this premium is given by 
God on charity in the present world while, in the Hereafter, it will 
be much greater. 



Reward on Feeding and Clothing The Needy 

Uj? (i-j iJJf jU> aJJ' J>-j 'Jb </- (AlV/t 1) 

^LLi UjIj A^Jljja^ iJJt alls' Jip bjj ULLi LIS" (t-Li^ 

l«i*i> ( _j<L-> j» LU » UjIj A^tJl jUj ilJ( <Uj»kt t^*' Ui-Li ^iip\ 

(867/44) It is related by Abu Sa'eed Khudri that the 



Book of Zakah 397 

Messenger of Allah £H said: "the Muslim who gave clothes to a 
Muslim brother who had nothing to wear, Allah will provide 
him with the green apparel of Paradise, and the Muslim who 
gave food to a Muslim brother who was hungry, Allah will feed 
him with the fruits of Paradise, and the Muslim who gave water 
to a Muslim brother who was thristy, Allah will give him the 
sealed purifying wine of Heaven to drink." 

(Abu Dawood and Tirmizi) 

(tsJujsli j ju*-i At jj) 4i» ^bU aJJi 

(868/45) It is related by Sayyidina Ibn Abbas 4fe that he heard 
the Messenger of Allah HI say, "Any Muslim who gives a 
Muslim a garment to wear will be in the safe keeping of Allah 
as long as shred of it remains on him." (Ahmad and Tirmizi) 



jbsi oljo A*r}< J«J <i^r j j( cijp *^rj c*~j wis c-i^r <tj»U3l 
\'jLej 'jL?j fU&Ji 'jZj&j f&l\ JaJi l^fo jfo <!# 

(i^Ujjij^i-«>Ji«ijj) ^*>Lh a^J i jte-x> ^ Ci J-D( j ^jJLJb 

(869/46) It is related by Abdullah bin Salaam "When the 
Prophet HH came to live in Madinah, 1 sent to (see and form an 
opinoin about) him. As I looked carefully at his radiant face, I 
recognised (i.e., realised for certain) that it could not be the face 
of a liar. The first thing he said was: "People! Spread Salaam 
(Salutation) widely in you midst (i.e., wish each other frequently 
for it unties the knots of the heart and promotes mutual 
affection), and feed the bondsmen of Allah (specially those that 
are hungry), and be kind to kinsmen, and offer salah at night 
when people are asleep. If you will do so, you will go safely to 
Heaven." (Tirmizi and Ibn Majah) 



Even Giving Food and Drink to Animals 
That are Hungry or Thristy is Charity 

pLj &s> iiJl JU> Aill Jl5 Jl5 ijfjk ^ 'J> (AV •/ IV) 



398 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



( jSa*}\ AlsJj ilT C-^d t/'j ^ V-LSu O^i i~~«^o Sr^^ip 
£i w j45 1— ^Ji-ij 4>? *^ c«*3^ UjUjt) iaajjU c-pjls 

(870/47) It is related on the authority of Abu Hurayrah 4fe that a 
corrupt woman was forgiven (her sins) on the act that she 
passed by a well and saw that a dog was licking the earth (and it 
appeared that) it would die of thrist. (The woman took pity on it 
but there was no rope or vessel to draw the water). So, she took 
off her leather stock and tied to her covering sheet (worn by 
women over the head and the upper part of the body), and (some 
how) drew the water from the well by means of it, and gave it to 
the dog to drink. She was forgiven for this act of hers. Someone 
asked: "Is there Divine recompense even on giving food and 
drink to the animals?' 'There is Divine recompense on giving 
food and drink to every living creature that can feel (the pangs 
of hunger and thrist),' replied the Prophet i|l."Bukhari and Muslim 

f*> y i i J s s s s 

s s & s / s ^ y 9 % % s % s s 3 

(j»JL~» j i£ jbxJl eljj) iSJJfi 
(871/48) It is reported by Sayyidina Anas that the 
Messenger of Allah life said, "If any Muslim plants something 
or sows seed from which man, bird or beast eats, it counts as a 
Sadaqah for him." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Saving Fellowmen from Annoyance 
or Inconvenience Gets one to Paradise 

** f # & " j * £ * ^ S * S S S ^ s 

V jl «.L.,.«.ll jJjt If \h» l^py'H Jul jji^t j$> JIp 3j*-Si jjaiu 

(872/49) It is related by Abu Hurayrah *fe> that Messenger of 
Allah iHl said: "A bondsman of Allah was going on a path on 
which there was the branch of a tree (which caused 
inconvenience to passer-by). The bondsman said to himself: "I 



Book ofZakah 



399 



shall cut off the branch and make the path clear so that the 
servants of Allah had no difficulty.' (He, then, went ahead and 
cut off the branch), and for this act of his he was sent to 



Commentary: Some acts appear very ordinary but at certain times, 
they are performed with a feeling of sincerity and godliness that is 
most pleasing to Allah. There Compassionate One, then, forgives 
the sins of the bondsmen who perform them and the decision is 
taken of their entry into Heaven. The incidents related in the two 
foregoing narratives belong to the same class of deeds. 

When Does Charity Fetch Greater Reward? 



(873/50) Abu Hurayrah narrates that a person asked 



reward is that you practise charity when you are in good health 

and the love for whealth and eagerness to store it up is powerful 

within you, and in the circumstances that (by spending in the 

way of God) there is the fear of peverty for you and the desire to 

be rich is trong in your heart. (To spend one's wealth, in these 

conditions, for the propitiation of Allah is a proof of true 

devotion). And let it not be that you keep on procastinating till 

the hour of death arrives and life gets drawn to the throat, and, 

then, you begin to give instructions about your wealth that so 

much of it should be given to so-and-so and so much to 

so-and-so when, now, in any case, it will pass from your hands 

to the hands of so-and-so (i.e., the , descendants)." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: A common weakness with the people is that they 
are stingy in spending for the sake of Allah as long as they are 
strong and healthy and death is not staring them in the face. The 
Devil sows the fear in their hearts that if they gave away in the path 
of Alah their wealth would decrease and they would become poor. 



Heaven. 



(Bukhari and Muslim) 





400 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



Hence, they prefer to remain tight-fisted. But when death begins to 
knck at the door, they think of charity. The Prophet HH in the above 
saying, has disapproved of this attitude. In the sight of Allah that 
charity is commendable and worthy of acceptance which is 
practised when a person is young and in good health and his own 
future lies ahead of him. He has problems to tackle and 
responsibilities to shoulder and yet spends freely in the path of 
Allah, believing whole-heartedly in His Word. 

To Spend On One's Dependents Too, is Charity 

Everyone spends, according to his means, on the needs of his 
family but he does not derive the spiritual pleasure from it which is 
experienced by the devout bodnsmen of Allah on showing 
generosity to the poor and the destitute for people, generally, do 
not regard the spending on their dependents an act of virtue but a 
liability or a matter of natural impulsion. The sacred Prophet H 
has, however, taught that one should spend on one's own wife and 
children and other kinsmen, too, with the intention of seeking the 
countenance of Allah and earning the reward of the Hereafter. In 
that case, the money spent on the one's depentdents will, also, get 
deposited, like charity, in the Bank of Hereafter, and, there will be 
a greater premium on it than on spending on others. This precept of 
the Prophet opens a great avenue of viture and good-doing to 
us. Whatever we spend now, within proper limits of course, on the 
needs and welfare of our family will be a kind of charity and deed 
of moral goodness provided that it is done with the right 
intnention. 

* \ & X J s s s s s 

4J cJlT l^ lya ^j jftj *L»! Jl£ iaii ^LLUt 

(874/51) It is related by Abu Mas'ud Ansari 4^£> that the 
Messenger of Allah HH said: "When a believing bondsman 
spends on his dependents with the object of earning Divine 
reward, it will be charity on his part (and deserving of 
recompense in the judgement of Allah)." (Bukhari and Muslim) 



Book of Zakah 



401 



Ip- JlS ?J-i»*' iiJUJl ^ till Sj^A J^ (AVo/o Y) 

(ijb^Uljj) J^-^il^j JftJt 

(875/52) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4& that he asked 
Messenger of Allah £§l "What is the best (form of) Charity?" 
"Chrity of the highest quality," the Prophet Hi explained, "Is 
what a poor man gives away, for the sake of Allah, out of his 
hard-earned money; and, first of all, spends on those for whom 
you are responsible (i.e., wife and children)." (Abu Dawood) 

de till aJJ» Sj^j J\ fcj JlS 'J} 'J- (AVI/of) 
<ui3l JlS y-l t^^p. JlS JIp JlS jbo JjOiP Jlai 

iiijl JlS j^i <^.aIp JlS uJ^aI J* iifljl JlS ^-i ^jIp JlS i-l^Jj 

(^uJij jjb y\ oijj) jjipl CJI JlS Csiis* JlS tJ £ol^ (^Ap 

(876/53) Abu Hurayrah ^> narrated that a person came to 
Messenger of Allah Ht$& and said: "I have one dinar. (Tell me 
where and how should I spend it)." The Prophet iH replied: 
(The best thing is that) you spend it on your own needs." 'I have 
more for that," said the man. "Then spend it," said the Prophet 
HI, on the needs of your children." "I have more for that," the 
man replied." "Then spend it on the needs of your wife," 
advised the Prophet ill. "I have more for that," was the reply, 
"then spend it on your slave and attendant,' said the Prophet 
"I have more for that" he replied. The Prophet remarked: 
"You know better who among your kinsmen is more in want." 

(Abu Dawood and Nasai) 

Commentary: Perhaps the Prophet iH had judged from the 
appearnace of the enquirer that he, himself, was poor yet wanted to 
spend the one dinar he had in the path of Allah. He, in the Prophet's 
view, was not aware that what a truthful Believer spent on his own 
needs or on the needs of his wife, children and slaves (for whose 
maintenance he was responsible), also, was charity and a means of 
propitiating the Allah. The Prophet ill, hence, gave him the advice 
in that order. The general commandment, too, is that a man should, 
first fulfil the obligations for which he is personally accountable 
and, then, go forward. 



402 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 

For the chosen bondsmen of Allah, however, who have attained 
the station of complete trust in Allah and whose depndents, also, 
have received an ample share of this supernal whealth it is fitting 
that they starved themsleves and gave away whatever food there 
was in the house of the needy. This, indeed, was the practice of the 
Holy Prophet HH and his celebrated Companions 

Superiority of Spending on Kinsmen 

iLfj 4JJL> ^ fji ^J* iSJLp jSJ^O\ ^ 43JUa!l 

(^jl Jjl j ajtU jjI j ^'L-Jl j t£.u> jJlj -W-l el j j) 

(877/54) It is related by Sulayman bin 'Aamir that the 
Messenger of Allah said: "To spend on an unknown needy 
person, for the sake of God, is simple charity while to spend, for 
the sake of Allah, on a (needy) near kinsman has two aspects 
and there are two kinds of reward on it. It is charity as well as 
showing kindness to relatives (which, in tiself, is a virtue of 
great value)." (Musnad Ahmad, Tirmizi, Nasai Ibn Majah and Daarami) 

J)t cjury& cJlS ^ jJ j tl—Jt ^ 
iJJl JU* 4AJ1 J^»j £t j jJ\ J^-j u-i&l ciis 4iJuIp 

cJiii ijifJt 4^ c4«fi >i5 (J^ij «Ji Ju<» *JJ' J>o <3£j cJii 

o^-ii jJLj 4^U ii» JU aji cij 4j uiii js< ijip £>i 

V-JliJJl t£l 4lip iJJf 4JJ( J^ij Jill J^^' (Sf 



Book of Zakah 



403 



(877/55) It is related by Zaynab i^-in^j, wife of Abdullah bin 
Mas'ud 4|&, that the Messenger of Allah Hi (in a sermon meant, 
particualrly, for women) said: "O woman! Send in the way of 
God even if you have to give out of your ornaments." (Zaynab 
goes on to relate) "when I heard it from the Messenger of Allah 
iH, I came to my husband Abdullah bin Mas'ud 4fe, and said to 
him: "The Messenger of Allah lH has exhorted us specailly to 
observe charity, (and I am desirous of attaining the good fortune 
of sepending for the sake of Allah from what I have), and, you, 
also, are poor. Now go and enquire from the Prophet ill 
(whether I will be absolved of the duty of observing charity if I 
gave it to you). In case it is correct, I will give (of my wealth) to 
you or else I will spend it on other needy and indigent people." 
She relates "Abdullah bin Mas'ud 4^s> asked me enquire from the 
Prophet myself. So, 1, went to him, and, on reaching there, 
saw that an Ansar woman was standing at his door and her 
need, too, was the same as mine (i.e., she too, had come to make 
a similar enquiry). Meanwhile, (the Prophet's !|l special 
attendant and Muazziri) Bilal ^ came out and we (both) said to 
him, 'Please inform the Prophet iiiP that two women are waiting 
at his door and they want to know from him will the duty of 
charity be fulfilled if they spent (their wealth) on their needy 
husbands and the orphans that were being borught up in their 
arms. But do not tell the Prophet lH who we are." Bilal 4^, 
then, went to the Prophet and enquired from him on their 
behalf. 'Who the two women are?' Asked the Prophet iil. Bilal 
replied, 'One of them is an Ansar woman and the other is 
Zaynab.' 'Which Zaynab?' the Prophet Hi enquired. 'The wife of 
Abdullah bin Mas'ud said Bilal 4^>. 'Yes (the obligation of 
charity will be fulfilled, the Prophet iH oberved. "What is more, 
they will get a double reward: one on charity and the other on 
showing kindness to kinsmen." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

J*j # tftf iixJlj jU#l 'J& \ l*&y\ & Jl5 ^\ (A V Ma t) 

Jji Jj-'j Jj^-^i' aiilLU cjiTj 'Jj &\ 



404 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 

Jjl J j-l>3 J 1 ^ ^-a^ J>^J ^ JJ , '% ^j^j ^ 

"i^ipyS l^ii Jilt J^-j jilt Jia j^ffl J l{fc*J £l 

(879/56) Sayyidina Anas 4^> related to us "as far as orchards of 
dates were concerned, Abu Talha <$<k> was the wealtheist among 
the Ansars of Madina, and out of all his orchards and (other 
property), the most beloved was Bairuha'aS which was situated 
in front of the Prophet's ^ Mosque and the Prophet often 
used to go to it and drink its pleasent water." Anas <^> added 
that "when the verse of the Qur'an was revealed: 

You will not attain unto piety until you spend of that 
which you love. (Aal-e-Imran3:92) 

Abu Talha $b went to the Prophet ill and said that 'Allah's 
command is that you wil not attain unto piety until you spend of 
that which you love and Bairuha'a is the most dearly loved of 
all my property, so I will recieve its reward in the Hereafter and 
it will be a provision for me. So, decide about it as Allah may 
put in your mind (i.e., spend it where it seems most appropriate 
to you)." The Prophet u& observed, 'Well done! It is a most 
useful property. I have heard what you said (and understood 
your intention). I think it will be proper for you to distribute it 
to your needy near kinsmen." Abu Talha <t*& replied, 'O 
Messenger of Allah ill! I shall do so.' He, then shared out the 
grove among his near relatives and first cousins." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: In some other versions of the same Tradition it is 
stated in detail that Abu Talha had distributed the orchard, 
O. It was the name of Abu Talha's &\ most valuable orchard. 



Book of Zakah 



405 



according to the Prophet's lH directive, among the following of his 
close relatives: Ubayy bin Ka'ab, Hassan bin Thabit, Shaddad bin 
Aus and Nabeet bin Jabir t$&>. How valuable the orchard was can be 
imagined from the fact that, later on, Sayyidina Mu'awiya 4fe 
purchased only Hassan bin Thabit's share for one lakh dirhams. 

Note: Since a man mostly lives in close association with his 
relatives and has to deal with them often and in various ways, 
misunderstandings and quarrels, too, generally, arise among people 
belonging to the same family which not only make life a curse but 
also spoils the future existence. If the Prophet's &§l advice given 
above is acted upon and people come to regard the spending of 
wealth of kinsmen, an act of moral goodness and means to seeking 
the good pleasure of Allah, they can save themselves from much 
anxiety and distress in this world as well as the next. 

Charity on Behalf of Deceased 

Charity means to do good to the bondsmen of the Lord with the 
intention of propitiating Him and in the hope that, in return, one 
will attain His favour. It, undoubtedly, is a most effective way of 
earning the mercy and benevolence of Allah. The Prophet Hi has, 
further, taught, that just as a man can expect Divine reward and 
recompense by giving alms, on behalf of himself, so, also, will 
Allah reward and recompense a dead person if alms are given on 
his behalf by any one. Thus, apart from supplication for forgivenss, 
another waj , serve those who aredead and to do a favour to them 
is to cause the Divine reward to be carried or conveyed to them by 
giving alms and performing other virtuous deeds in their name. 

l\ j^Lj ds. tilt JU ^ii Jtl ^Crj h\ cJii ( AA ,/oV ) 

% ' & s ' -fly' J ^ 3 C & s ' 3 3 " ' ' , t 3 ' *l % 3 

ciJUiJ l)\ yr\ Igj J^3 citUoj c U J &Jj) l^JMj C.lril 

s s s 3 

Jt £jbUuijj) ^Jla^l^p 

(880/57) It is related by Sayyidah Ayshah i^iii^j that a 
person came to the Prophet Hi and said, 'My mother passed 
away suddenly and I have a feeling that had she been able to 
speak at the time of her death, she would, certainly, have given 
away something in charity. So, if] give alms now on her behalf, 



406 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 

will the reward on it reach her?" "Yes," replied the Prophet iHl. 
It will reach her." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

l$lp 'jkj &\ C4-?JJ & 0' C3*\ C/" (AA W° A) 

i$op aljL> c3r^Jt ^LjV £i jil ^ jil i$1p 

(881/58) Abudllah bin Abbas 4fe narrated that the mother of 
Sa'd bin Ubadah died at a time when he was not present. (He 
had gone on a military expedition with the Prophet On his 
return, he said to the Prophet Hi that "my mother died during 
my absence. If I, now, give alms on her behalf, will it be 
beneficial to her (i.e., will the Divine recompense on it reach 
her)." The Prophet i|| replied, "Yes, it will reach her." "Then I 
make you a witness," said Sa'd bin Ubadah 4fe>, "that I give 
away my orchard called Me khraf as charity in the name of my 
deceased mother." (Bukhari) 

aIp &\ ^Jl J\ jJrj Jl5 i'Jtj* ^ 'J- (AA Y/o <\) 

Qlftl vi^" ^ jU* ^ 01 J J) 

(882/59) It is related on the authority of Abu Hurayrah 4& that a 
person came to the Prophet isll and said: "My father has died 
and he had left behid some property and made no will 
(regarding charity etc). So, if 1 give (something) in charity on 
hisbehalf, will it be an atonemnet for him and a source of 
forgivieness and deliverance? "Yes", replied the Prophet Hi. 
"(Such is the confident expectation irom the Lord)." (Ibn Jareer) 

J $3 & j\ ^U3l J> jji* # aJlJ^P 'J. (AAV/n • ) 

* * " ' * 

y j jf^jr- <twa?- jpu jfi uui ji ^l~»J& ly j <UJb <UuytJ £1 A-IM^tl! 

(X*?-\ si jj) OJIi 4Mb <UP ' " y*j C~« J-^- jab 

(883/60) It is related by Abdullah bin Amr bin al-'Aas 4& that 



Book ofZakah 



407 



his grand father, al-Aas bin Waail, had vowed to offer a 
sacrifice of one hundred camels, during the days of ignorance, 
(which he could not fulfil). So, one of his sons, Hisham bin 
al-Aas, sacrificed 50 camels in fulfilement of his father's vow 
while the other son, 'Amr bin al-Aas, (who, fortunately, had 
embraced Islam), sought the Prophet's advice. The Prophet lH 
said that "had your father accepted the Faith and, then, you had 
observed fasting and charity on his behalf, it would have been 
beneficial to him (and the reward on it would have reached him. 
But since he died in the state of apostacy and Polytheism, none 
of your deeds can do any good to him now)." (Musnad Ahmad) 

Commentary: It is distinctly stated in these and many other 
Traditions that if a virtuous deed like charity and almsgiving is 
performed on behalf of a deceased person and the reward on it is 
gifted to him, it will do good to him and he will recieve the Divine 
recompense. In other words, as one can, in this world, be of help to 
a person by spending his money on him and he can profit from it, 
in the same way if a believingman wants to do a favour and be of 
service to his deceased father or any other Muslim by giving alms 
in his name, he is free to do so. The door for it is open from the 
side of Allah. 

We can, thus, serve our parents and other relatives and friends 
and benefactors even after their death and send presnets to them. 

Some people of our time who do not believe in Hadith as part 
of Shari'ah do not agree with this view. 



>J\*3tU\ JIB 



ur fii* c4 $ \ 



SIGNIFICANCE OF FASTING 



Allah has made man a combination of body and soul, of 
animality and spirituality. In his nature are present all the physical 
and carnal propensities that are peculiar to animals yet there, also, 
dwells within him the luminous element of spirituality which is the 
characteristic quality of the supernal beings of Celestial World, the 
angels. The success and salvation of man depends upon the 
subordination of the animal part of his nature to the heavenly part 
and the keeping of his sensual instincts and desires within proper 
limits. Such a thing can be possible only when the corporeal aspect 
of the human personality renders habitual obedience to the celestial- 
aspect instead of pulling against it. The main aim of Fasting is to 
make the carnel urges and inclinations subservient to the Divine 
commandments and spiritual ideals, and since it, is also, the chief 
end and object of Messengership and the Shari'ah Fasting was 
prescribed in all the earlier Canonic Laws as well. While giving the 
command of Fasting to the Muslims the Qur'an declares: 



Be that as it may, as Fasting is most efficacious for the 
disciplining of the self and a special means to the promotion of 
strength and ability to subordinate the carnel appeites to the Divine 
injunctions and spiritual values, it had, also been enjoined upon all 
the former religious communities .though there was some 
difference in the duration etc., of the fasts in view of their 
individual needs nd circumstances. For the last Ummah, i.e., the 
Muslims, Fasting for a month in the year and from dawn to sunset 



O ye who believe! Fasting is 
prescribed for you, even as it 
was prescribed for those before 
you, that ye may ward off 
(evil). (al-Baqarah 2:183) 




412 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



has been prescribed which, definitely, is the most appropriate, 
moderate and reasonable arragnement with reference to the 
aforementioned objects in the Current Age. The aim of moral and 
spiritual disciplining and inclucation of the virtue of self-restraint 
could not be realised had it been less than that. If, on the other 
hand, the time and duration of Fasting were longer, as for example 
food and drink were permitted only at the break of day or fasting 
was ordered for two or three months in succession in a year, it 
would have been unendurable for most of the people, and, also, 
injurious to health. 

Again, Allah has prescribed Fasting in the month in which the 
Qur'an was revealed and in which there, also, has been concealed 
Lailatul Qadr (Night of Power) which is better than a thounsand 
months in spiritual worth and blessedness. No other month could, 
obviously, be more suited for it. In this month, apart from Fasting 
during the day, an extraordinary institution of worship has, also, 
been established which is functioning in the Ummah in the form of 
Taraweeh 1 the joining together of the fasts of the day and 
Taraweeh in the night has resulted in an increase in the effulgence 
of the month of Ramadan which is felt by everyone in proportion 
to. his inner awareness and perception. 

Virtues of Ramadan 

til iUl JL> d)l J)^j Jl5 JlS iyfjk ^1 j£ (AAlA) 

^jj jlfclliJl cJLJLij *L>\y\ £*^J V'j^ C*»ci jliwj 

(jiJL-t j t^jbUl oljj) -X^-^S *L>\y\ iiljj 

(884/1) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4^b that the Messenger of 
Allah Hi said: "When the month of Ramadan 2 comes, the Gates 
of Heaven are thrown open, and the Gates of Hell are shut, and 
the devils are put behind the bars." (In another report, the "Gates 
of Mercy" are mentioned in place of the "Gates of Heaven." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: Commenting on this Tradition, Shah Waliullah 
«ul* in a^?-j remarks that as the devout bondsmen apply themselves 
O. Denoting extra prayers offered by Muslims in Ramadan in the night. 
©. The name of the ninth Islamic month during which the Muslims are required 
to observe fasting from the morning dawn till the setting of the sun. 



Book of Fasting 



413 



to worship and good-doing during the month of Ramadan and 
spend their days in God-remembrance and recitation of the Qur'an 
while Fasting, and a major part of their nights in Taraweeh and 
Tahajjud, supplication and repentance, under the influnece of their 
high spiritually and devotional exertions the hearts of the common 
Muslims, too, become more inclined towards prayer and piety and 
they, on the whole, succeed in abstaining from good many sins. 
Owing to the generations of the atmosphere worship and virtue in 
the Islamic circles, people who are not wholly disregardful of 
transcedental truths develop a fondness for things that are pleasing 
to Allah and an aversion for acts that are repugnant to Him. 
Moreover, in this blessed month the recompense on even smaller 
acts of moral goodness is made much greater by God than on other 
days. In consequence of all this, the gates of Paradise are opened 
and of Hell are closed for such people and the devils are not left 
free to tempt and mislead them. 

It would be clear that all the three things the throwing open of 
the gates of Heaven, the shutting up of the gates of Hell and 
binding of the devils in chains are in respect only of the bondsmen 
who feel disposed towards good-doing in the month of Ramadan, 
and out of the keenness to partake of its blessings engage 
themselves enthusiastically in worship and other religious duties. 
As for the apostates, the negligent and the heedless who care little 
for Divine injunctions and produce no charge in their daily lives at 
the advent of Ramadan, these tidings do not apply to them. When 
they have opted out, of their own accord, for the path of error and 
omission willingly to following Satan and doing his bidding there 
is nothing for them except disappointement with God as well. 

$ \b\ jjlij dp Jbi JlS Jl5 YJCjk ^ jp (AAo/Y) 

i£^Ujj uIj \j^a jlJu (iJlS X^ti\ <— *\y\ Cj«3j Lji» ^sjL ^Ji jLJl 
(JSCibj jUil ja Jjj jjjl Uj jJt U alii 

(885/2) It is related by Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of 



414 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



Allah sgfe said: "When the first night of the month of Ramadan 
(comes), the devils and the defiant jinn are bound in chains, and 
all the Gates of Hell are closed and none of them remains open, 
and all the Gates of Heaven are thrown open and none of them 
remains closed, and the heavenly herald announces, 'O seeker of 
goodness and virtue! Halt, and do not come forward, ' and a 
large number of (sinning) bondsmen are released from Hell at 
the Command of Allah (i.e., decision of forgiveness and 
deliverance is taken for them), and all this takes place on every 
night of Ramadan." (Tirmizi and Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: the subject-matter of the first part of the above 
Tradition is the same as that of the preceding one. As for the 
announcement by the herald of the unseen world which is 
mentioned at the end of it, though we do not and cannot hear it, we 
see the effect and manifestation of it with our own eyes in the 
present world. In Ramadan, the inclination among the Believers 
towards good and virtuous deeds, generally, grows stronger to the 
extent that many heedless and non-conforming Muslims, also 
, somewhat change their way. This, we believe, is result and 
outcome of the Divine herald's proclamation. 

2yr\ jjLtj aIIp &\ Jji Jj"*> 5^ J 1 * J>\ If" (A A 1/1") 

'j atf j£ iui; £tr -,uij -j> u jir j >iu ; ^uii 
$ J4ij^- K$ 'Si* qX*>3 w J** ^ jpjk £u»*j 

((JL-« j is^sftJs aijj) aJL« yj\ ^djJt j* Js^^. *yr\ 

(886/3) Abdullah bin Abbas narrates that the Messenger of 
Allah III was superior to all the men in generosity and the doing 
of good to the people in general, but in the month of Ramadan 
his benevolence knew no bounds. In Ramadan, Jibril SS^BI came 
to him every night and the Prophet iH recited the Qur'an to him. 
During those days the Prophet appeared to be faster than the 
wind in generosity and benevolence." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: It shows that Ramadan was the spring season of the 
year for the Prophet $H and a special period of joy and of growth in 
the attributes of compassion and love for mankind. 



Book of Fasting 



415 



A Sermon of the Prophet H 
At The Arrival of Ramadan 

41p JUs ajUI J^-jj Li^ JlJ je-'jliJl iSUJ-' (AAV/1) 
*j&> pai. ^jJi jiiofcl ii IjjJU jlis ^ jA 

l£ Js> 6f>r\ Ji« AJ jlS j jUt "J^f-Sj J^j ^j*^ *J 6^" 

^ijjt Aj ^Jfli U ills' di*^) ^ tjs-" {J* 

LwUtf >l ^ Ol>Jl liii £Ul Jay lUl JU ail J>-J 

JjaP 0 jjt'l j o^iiw AkJji j ii?-^ ^f"*' 3*3 ^ 

(887/4) Salman Farsi ^ related to us "The Messenger of Allah 
l§l delivered a sermon on the last day of the month of Sha'ban^. 
He said: "O people! A blessed month is casting its shadow on 
you: a night of this blessed month (the Night of Power) is better 
than a thousand months; God has prescribed the fasts of this 
month and ordered as supererogatory worship the standing up in 
His presence (i.e., the offering up of Taraweeh Salah) during its 
nights (on which there is a great reward). Whoever will offer, in 
it, a non-ot ligatory (i.e., Sunnah or Nafl) prayer with the object 
of seeking the countenance of Allah, will get a reward identical 
in value of the reward of a Fard (i.e., obligatory) prayer on the 
other days of the year, and the reward on the observance of an 
obligatory duty, in it, is equal in value to the fulfilment of 
seventy obligatory duties in the other days of the year. It is the 
month of patient perseverance and the reward on patient 
persevance is Paradise, and it is the month of kindness and 

O.The eighth month of the Islamic year just preceding Ramadan which is the ninth 



416 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



compassion. It is the month in which the sustennance of the 
faithful bondsman is ncreased. Whoever will get invite a person 
who is fasting to break the fast with him will the same reward as 
the one who was fasting and there will be no reduction in his 
reward either." It was enquired from the Prophet IgU 'Everyone 
of us does not have the means to ask (people) to break the fast 
with him. (So, will he remain deprived of the great reward?') 
The Prophet HH replied, 'God will give the reward to him (also) 
who will have a person who is fasting break the fast with a little 
milk or even a draught of water.' (Continuing the Prophet 
observed): 'And whoever will feed a fasting person with a full 
meal (at the time of breaking the fast, God will satiate him in 
such a manner from my Pond (i.e., Kausar) that, after it, he will 
not feel thristy until he has reached Heaven. (After it, the 
Prophet said) : The first part of this blessed month is Mercy, 
the second part is Forgiveness, and the last part is Freedom from 
the Fire of Hell." (After it, the Prophet ill said) : 'Whoever will 
make a reduction in the work of his slave or servant, Allah will 
forgive him and grant him freedom from Hell.' (Baihaqi) 

Commentary: The purport of the above Tradition is clear. Yet we 
will offer a few comments on some of the points here. 

(i) The first and the greatest virtue of the month of Ramadan is 
that there occurs during it a night which is better than not a 
thousand nights but thousand months. It has, also, been mentioned 
in surah Al-Qadr of the Qur'an. In fact, the whole of the surah deals 
with the auspicousness of splendour of this night which should be 
enough to appreciate its worth and importance. 

Approximately, one thousand months contain thirty thousand 
nights. The superiority of the Night of Power to a thousand months 
should, therefore, be taken to mean that the devotees who are 
keenly desirous to earn the good Graces of the Lord and His 
propinquity can make as much progress in one night as is thousand 
of the nights. 

Just as in the material world we see that by a jet-propelled 
aeroplane one can, now-a-days, cover as much distance in a day, or 
even an hour ,as was done in a hundred years in the past, the rate of 
advance of the earnest seekers of the countenance of the Lord, too, 
is increased so greatly in the Night of Power that they can attain in 



Book of Fasting 



417 



it what is normlly possible in hundred of months. 

The Prophet's Hi remark that if a person will seek the 
propitiation of God, in the month of Ramadan, by performing a 
supererogatory act, it will be treated as equal in recompense to the 
fulfilment of an obligatory duty in the other days of the year and if 
he will fulfil an obligtory duty during it, it will be treated as equal 
in recompense to the fulfilment of seventy obligatory duties during 
the rest of the year should be seen in the same light. Thus, while 
the superiority of the Night of Power is peculiar to a particular 
night of Ramadan, the fetching of seventy times of reward by a 
virtuous act is the characteristic attribute of every day and night of 
the blessed month. 

(ii) Ramadan has been described in the sermon quoted above as 
the month of fortitude and compassion. In the Islamic usage 
'fortitude' signifies the supperssion of sensual desiers and urges and 
endurance of painful and unpleasant things for the sake of earning 
the good pleasure of God. This is what Fasting stands for, from the 
beginning to the end. In the same way, while fasting the bondsman 
has an experience of the rigours of starvation, and from it, he can 
learn to feel for and sympathise with those who are forced by their 
circumstances to go hungry. 

(iii) It also tells that, in this month, the provision of the truthful 
bondsmen is augmented, the experience of every fasting Believer is 
that he gets more and better to eat and drink during Ramadan than 
in the other eleven months of the year. In whatever way or through 
whatever course this increase may take place in this world of cause 
and effect, its by the Command of Allah in any case. 

(iv) At the end of the sermon it is said that the first part of the 
month of Ramadan is Mercy, the second is Frogiveness and the 
third is the period of Freedom from the Fire of Hell. 

The most stisfactory explanation of it, in our view, is that there 
can be three kinds of bondsmen who avail themselves of the boon 
and blessings of Ramadan. Firstly, the pious souls who habitually 
take care to commit a sin, and if they ever fall into error, they 
immediately make amends for it through sincere repentance. On 
these bondsmen the Mercy of the Lord begins to descend from the 
very first night of Ramadan. Secondly, those who are not so pure 



418 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



in heart but are not altogether bereft of the fear of God as well. 
When such bondsmen improve their state and make themselves 
deserving of Mercy and Forgiveness though fasting, repentance 
and other virtuous acts during the first part of Ramadan, the 
decision for their forgiveness is taken in the second part of the 
month. Thridly those who have been unjust and made themselves 
wholly worhty of Hell through their transgression and misconduct. 
When even they atone somewhat for their sinfulenss through 
fasting and repentance long with the common Mulims during the 
first and second parts of Ramadan, God decides upon their 
freedom from Hell' during the last one-third of the month when the 
Divine benevolence is at its peak. 

Worth and Recompense 

J^p ^L>j AiS\ J-fi AJUt J 1 * J 1 * *J.j* ts>} J* (AAA/ 0 ) 

ja JjiJLLp CS\ ^JiiJi ^ $ t& Jut Ltjij o>s & kji 

dijJ (^*}^' f Jd 6^ '*I3 f^s^'j S^**^' £0 

(pjLwi j t^jwJ 1 «' j j> ^i! J^* j' 6^ v 3 *-^ 

(888/5) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4fr that the Messenger of 
Allah said: "The reward on every virtuous deed is increased 
from ten to seven hundred times (i.e., the general principle of 
Divine recompense on all the good deeds of the Muslims is that 
on every good deed of theirs the reward will, at least, be ten 
times as compred to the earlier communities, and, sometimes, 
even more, so much so that some chosen bondsmen will recieve 
seven hundred times of reward of their virtuous acts), but the 
standing Command of Allah (about Fasting) is that the fast is an 
exception. It is a special gift of the bondsman for Me and I shall 
reward him directly for it(as I please). The bondsman forgoes 
food and drink solely for My sake. (I shall, therefore, 
recompense him for the sacrifice according to My pleasure). 

"There ae two moments of special joy for the man who fasts. 
One is when he breaks the fast, and this he experiences in his 



Book of Fasting 



419 



earthly existence, and the other will be in the Hereafter when he 
will be presented before the Lord; and 1 swear that the bad 
odour emanating from the mouth of a person who is fasting 
(which is, generally, due to an empty stomach) is more pleasant 
in the juegement of God than the sweet smell of musk; and fast 
is a shield (for protection, in this world, agaisnt the assaults of 
the Devil, and, in the Hereafter, against the Fire of Hell; and 
when anyone of you keeps a fast, he must not utter indecent 
word nor engage in a noisy scene, and were anyone to quarrel 
with him and call him names he should simply say 'I am keeping 
fast." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: The exhortation at the end of the Tradition about 
abstaining from falsehood and backbiting and wrangling and 
uttering a foul or profane word makes it clear that the exclusive 
blessings of Fasting are only for those who, in addition to shunning 
food and drink and staying away from sexual gratification, avoid 
all dirty and undeisrable things. In another Tradition, which will 
follow soon, it is stated that Allah has no need for him to do hunger 
and fhrist who fasts but does not refrain from evil-doing 

ji-Jb A) JUS* &j A^Jl j> l\ Jl5 skJ J> J4~> -jf- (AA a ,/n) 

(889/6) It is related on the authority of Sahl bin Sa'd that the 
Prophet iHl said: "There is a special Gate of Pradise which is 
known as Rayyan (and) only those who observe Fasting will be 
allowed to enter through it on the Day of Resurrection. On that 
Day it will be called aloud, 'Where are the bondsmen who used 
to fast for the sake of Allah and endure the pangs of hunger ad 
thrist?' Such of the bondsmen will respond to the call and save 
them no one will be permitted to enter by this Gate. When they 
have entered Paradise through this Gate, it will be shut, (and), 
no one else will be able to enter by it." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: Thirst is the most severe hardship one has to bear 
during a fast and the greatest sacrifice a man who is Fasting makes 
is that he remains thristy. Complete satisfaction of thrist should, as 



420 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



such, form the most prominent part of the reward on Fasting. 
Hence, the distinguishing quality of the gate that has been set apart 
for the entry of those who fast is satiety. Rayyan, literally, mens 
satiation. 



"Please command me to perform an act from which God may 
give me profit." 'Keep fast,' replied the Prophet. 'There is 



Commentary: Though it is common to all virtuous deeds like 
Regular Worship, Fasting, Charity, Hajj and service to mankind 
that these are the means to the propitiation of Allah, they also 
possess some individual porperties which distinguish them from 
each other. On that basis it can be said about each of them that it is 
incomparable; no deed two deeds are alike. For instance where the 
disciplining of the self is conderned it can be said that nothing can 
equal Fasting. Thus, the Prophet's lH> remark about Fasting that no 
is like it, perhaps, shows that in Abu Umamah's own circumstances 
Fasting was most beneficial. 

Fasting and Taraweeh 



(891/8) It is related on the authority of Abu Hurayrah that 
the Messenger of Allah $H said: "Ail the previous sins of the 
bondsmen will be forgiven who will keep the fasts of Ramadan 
with Iman and Ihtisab (i.e., with faith in Allah and confident 
expectation of Divine recompense) and, in the same way, all the 
previous sins of the bondsman will be forgiven who will offer 
Nawafil 1 (i.e. Taraweeh and Tahajjud) in the nights of 




nothing like it. 



11 



(Nasai) 




0. Plural of Nafl. 



Book of Fasting 



421 



Ramadan with Iman and Ihtisab; and in the same way, all the 
previous sins of the bondsman will be forgiven who will offer in 



Commentary: The fasts of Ramadan and the Nawafil of its nights, 
particualrly Laylatul-Qadr, are an unfailing source of the remission 
of pervious sins provided that the fasts and Nawafil are observed 
with "Iman" and "Ihtisab" which are typically religious terms and 
signify that whenever a good act is performed it should be 
motivated by no other thought or sentiment than faith in Allah and 
the Prophet and in their assurance and warnings and in the hope of 
the Divine reward promised on it. It is through Iman and Ihtisab 
that the link is forged between our deeds and the Almighty. The 
two attributes are the life and soul of our entire conduct, of all our 
doings. Without them, even what appear to be our greatest acts are 
hollow from within, and, God forbid, will avail us nothing on the 
Day of Requital. With Iman and Ihtisab, on the contrary, a single 
deed can be so precious in the sight of Allah that sins of many a 
long year are forgiven by it. 

Intercession by Fast and The Qur'an 



(892/9) It is related on the authority of Abdullah bin 'Amr 4§e> 
that he Prophet H said: 'The fast and the Qur'an will, both, 
plead on behalf of the bondsman (who will keep fast in the day 
nd recite or listen attentively to the recital of the Qur'an in the 
night, standing in the presence of Allah). The fast will say: 'My 
Lord! I had held him back from food, drink and sexual 
satisfaction. Accept my intercesion for him today (and treat him 
with mercy and forgiveness)." And the Qur'an will say: "I had 
held him back from taking rest and sleeping in the night. O 
God! Accept my intercession for him today (and treat him with 
mercy and forgiveness). The intrcession of both the fast and the 
Qur'an will be accetped for the bondsman and he will be tre ted 



Laylatul Qadr with Iman and Ihtisab. 



M 



(Bukhari and Muslim) 




422 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



with exceptional kindness." (Baihaqi) 

Commentary: How very fortunate are the slaves of Allah for 
whom there will be such intercession! May Allah include us among 
them! 

Irreparable Loss 

'jA j^Lj till Jjp 4JI 'Sj^j JlS Jll t'Jijk ^ (A^rfs .) 

(893/10) It is related by Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of 
Allah ft said: 'Whoever omits even a single fast of Ramadan 
without the legal concession of a journey, or (a valid excuse like 
that of( illness, amends cannot be made for the thing that is 
omitted even though he observes fasting throughout the life." 

(Musnad Ahmad, Tirmizi, Abu Dawood, Ibn Majah and Daarami) 

Commentary: It shows that the loss a person suffers in terms of 
the blessings of Ramadan and the sepcial favours of Allah by 
leaving out a fast of that month, deliberately and without a cogent 
reason, cannot be made good even if he keeps supererogatory fasts 
for the rest of his life. Though the ransom of the omission of a fast 
is only a fast on some other day, the blessings and the reward one 
is deprived of by leaving out the fast can never be regained through 
it. 

Abstention From Sin 

(tSjUJleljj) 

(894/11) It is related by Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet ft 
said: Allah has no need for him to go without food and drink 
who cannot shun evil and falsehood even during the fast." 

(Bukhari) 

Commentary: It tells that fasts can find acceptance with Allah 
only when one protects one's mouth and tongue and other organs 



Book of Fasting 



423 



against what is forbidden in addition to abstention from food and 
drink. God does not, at all, care for the fast of a person who 
indulges in sinful things while fasting. 

The Last 'Ashra and Lailatul Qadr 

The month of Ramadan enjoys an intrinsic superiority over all 
the other months of the year. Likewise, its last 'Ashra or ten days 
are superior to the two earleir 'Ashras, and Laylalul Qadr or the 
Night of Power, genrally falls in it. That is why, the sacred 
Prophet lH devoted himself more intensively to prayer and other 
forms of worship during it and urged others, also, to do the same. 

^ CS s £ i-> s s s s 

y * 3, f, * " "3 3 9 

((JUaSljj) 6j£ J>X^_^& J) 

(895/12) Sayyidah Ayshah ifipiii^ related to us that the 
Messenger of Allah iH strove harder and took greater pains to 
observe prayer (Salah) etc., during the last ten days of Ramadan 
than during the other days." (Muslim) 

» j & jWJi oi j j) £Ui Ja&ij (Js^' j *33*f ^ j-^' 

(896/13) It is related by Sayyidah Ayshah if* that when 

the last ten days of Ramadan began the Prophet would gird 
up the loins and keep awake in the nights (i.e., he used to spend 
the whole of the nights in prayer and worship), and, also, 
wakened the members of his family (so that they, too, could 
partake of the blessings of the nights of that month)". 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

✓ ^-J 3 3 3 3 s 3 s s s 

(897/14) It is related by Sayyidah Ayshah if* ii that the 
Messenger of Allah JH said: "Seek the Night of Power in the 
odd nights of the last ten days of Ramadan." (Bukhari) 

Commentary: Generally, Laylalul Qadr falls on one of the odd 
nights of the last ten days of Ramadan, i.e., the 21st, 23rd, 25th, 



424 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



27th and 29th. Had it been indicated precisely about the Night of 
Power that it was that particular night, people, on the whole, would 
have specially devoted themselves to prayer and worhsip on it 
alone. God kept it vague and unidentified by telling, at one place, 
in he Qur'an that it was revealed in the Night of Power, and, at 
another, that it was revealed during the month of Ramadan which 
indirectly suggested that the Night of Power fell during Ramadan. 
The Prophet made it more explicit when he said that there was a 
greater possibility of the Night of Power occuring during the odd 
nights of the last ten days of Ramadan. One should, therefore, take 
special care to keep vigil during them. 

Besides Sayyidah Ayshah if^iii^j, Traditions of a like 



meaning have been related by other Companions <#> as well while 
some Companions believe that the 27th night of Ramadan is the 
Night of Power as the Tradition reproduced below shows. 



(898/15) Zirr bin Hubaysh related that he enquired from Ubayy 
bin Ka'b 4^ if his brother-in-faith, Abdullah bin Mas'ud 
said that whoever will keep vigil during all the nights of the year 
(i.e., perform acts of prayer and worship every night) will gain 
Laylatul Qadr in any case (i.e., Laylatul Qadr, after all, is one 
of the nights of the year; so, whoever may be solicitous of its 
blessings should fill every night of the year with prayer and he 
will, naturally, attain his object one night or the other) Ubayy 
bin Ka'b observed: "May God bless brother Abdullah bin 
Mas'ud His aim in saying so was that people should not rest 
content (with the prayers of a single night) otherwise he knew 
for certain that Laylatul Qadr occurred exclusively in the month 
of Ramadan, and, that, too, during the last ten days of it (from 




Book of Fasting 



425 



the 21st to the 29th of the month), and, definetely, on the 2/7th 
night." He, then, said firmly (and) on oath "without doubt, it is 
the 27th night (and in order to show his certitude) he did not 
even say Insha Allah (with the oath)." Zirr bin Hubaysh related 
that he said to him: "O Abul Munzir (Kuniyah of Ubbay) on 
what ground do you say so?" he replied: I say it on the strength 
of the portent the Prophet had revealed to us and it was that 
when the sun rose on the morning of Laylaul Qadr, it was 
without rays." (Muslim) 

Commentary: From Sayvidina Ubayy bin Ka'b's reply it is evident 
that the knowledge of what he had said with such assurance about 
Laylatul Qadr that it was positively the 27th night of the month of 
Ramadan had not been imparted to him by the Prophet But 
since his general observation was that the special sign of Prophet 
Hi had mentioned become visible on the monring of the 27th night 
he had concluded that it could be no other night. 

The Prophet iH, sometimes, said that one should seek Laylatul 
Qadr in the last days of Ramadan, and, sometimes, that it should 
be searched for during the odd nights of the last ten days, and, 
sometiomes, that it fell on one of the three or four of the five odd 
nights of that period. He never fixed a* particular night. But the 
experience of many men of spiritual vision and comprehension is 
that, mostly, it is the 27th night of Ramadan. The greatest wisdom 
of keeping it vague is that the eager bondsmen spent all the nights 
of the last ten days of Ramadan in prayer and supplication. The 
gaining of Laylatul Qadr, in that case, was certain. 

(&nH\v&jjt t }\»\») 

(899/16) It is related by Anas that Messenger of Allah 0 
said: "When Laylatul Qadr comes, Jibril SSB descends in the 
company of angels and prays for mercy for the bondsman who 
is engaged in the worship and remembrance of God standing or 
sitting." (Baihaqi) 



426 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



Special Supplication 

j&j jadi L^^J^ ^ ^ jis i^t jyi u jiiii in 

(900/17) Sayyidah Ayshah l^iii^j related "I asked the 
Messenger of Allah ^ if I came to know which was Laylatul 
Qadr, what should I make in it. The Prophet replied: 'Say: 

-c5 iP u^ls jK^T jap t_Sot 

Allahumma innaka 'afuwan karimun tuhibbul 'afwa fa-'af'anni. 
(O God! You are, indeed, the Most Forgiving, the Most 
Merciful , and to forgive is most pleasing ; so, forgive me my 
sins)." (Musnad Ahamd, Tirmizi and Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: Persuaded by this Tradition, a number of bondsmen 
have made it a regualr habit to make this supplication every night, 
specailly in the nights of Ramadan and more so still during the odd 
nights of the last ten days of it. 

Last Night 

j^ii & j vjis jAiii a# ,>i u Jj? -,u^ ^ ' ^ J, 

(X«j>-i aJUp ^j-iai bl o^?-i Uit 

(901/18) It is related by Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet H 
said: In the last night of Ramadan the decision of forgiveness is 
taken for my followers." He was asked: O Messenger of Allah 
Hi Is it on Laylatul Qadr?" "No", replied Prophet m, "it is not 
Laylatul Qadr but when the workman completes his job, he is 
paid full wages." (Musnad Ahmad) 

Commentary: It shows that the last night of the month of 
Ramadan, too, is a night of the special decision of forgiveness. But, 
in it, such a decision will be taken only for the bondsmen who 
make themselves deserving by fulfilling, to some extent, the 
practical obligations of Ramadan. 



I'TIKAF 



One of the many observances that are related, exlusively, to 
Ramadan, particularly its last ten days, is I'tikaf The basic aim and 
object of I'tikaf is that the bondsman continued at the door of the 
Almighty, i.e., in the corner of a mosque, cutting himself aloof 
from the world and devoting his time and attention wholly to 
prayer and worship. It is the worhsip of a favourite bondsmen of 
Allah. Evidently, no time could be more appropriate for it than the 
month of Ramadan, specially, its last ten days. 

The powerful urge that had siezed the Prophet iH before the 
revelation of the Qur'an to seek solitude and spend his time mostly 
in prayer and meditation, and, in consequence of which, he used to 
pass several months on end in the Cave of Hira — this, so to speak, 
was the first I'tikaf of the Prophet HH, and it was in it that his 
spirituality had evolved to the stage that marked the beginning of 
the revelation of the Qur'an. During the last days of this I'tikaf 
Jibril came to him with the opeinig verses of the surah 
Al-Alaq Beyond doubt and for certain, it was the month of 
Ramadan, its last ten days, and the night was the Night of Power. 
The last ten days of Ramadan have, thus, been set apart for I'tikaf 

The fasts of Ramadan have been prescribed to all Muslims for 
the development of the soul and for enabling it to subdue the carnal 
appetites. In other words, this much of exertion and sacrifice of 
sensual desires has been made obligatory for every Muslim that he 
neither ate nor drank anything nor sought sexual satisfaction during 
the whole of the blessed month, in compliance with the Command 
of Allah and with intention of paying divine honours to Him, and 
along with it, avoided all sinful acts and worthless things. It is the 
general, compulsory course of spiritual training and self- 
purification for the month of Ramadan. For higher upliftment and 



428 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



forging a closer affinity with the Celestial World we have I'tikaf. 

In I'tikaf the bondsman cuts himself away from everything and 
throws himself at the threshold, or, rather the feet of his Lord and 
Creator. He remembers Him, exalts His Name, offers earnest 
repentance to Him, cries over his sins and follies, entreats Him for 
mercy and forgiveness and seeks His countenance and propinquity. 
His days and nights are spend in that way. The Holy Prophet lH 
used to take special care to observe I'tikaf during the last ten days 
of Ramadan. Once when he could not carry it out due to some 
reason, he observed it for twenty days in the next Ramadan. 

Usual Practice of The Prophet 

J>£n jlf (JLj IU1 Jws l\ cits UblP o • w ^) 

(902/19) It is related on the authority of Sayyidah Ayshah & 
^ that "the Prophet W$ observed I'tikaf regularly in the last ten 
days of Ramadan, till the end of his life. After his death, his 
wives contineud with it." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: The Prophet's H 1 wives observed I'tikaf in their 
apartments, and for women, in general, the place where they 
observe Salah at home is the right place for I'tikaf If there be no 
such place in the house, arrangement should be made for it. 

jiJl (jLj ds.&\J~e^\ Ifi JlS ^ (<\ • r/Y • ) 

jJ^Lp a£*\ jjuil ^UJ\ 5lT lib Cte u£m 6U^3 & 

(903/20) Anas narrated that "The Prophet iH observed 
I'tikaf during the last ten days of Ramadan. One year he could 
not do the I'tikaf and, so, next year, he did it for twenty days." 

(Tirmizi) 

Commentary: It is not stated in the above narrative of Sayyidina 
Anas why the Prophet 0 could not observe I'tikaf "in that year. 
But in another Tradition, quoted in Nasai and Abu Dawood, on the 
authority of Sayyidina Ubayy bin Ka'b it is said that once the 
Prophet HI had to go on a journey during the last ten days of 



Book of Fasting 



429 



Ramadan, and, therefore, he could not carry out the I'tikaf that year 
but, in the next year, he did it for twenty days. 

It is, further, mentioned in Sahih Bukhari, on the authority of 
Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet HI had, also, 
observed I'tikaf for twenty days in the Ramadan of the year in 
which he died. Perhaps the Prophet iH> had recieved some 
indication that the hour of his departure from the world was near 
so, he, naturally, felt more powerfully drawn towards observances 
like I'tikaf. 

t <j u£ ji *i £t ^aLiJl J* XiiS\ cJli iiitP jt- • t/Y \ ) 

(904/21) Sayyidah Ayshah &\ related that the rules of 
Shari'ah for the Mu'takif (i.e., one who is in I'tikaf) are that he 
should neither go out to visit the sick nor attend a funeral nor 
have a sexual intercourse nor engage in (love-play like) kissing 
and embracing nor step out of the mosque for personal needs 
save that are unavoidable (such as, answering the call of nature), 
and I'tikaf (should be observed only with fasting) there can be 
no I'tikaf without fasting — and it must be carried out in J ami' 
Masjid and at no other place." (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: As we have explained earleir, when a Companion 
says about a thing that it is the Sunnah it denotes that it is what is 
prescribed in the Shari'ah and the inference is that he had learnt it 
from the sayings or doings of the Prophet The rules of I'tikaf 
delineated in the above Tradition, thus, fall within the category of 
the Prophet's commands and directives. 

The term of J ami Masjid, occuring in it means the "mosque of 
congregation", i.e., the mosque in which the five daily prayers are 
observed in congregation. 

jis fa 4* &\ jb> an i£> $ s& #\ 0 • 



430 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



(905/22) It is related by Abdullah bin Abbas 4fe> that the 
Messenger of Allah lH said about the person who is in I'tikaf 
that "(owing to I'tikaf and by reason of keeping within the limits 
of the mosque) he is protected from sin and the account of his 
virtuous deeds goes on like that of any other virtuous bondsman 
and (they) are put down in his Balance-sheet of Deeds." 

(Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: When the bondsman confines himself in the 
mosque for I'tikaf he makes a great addition to his virtuous deeds 
through prayer, Zikr and Tilawat (recital of Qur'an) but, at the same 
time, he is prevented from performing certain acts of high moral 
and religious worth, as for instance, he cannot visit the sick or care 
for them which is a most meritorious act in the sight of God or 
work for the welfare of the weak, the indigent and the orphan and 
the widow or bathe the dead body which, if done with sincerity and 
the desire to earn the Divine recompense, is a deed of much moral 
goodness. In the same way, he cannot go out to participate in the 
funeral service nor accompany the bier to the graveyard in doing 
which sins are forgiven at each step and good deeds are written in 
the Scroll of Deeds. 

The above Tradition, however, gives the glad tidings to the 
devotee observing I'tikaf that, by the Command of God, all the 
good acts he used to perform normally but is kept away from 
performing owing to I'tikaf are written down in his Register of 
Deeds. 



SIGHTING OF THE MOON 



In fixing the time, day or period of a particualr rite, religous 
cerermony or worship the Shari'ah has seen to it that no instrument 
or acquired ability is needed to know or determine it. Even a 
layman and an illiterate rustic can make it out by simple 
observation. The hours of prayers (Salah) and Fasting have, thus, 
been set in accordance with the movement of the sun. For example, 
the time of Fajr has been prescribed as from dawn till the rising of 
the sun, of Zuhr from the declining of the sun after mid-day till the 
shadow of an object extends, by one or two lengths of it, of 'Asr 
from after it till sunset, of Maghrib from after sunset till the 
twilight remains and "Isha after the disappearance of the twilight. 
Similarly, the time of Fasting has been laid down as from sunrise to 
sunset. Obviously, no special skill is required for knowing these 
hours. Anyone can do so. Again, just as in view of the convenience 
of the people, the rising or setting of the sun and its ascent or 
decline have been made the signs or standards of the hours of 
prayers and Fasting, the moon has been made the standard where 
duties like Zakah, Fasting and Hajj that are related to month or 
year are concerned. Reliance has been placed upon the lunar year 
and months instead of the solar year and months because the 
laymen can distinguish only the lunar months by observation while 
no visible signs appear on the sky or the earth at the beginning of a 
solar month on seeing which one can know that the old month has 
ended and the new one has begun. Since he commencement of the 
lunar months is marked by the appearance of the moon even an 
illiterate person can conclude by seeing the new moon that the 
succeeding month has begun. 

Anyhow, the convenience of the common man has been a 
major consideration behind the arrangement of months and years, 



432 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



by Shari'ah, on the basis of the lunar system. When the Holy 
Prophet 111 proclaimed the obligatoriness of the Ramadan fasts, he 
also explained the order and regulation of its commencement and 
end. He told the Muslims to begin the fasts if the moon was sighted 
after the completion of 29 days of the month of Sh'aban^, and if it 
was not sighted on 29th, after the completion of 30 days. They 
were, in the same way, to keep 29 or 30 fasts of Ramadan. He gave 
further instructions regarding the sighting of the moon on different 
occasions. 

When to Begin and End the Fasts of Ramadan 

$ 'Yj 3 ^ym 1 J* [ yY* <y& 

((^JU* j^jWJlflljj) *J JJ^* 1 * 

(906/23) Abdullah bin Umar related that once the Prophet 
^ spoke about Ramadan until you have sighted the (new) 
moon, and do not end the month of Fasting until you having 
sighted (The moon of) the month of Shawwal? and if the moon 
is not visisble (on the 29th of Ramadan), reckon up and 
calculate (i.e., persume the month to be 30 days)." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

jg$ -jCii sip ijjLru $ igY± \ yj& 3 ^j^j 

(907/24) It is related by Abu Hurayrah <3^> that the Messenger of 
Allah mt said: "Begin your Fasting on seeing the(new) moon, 
and end your Fasting on seeing the (new) moon. If the moon 
cannot be sighted (on the 29th), complete the 30 days of 
Shaban. " (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: What it signifies is that the commencement or 

conclusion of the month of Ramadan depneds upon the visibility of 

the moon. It cannot be determined simply by calculation or 

speculation. Moreover, one form of the visibility of the moon is 

O. The eight month according to the Islamic Calendar 
©. The tenth month of the Muslim Calendar. 



Book of Fasting 



433 



that we see it with our own eyes and another that someone else 
sees it, and, then, informs us and we consider him to be a reliable 
person. Sometimes it happened during the lifetime of the Prophet 
Hi, too, that he accepted the visibility of the moon at the report or 
evidence of someone who had seen it and gave the order for 
keeping the fast or observing the 'Eid, as the case was, as we shall 
see later. 

\'£a* pL>' } <u!p aiS* JU Jjl Jp3 Jl5 JlS I'Jijk ^ (1 . A/Y o) 

(^JLoyJl sijj) hi^A li^> 

(908/25) It is related by Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of 
Allah Hi said: "Count the moon of Sha'ban carefully for the 
purpose of Ramadan." (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: It shows that, on account of Ramadan, special 
pains should, also, be taken to see the moon of Sha'ban and its 
dates remembered with care. When 29 days of Sha'ban are 
completed, effort should be made to sight the moon of Ramadan, 

pL 3 ds. ii\ jLf ait J_^.j olT cJl5 iiilP jp (<\ . 1/X 1) 

(j jb y oi jj) f U» jtj ^ji 

(909/26) It is related by Sayyidah Ayshah i^ii^j that 
Messenger of Allah ill did not remember the days and dates of 
any other month with such care as the days and dates of 
Sah'ban. He, then, kept the fasts after seeing the moon of 
Ramadan and if the moon was not visible (on the 29th of 
Sha'ban), he kept the fasts after completing the count of 30 
days." (Abu Dawood) 

Proof of The Visibility of Moon 
Through Report and Ev idence 



434 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



jIjJi j <brU jj'j ^'l— J* j t5J^» jJ'j i j'fjji '-i* 
(910/27) Abdullah bin Abbas narrated that (once) a villager 
came to the Prophet JH and said: "I have seen the moon (of 
Ramadan) today." The Prophet enquired from him: "Do you 
testify that there is no god save Allah?" 'Yes,' he replied. "I 
testify that there is no god save Allah. The Prophet &H, then, 
asked: 'And do you testify that Muhammad is Messenger of 
Allah ?" "Yes," he replied. "I testify that Muhammad is the 
Messenger of Allah." The Prophet thereupon, ordered Bilal 
to proclaim to the people to begin Fasting from the next day." 

(Abu Dawood, Tirmizi, Nasai, Ibn NJajah and Daarami) 

Commentary: It shows that for accepting the report or evidance of 
the visibility of the moon it is essential that the one who reports or 
gives the evidence is a Muslim for he, alone, can appreciate its 
importance. 

Jtfl J 6^1* J^'l J-LJl T ) JlS jjl 4JU^ ( <\ \ \ / U) 

(91 1/28) It is redlated by Abdullah bin Umar 4&> that once 
during the days of the Prophet ill people tried to see the moon 
of Ramdan (but, generally, it could not be sighted). 1 then, 
informed the Prophet HH that I had seen the moon upon which 
he kept the fast himself and ordered the people to do the same." 

(Abu Dawood and Daarami) 

Commentary: Both of these narratives tell that the evidence of 
one Muslim is enough to establish the visibility of the moon. 
According to the commonly known principle enunciated by Imam 
Abu Hanifa, the evidence of one person is sufficient when the sky 
is overcast or he has come from outside the town or village or from 
a place with higher altiude. But if the sky is clear and the person 
who claims to have sighted the moon has not come from outside or 
from a place with a higher altitude and yet asserts that he had seen 
the moon in that very town or in village where no one else could 
see it in spite of making the best efforts, the decision of the 
visibility of the moon will not be taken on his solitary evidence. In 
that case, the number of persons claiming to have seen the moon 



Book of Fasting 



435 



should be such that their evidence can evoke confidence. This, as 
we have said, is the well-known view of Imam Abu Hanifah. But 
another theory is, also, attributed to him which says that for the 
moon of Ramadan the evidence of one virtuous and trustworthy 
Muslim is sufficient and many other legist-doctors, too, are in 
agreement with it. 

It should be remembered that what we have said here 
appertains to the moon of Rmadan, As far as the 'Eid moon is 
concerned there is a general consensus among the legist-doctors 
over the point that the evidence of at least two religous-minded and 
reliable Muslims is necessary. It is stated in Dar Qutni and 
Tabarani, on the authority of Akramah Taba'ee, that once a person 
deposed before the Governor of Madinah that he had seen the 
moon of Ramadan. At that time, both Sayyidina Abdullah bin 
Umar and Abdullah bin Abbas d$g> were present in Madinah. The 
Governor consulted them and they said that the evidence of one 
person should be accpeted and the announcement made that the 
month of Ramadan had begun. They added that the Prophet ill had 
said that the evidence of one person was enough for the moon of 
Ramadan but for the moon of 'Id he did not regard the evidence of 
less than two persons to be adequate. 

Prohibition of Fasting on One or Two Days 
Before the Commencement of Ramadan 

Fasting has been enjoined for the whole of the month of 
Ramadan. The Muslims are, also, required to take particualr care to 
see the moon of Ramadan and even that of Sha'ban so that no fast 
of Ramadan is missed unknowingly or owing to negligence. But 
with all this, for the continuance and preservation of the laws of the 
Shari'ah and keeping them safe, intact and unimpaired it has been 
forbidden to fast on one or two days immediately preceding the 
month of Ramadan because if people with an excessive enthusiam 
for worship took it up as a laudatory practice, uneducated masses 
were in the danger of being misled into believing that it was also 
an order or injunction of the Shari'ah. 



436 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



(912/29) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4& that the Messenger of 
Allah iH said: "None of you should keep fast a day or two 
before the commencement of Ramadan except that the day on 
which he habitually fasts happens to fall then. (For instance, a 
person usually fasts on every Monday or Thursday; so, if a 
Monday or Thursday occurs on the 29th or 30 of Sha'ban, he is 
permitted to kep a fast on that day)." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Ail j£iJ (iili y> Jii J> j&fi 'J- (i \ r/r . > 

^JLlJ <UJl ^yU? ^UJl til ^^iflP 

(^jUjlj a^-U jjI j ^'UJlj <ij JL» jJlj <a jb jjI eij j) 

(913/30) Ammar bin Yasir <?sb related to us "Whoever kept fast 
on the day of doubt, he failed to obey Abul Qasim, the 
Messenger of Allah HI ." 

(Abu Dawood, Tirmizi, Nasai, Ibn Majah and Daarami) 

Commentary: The 'day of doubt,' here, denotes the day about 
which it can be thought that it may be a day of Ramadan. For 
instance, when the sky is overcast on the 29th of Sha'ban and the 
new moon is hot visible, there is the possibility that the moon may 
have appeared but it could not be sighted owing to the dust or the 
cloud, and, thus, the next day could be a day of Ramadan. But 
reliance is not placed upon doubt or conjecture in the Shari'ah and 
the Prophet H, as such, has forbidden against fasting on that day. 
As the foregoing Traditions have made it clear, in such a case 
people should complete the thirty days of Sha'ban. 



SAHR AND JFTARI 



y s <* s \ & * J s s / ^ 

(914/31) It is related by Anas 4» that the Prophet H said: "Eat 
Sa/w 1 for there is propitiousness in it." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: A common aspect of Sahr is that it sustains the 
person who fasts and helps in mitigating the rigours of Fasting 
while the other, the inner and exceptional, aspect is what has been 
indicated in the Tradition quoted in Musnad Ahmad, on the 
authority of Abu Sa'eed Khudri 4fe it says: 

"There is auspicousness in ^ „ „,„, 

Sahr. Do not forgo it. 'If 6' jJj ^* *SjOj^J' 
nothing else, a draught of water ? ^ U> ITJUu >^ 
should be taken at that time for ' * ' t ^ j, " 

God bestows mercy upon those Oj^i ^ 

who eat Sahr and angels pray 



for their well-being." 



(915/32) It is related by Amr bin a!-'Aas 4i§& that the Messenger 
of Allah said: "What distinguishes our fasting from the 
fasting of the other people of the Scriputre is the eating of 
Sahr." (Muslim) 

Commentary: We must keep this distinction in practice too by 
eating Sahri. We must thank Allah for His blessings too in 

allowing us the pre-dawn meak 

O. Meaning the light of meal the Muslims make a little before dawn when 
fasting. 



438 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



Haste in Iftari, Delay in Sehr 

jn ^L>j <s* iui Jjfi aJi Sj^j J 15 J 1 * 5 at* ^ ^ o \ n/rr) 

(916/33) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4i^b that the Messenger of 
Allah Hi said: "God says: "More beloved among My bondsmen 
is the bondsman who makes haste in breaking the fast (i.e., does 
not delay it after the setting of the sun)." (Tirmizi) 

(jJLj j cSjbtJl si j j) ' L» jIsxj ^LJl J(jj 

(917/34) It is related on the authority of Sahl bin Sa'd 4& that 
the Prophet iii said: "So long as people are prompt in Iftar} 
they will remain on the side of virtue." (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: Another Tradition bearing the same import is 
quoted in Musnad Ahamd, on the authority of Abu Zarr Ghifari 
but in it delay in Sahr is. also, mentioned along with promptitude 
in Iftar. It says that the Muslim will remain on the side of virtue as 
long as they adhere to the routine of hastening and not delaying 
Iftar and delay in Sahr is the requirement of Shari'ah and the Will 
of God. and, it. also, suits the convenience of the common people 
which is pleasing to Allah. Hence, as long as the Ummah acts on it, 
it will be on the path of goodness. On the contrary, as there is 
hardship for everyone in delaying Iftar and hastening the Sahr and 
it, also, is a kind of Innovation, it is a source of the displeasure of 
God. when the Muslims will adopt this practice they will forfeit the 
good pleasure of Allah and sink to a lower condition. Haste in Iftar 
means that breaking a fast should not be deferred when it becomes 
clear that the sun has set, and, in the same way, delay in Sahr 
denotes that it should not be taken much before dawn but when the 
break of day is near. This, also, was the regular practice of the 
sacred Prophet iH. 

(jLp 41)1 J^Jjj ^U^lj jlac^U jjJjj jP^I jfr(<\ \AlTo) 

O. Meaning breaking a fast. Iftar denotes things taken for breaking a fast on due 
time. 



Book of Fasting 



439 



(918/35) Sayyidina Anas 4fe related to us, saying that Zayd bin 
Thabit 4fe told him, "We took Sahri with the Prophet HH and, 
then, he (quickly) stood up for the Fajr prayer." Anas asked 
Zayd 4|s>, "How much time would have passed between the 
eating of Sahr and the Azan of Fajr. Zayd 4fe replied, "It was 
equal to what was needed for the recitation of 50 verses of the 
Qur'an." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: If the recitation is properly done, it takes less than 
five minutes to complete fifty verses of the Qur'an. It can. thus, be 
said that there was merely a gap of five minutes between the Sahr 
of the Prophet l|l and the Azan of Fajr. 

Prohibition of Saum-Wisal 

If fasting is done continously without eating or drinking 
anyting during the day as well as the night it is called Saum Wisal. 
The Holy Prophet £§s has forbidden it to the Ummah because fasts 
of this kind are very hard to keep and it is quite possible that a 
person became so weak that he could not perform his other duties. 
The Prophet ^ has. therefore, stopped his followers from 
observing such fasts. With himself, however, the case was that 
these fasts made no real difference to his health and strength as he 
used to recieve a sort of non-material food and spitirual sustenance 
from God. Consequently, the Prophet all kept Saum Wisal himelf. 

'Jr> ffij ^ J j-'j 1 * j-*?^ J^J & fj*^ 1 J>, J 1 -*" J* 

(919/36) Abu Hurayrah narrated that when the Prophet lH 
forbade people against keeping Saum Wisal, a Companion 
exclaimed' "But Messenger of Allah ^! You keep Saum Wisal 
yourself." The Prophet replied, "Which of you is like me? " 
My night passes in such a way that my Lord nourishes me (i.e.. 1 
get my nourishment from the Unseen World, and, hence, do not 
draw conclusions about yourself from my example in this 



440 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



matter)" (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: Similar Traditions, with a slight variation of words, 
have also been narrated on the authority of Abdullah bin Umar, 
Anas and Sayyadah Ayshah from all these, it appears that the 
aim of the prohibition of Saum Wisal was to save the bondsmen 
from hardship and from injuring their health. In Sayyidah Aysah's 
narrative it is distinctly stated that: 

"The Prophet ill has forbidden ^ « <jjl V J ' ' : 

Saum Wisal out of compassion. " - ts * J 

(Bukhari and Muslim) ^ JUffjJl jP^j 

Sayyidina Abu Sa'eed Khudri's 4sk> narrative, we are now going 
to reproduce, tells that the Prophet §Hk had, also, permitted some 
enthusiasts of Saum Wisal to observe continuous fasting till 
day-break. 

4j£ <UJi J~fi *Ut Jj-oj £*~> ij\ t^jjbxJi 1m ^ji (<\y ./rv> 

(920/37) Abu Sa'eed Khudri 4fe related that he heard from the 
Messenger of Allah life say, he was saying: "Do not keep Saum 
Wisal, and whoever still wants to keep it (out of ardent feeling) 
should do so only til! day-break (i.e., for about 24 hours, from 
dawn to dawn)." Some Comapnions, thereupon, said: 
Messenger of Allah III! you keep Saum Wisal yourself." My 
condition is not like yours in this matter", replied the Prophet 
iH*. "I pass my night in such a condition that a Provider of food 
feeds me and a Provider of drink causes me to drink." (Bukhari) 

Commentary: No elucidation of the form of feeding of the 
Prophet iife by God and supplying him with drink, as indicated in 
the aforementioned narratives, is available in the Traditions. Some 
Commentators have suggested that the spiritual strength derived by 
the Prophet £H from the special propinquity of God in Saum Wisal, 
particularly druing .the hours of the night, sufficed for food and 
drink. It can, also, be interpreted as special sustenance. A few 



Book of Fasting 



441 



others say that in the nights of Sawn Wisal the food and drinks of 
Heaven or the Unseen World were supplied to the Prophet iH on 
behalf of God. But this eating and drinking was not of this world. 



(921/38) It is related by Salman bin Jabir 4fe that the Messenger 
of Allah iH said: "When anyone of you is fasting, he should 
break fast with dates, and if the dates are not available, with 
mere water for God has made the water purifying." 

(Musnad Ahma.d Abu Dawood, Tirmizi, Ibn Majah and Daarami) 

Commentary: Dates were the favourite food for the Arabs, more 
so of the Madinans. They were cheap as well as easily available, 
and so, even the poor could eat them. The Prophet £§1, therefore, 
exhorted the people to break the fast with dates and if one could 
not get them at the time of Iftar then with plain water. He 
explained, further, that the propitious characteristic of water was 
that God had declared it to be pure and in breaking the fast with it. 
there was both external and internal purification. 



(922/39) Sayyidina Anas 4& related to us that the Prophet H 
used to break the fast with a few fresh dates before the Maghrib 
prayer, and if fresh dates were not available at that time, with 
dry dates, and if dry dates, too, were not available, he drank a 



What is Better For Iftar? 






few draughts of water. 



( Tirmizi and Abu Dawood) 




442 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



(923/40) Mu'az bin Zuhrah Up i&\ a Taba'ee, said: "It has 
come to my knowledge that when the Prophet HI broke the fast 
he used to say: 

O^Jail i-^jj Ji*3 C~w> <— $3 

AUahumma laka sumtu wa'ala rizqika aftartu. 

O God! For Your sake have I fasted, and (now) I break the fast 
with the food that comes from You)." (Abu Dawood) 

(J jli y eljj) *JJ( frliJt _^-Sf< C4-^J J> jj*^ 1 'r^'j frU^il 4**^ " 

(924/41) It is related on the authority of Abdullah bin Umar 4t$& 
that when the Prophet JH broke the fast he used to say: 
Zahabaz-zima'o wab-tallatil 'urooqu wa sabatal arju insha 
Allah, (Thrist disappeared, dried up veins became wet and cool, 
and, God-willing, recompense got established.") (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: The supplication signifies that the uneasiness of 
thrist and dryness that were endured for some time during the fast 
had come to an end with Iftar. Now, neither he thrist is left nor the 
dryness of the veins, and, Insha Allah, the endless reward of the 
Hereafter has, also, been assured. 

It is the Prophet's lH expression of gratitude to God as well as 
an exhortation to others that fasts should be kept in that spirit. 

In some other reports it is also mentioned that the Prophet J$jl 
used to make the following supplication at the time of Iftar: 
Yaa was'ey-al-fazli ighfirlee. 
(O Possessor of boundless mercy! Forgive me). 

Re wad On Inviting a Fasting 
Person to Join At Fast-Breaking Meal 

(925/42) It is related by Zayd bin Khalid 4fe that the Prophet H> 
said: "Whoever invited a fasting person to break the fast with 
him or provided a warrior (in the defence of Faith) with the 



Book of Fasting 



443 



equipment of war (i.e., arms etc), he will get the same rew ard as 
the fasting person or the warrior." (Baihaqi and Baghawi) 

Commentary: One of the kindly and gracious laws of Allah is that 
He rewards a person who exhorts anyone to a good deed or helps 
him in the performance of it in the same measure as the doer of the 
deed. Only those who have no idea of the benevolence of God are 
apt to entertain doubts about glad tidings like these. 



FASTING ON A JOURNEY 



In Surah Al-Buqarah where Fasting hs been enjoined upon the 
Believers as an obligatory duty, permission has, also, been given to 
the sick and the travellers to leave off the fasts, but they are 
commanded to make up for it by fasting for an equal number of 
days when they are relieved from their respective disabilites. It has, 
also, been made clear that the concession has been provided solely 
for the sake of the bondsmen's ease and convenience. 

The relevant verse of the surah reads: 

"And whosoever of you is , 

present (in the month of <u.JWJ[fl jg..:Jt XfrSt j^i 

Ramadan), let him fast the 0 , ^ > , , /, 
month, and whosoever of you 3 ^ijr* 0 <j*J 

is sick or on a journey, (let him ^ aJJI Aj^ ^^-'\ ȣ\ 'Jj> ilid 

fast the same) number of other , , 



It is obvious from the above that the allowance has been made 
for the comfort of the bondsmen and with the object of saving 
them from hardship and suffering. Thus, if anyone does not feel 
any particular discomfort during a journey, he can keep fast or 
avail himself of the concession as he likes. The practice of the 
sacred Prophet iH being a standarrd of perfection for the Ummah, 
he, sometimes, kept the fasts on a journey, and, sometimes, omitted 
them so that his followers could choose whatever course they 
preferred according to their circumstances. What appears from the 
saying and conduct of the Prophet ill, in this regard, is that if other 
necessary activities are likely to suffer on account of fasting on a 
journey it is advisable to defer it, otherwise one should better keep 
the fast. 



days. Allah desireth for you 
ease; He desires not hardship 
for you. (Al-Baqarah2:185) 




446 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



^jjii cusji jiil ^ujji^ir jiTj yLLii ^£>i ^jLij <tiip ijji 

(926/43) Sayyidah Ayshah 14* At narrated that Hamzah bin 
'Amr Al-Aslami 4^>, who used to fast much and often, once 
asked the Prophet JH, "Should I keep the fasts on a journey? 
"The Prophet replied, 'You may keep (fast) if you like and 
you may not if you don't." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

jj> (i-j ^Ap {jjl JLp 4JJI J^-lT, JlS ^l!p ^1 YY/t i) 

ojj ^1 frUj ipS p 5^-^ ^ i.r* - f 1 -^ J^^' 
o 1 ^ oUi^ tJ^J^j aSCi ^jj jklil JjiIji 

(927/44) It is related by Abdullah bin Abbas that as the 
Messenger of Allah Hfe left Madinah for Makkah, he kept the 
fasts regularly on the journey till he reached the place called 
'Usfan. (From there onwards he stopped fasting, and in order to 
bring it into the knowledge of everyone), he asked for water, 
then took the water in his hand and raised it hight (so that 
everyone could see it'. He, then, drank the water). Then, the 
Prophet iH did not keep fasts until he reached Makkah, and all 
this took place in the month of Ramadan. On this very basis, 
Ibn Abbas 4^> used to say: "Messenger of Allah iH kept fasts, 
on a journey as well as he did not. So, (it is permissible) that 
whoever wants, he can keep fasts on a journey, and whoever 
does not want, he can omit it." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: The journey mentioned in the above Tradition was 
the one leading to the Victory of Makkah. The Prophet iH had 
undertaken it in Ramadan, 8 A.H.,. During it, he fasted in the 
beginning, but when on reaching 'Usfan, which was the name of a 
stream and from where it was only two days' journey to Makkah, it 
was felt that fighting was imminent, the Prophet decided not to 
keep the fasts. He, thus, omitted fasting and drank water by 
showing it to everyone so that no one felt oppressed in the mind at 



Book of Fasting 



447 



leaving off the fast. 

It shows that it is better to keep fast during a journey as long as 
there is no such consideration. The Prophet iH kept the fasts 
regularly till he had reached 'Usfan. Had it been commendable to 
give up the fasts on a journey without a special reason, he would, 
obviously, not have observed fasting from the time of the 
commencement of the journey. 

Another Tradition referring to the same incident has, also, been 
quoted in Sahih Muslim, on the authority of Sayyidina Jabir <^>. In 
it, it is added that some people continued to fast even after the 
Prophet Hi had openly omitted it and drank the water for everyone 
to see. When it was brought to his knowledge, he remarked: "These 
people are sinners and wrong-doers (for they have acted against the 
wish and judgement of the Prophet though unwittingly, after it 
had been made plain to them)." 

4JJ1 JL> aJUI Jj* J 1 * t-Jj-kJl ti ^ (<U A/io) 

Jai\ ja [y>j ^Lfi ^y> L%3 (jUa-«j j$2> C-jz.» C»«j (i^J 

(928/45) It is related by Abu Sa'eed Khudri 4& "We set out of 
Jihad in the company of Prophet on the 1 6th of Ramadan 
and some of us kept the fasts and some did not because of the 
leave granted to those who are on journey. So neither those who 
kept the fasts objected (to the action of) those who did not keep 
them nor those who did not keep the fasts objected (to the 
action of) those who kept them. (Everyone considered the 
conduct of the other to be legitimate and in accordance with the 
provisions of the Shari'ah)." (Muslim) 

i £ t ' " ' f s *S s * 3 > 

(929/46) It is related by Anas 4^l> "We were accompanying the 
Prophet lH on a journey (in which some of us were keeping the 



448 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



fasts and some of us were not. One day, when it was very hot, 
we got down to make the halt. So, those of us who were fasting 
(were so tired and exhausted that they) took to their beds 
(immediately) and did not move while those who were not 
fasting got up, pitched the tents for everyone and gave water to 
the camel. The Prophet £§l, then, observed: 'Today, non-fasting 
people won the reward (i.e., they earned a greater reward.)" 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

jL> 'J, pL>j dJ- &\ J^p Jjt Sj^j ijg ji y^r ^ (ir ./iv) 
est cr^' J>^ ft* ' • j^ ^ jit ^ Uu-j isV) 

((J— • J l5 jW^I «' Jj) y-^ 1 J> ^jwJl 

(930/47) It is related by Jabir 4l> "The Messenger of Allah H 
was on a journey and he saw a crowd and saw a man for whom 
a shade had been provided to guard against the sun. 'What is the 
matter?' the Prophet ill enquired. "This man is fasting', replied 
the men. 'his condition is giving anxiety, therefore, a shade is 
being provided and the crowd has collected.' 'To fast during a 
journey is not an act of virtue', remarked the Prophet Hk" 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: It shows that when Allah has permitted to offer the 
fast while on a journey and the Prophet £§l, too, acted upon it, there 
is no goodness in fasting for Muslims in such a state that they drop 
on the ground and people have to take care of them. In 
circumstances like these, it is essential to avail oneself of the 
concession and put off the fast. 

Making Amends for Not 
Observing an Obligatory Fast 

(931/48) Sayyidah Muazah Adaviya a taba'ee lady narrated that 
she enquired from Sayyidah Ayshah i^* *»i ^y. "How is it that 
while fasts are kept to make up for not having fasted in 
Ramadan on account of the period of menstruation, prayers are 



Book of Fasting 



449 



not offered to make up for Salah missed (during those days)?" 
This is the Command of Allah and the Messenger Hi. That is 
all," replied Ayshah u-s-& "When we had our menses in the 
lifetime of the Prophet (and could neither fast nor offer 
prayer), we were ordered to keep the fasts after Ramadan on 
account of not having fasted then but we were not ordered to 
make up for the missed prayers." (Muslim) 

Expiation for Missing a Fast 
Without a Cogent Reason 

ills- iJJl JJp J-jAr 1?" U2i JlS h'ji'jk {gt\ tf> (<\rY/i <\) 

Jlp cisj JlS JlS cJ^a aJJ' Sj^j Ij Jl5i J^-j « il p^j 

ilij JUni Ja ^JLjj ajLp <dJi ^JUc» <UJt J JUi ^JU? Ulj ^Jlj*' 
^Uty Jcru Ji Jli ^ Jli js«ls=* jot-" f J-^" 0' J^i JliV Jli 

J^Ji Jifii 4j (Jlisi ila 1^- Jli ui Jli jilUi $ Jli ((►aJaJt Js£Jt 
c~j JaI (jIj^Ji Jbjj) I^Isj^ j^j U Jjf^i Jjl Jj-iij U ^i«y»4i ^JJLc^l 

j»j <bUjl OJL) ^j^- jJL-jj <UJ! ^jLp ^Jl t_5o^ai ^slj Jit ^« jiSl 

(^^jLwoj^jbUtatjj) t_&L»l iU*Js>l Jli 

(932/49) Abu Hurayrah 4^> related "Once while we were sitting 
in the company of Messenger of Allah ill a man came and said 
'O Messenger of Allah ill! I have been ruined (meaning I have 
done something that has ruined me)'. What has happened? asked 
the Prophet $H. The man replied. 'I have copulated with my 
wife in the state of fasting.' (In another version it is mentioned 
that it took place in the month of Ramadan). The Prophet ill 
enquired: "Have you or is there in your possession a slave 
whom you can set free in expiation of the folly?' 'No,' replied the 
man. 'Then', said the Prophet lH, 'Can you manage to fast for 
two months consecutively?' That is beyond my endurance,' came 
the reply. The Prophet £p said 'Then wait. (God may produce a 
solution to your difficulty)." Abu Hurayrah 4fe goes on to 



450 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



relate) 'the Prophet remained seated over there and we, too, 
were still present when a very large bag of dates arrived for him. 
The Prophet lH called out, 'Where is the person who had come 
to enquire about the matter?' 'I am here,' the man replied.' The 
Prophet lH said to him, 'Take this bag and give it away in 
charity to such people who may be more needy than me?' By 
God! Between the rocky table-land on the two sides of Madinah 
(i.e., in the whole of the town) no family is poorer than mine,' 
The Prophet HH laughed so much (against his habit) that the 
teeth at both corners of his lips could be seen. (Customarily, the 
Prophet Hi only smiled when he felt happy or amused). He said: 
'All right. Give these dates to the members of your family to 
eat." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: If a person who is fasting in Ramadan does a thing 
like that, in gratification of his sexual urge, its atonement is that he 
set free a salve and if he cannot do so, observe sixty consecutive 
fasts, and if he cannot even do that, feed sixty poor and needy 
persons. There is a general agreement among legist-doctors on this 
point, but it is disputable whether the penalty applies only to sexual 
intercourse or it will have to be paid by those, also, who 
deliberately eat or drink during a fast, and, thus, render it void. 
According to Imam Sha'fee <uLtiii^j and Imam Ahmad bin 
Hanbal *»i this form of atonement is called for only in the 
event of a sexual intercourse because the incident mentioned in the 
above Tradition is solely of couplation but Imam Abu Hanifah, 
Imam Maalik, Sufyan Suri, Abdullah bin Mubarak ^A* k\ and 
others like them hold that the expiation is, basically, for violating 
the sanctity of the fast of Ramadan. It is the penalty for showing 
disrespect to the fast againts one's carnal desires and breaking it, 
and the nature of offence in both the cases is identical. The 
atonement, as such, will be bidning on him, also, who voids his 
fast by eating or drinking intentionally. 

A curious part of the incident is that the sacred Prophet ^ 
allowed the Comapnion concerned to make use for himself and 
his family the bag of dates he had given to him for distrubing to the 
poor in expiation of his sin when he submitted that his family was 
the poorest in Madinah. The legists are of the view that it did not 
mean that amends had been made in that manner. The Prophet Hi 



Book of Fasting 



451 



had permitted him, at that time, to spend the dates on his family 
owing to his extreme poverty but the atonement remained due on 
him. The legal position, also, is that if a person who cannot, for the 
time being, set free a slave or fast sixty consecutive days or feed 
sixty persons for deliberartely nullifying the fast of Ramadan, the 
atonement will remain due on him and he should have the intention 
of carrying it out and feeding sixty persons whenever he may 
afford it. Imam Zuhri and some other legist-doctors, again, believe 
that while the correct legal position is the same, the Prophet 
treated the Companion's 4§6> case as an exception, and, thus, the 
atonement was fulfilled. 

The same incident is reffered to, a little briefly, in another 
Tradition related by Sayyidah Ayshah ^ and it has, also, 
been quoted in Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim. 

By What Things a Fast is 
Not Impaired or Nullified 

There are certain things about which it can be imagined that the 
value of the fast was diminished or it was made void on account of 
them. But the Prophet HI has made it clear through his sayings or 
action that it was not so and such errors or occurances made no 
difference to the purity or validity of the fast. 

(933/50) it is related on the authority of Abu Hurayrah ^& 
"Whoever forgot and was fasting and ate or drank, anything (his 
fast was not nullified by it), (and he should), (therefore), 
complete the fast for it was from God that he was fed or offered 
the drink." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

(tsJL. yl\ «t jj) ^"jb^Vlj ^^4^0 3-iLsrt*«Jl ^UsJl d 

(934/51) It is related by Abu Sa'eed Khudri 4& that the 
Messenger of Allah said: "A fast is not made void by three 



452 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



things: bleeding by means of a horn, vomiting and wet dream." 

(Tirmizi) 

JL.j Up <dJt JU? ^jdt JL* *>brj a y.y* ^1 jp (^re/o Y) 

S ( S 6 & S S ^ »S ( S t S S . SS { S 6 S £ ' S f J 

£^Jb il Ja^-j <^aJ\il9 el$j AJ UJ^-i eUlj AJ Ja^^i ^jUoJJ e^tlliJl 

(■ijb jjI «i jj) <-jLSi al$j t^AJ litj 

(935/52) Abu Hurayrah 4^> narrated that (once) a man came to 
the Prophet and enquired about lying with his wife and 
embracing her in the state of fasting (i.e., whether it was 
allowed). The Prophet told him that it was allowed. (But) 
when another man came and asked the same question, he did 
not permit it to him. The man whom the Prophet lH had told 
that it was permissible was advanced in years while the other 
whom the Prophet iil had forbidden was young." (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: The reason for the difference in the replies to the 
two. questioners is self-evident. Since there was a strong likelihood 
of a young man being overcome with sexual desire and making his 
fast void, the Prophet HI did not permit it to the young questioner, 
while as an old man was comparatively safe from such a thing, he 
told the aged questioner that he could do so. 

jts ji-j Up tilt jU i^Ji J\ J4-3 fr£ Jti ^ If (<\rv°r) 

(936/53) It is related by Anas 4^> that a person came to the 
Prophet Hi and asked: "There is some trouble in my eye. Can 1 
apply Collyrium to it while fasting?" "Yes," you can," replied 
the Prophet $1 ." (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: It shows that the fast is not affected by applying 
collyrium or any other medicine to the eyes. 

*/U Up JU ,tJ< <iJlj JlS iujj Jt y>)s> Ap (irY/o t) 

< .-" s s f 

(937/54) 'Aamir bin Rabee'ah narrated "On innumerable 
occasions have I seen the Prophet Hi using Miswak in the state 
of fasting." (Timizi and Abu Dawood) 



Book of Fasting 



453 



dJ laJ Jl3 ajlp <d)t v _ s U? ^1 w>1*wj1 ^^ju (UA/oo) 
^» (♦jU^ ^aj j-UJi <*-»>tj j^Ap <w— <aj ^r^W («-^ J j *^ ^s^* 

(938/55) It is related on the authority of some Companions 
that they saw at 'Araj that the Prophet $§k was fasting and 
pouring water) over his head owing to (the intensity of) the heat 
or thrist. (Mowatta Imam Malik and Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: There is no harm in pouring water over the head or 
taking other similar measures for relief from the severity of thrist 
or heat druing a fast. It is not inconsistent with the spirit of fasting. 
The Prophet *H, sometimes, did such things to express his 
humbleness and utter helplessness which is the essence of 
servitude. He, also, wanted to set an example of ease and facility to 
his followers. 

'Araj was the name of a village situated on the road from 
Madinah to Makkah. This incident would, therefore, have taken 
place during the journey of Victory of Makkah which was 
undertaken, as we have seen, in the month of Ramadan and, in 
which, the Prophet iH had fasted regularly till reaching 'Usfan. 

cJfoi c~S-ii> olk^Jt 'ji* JlS Jll aJJuIp J> ji\*r jP (AV^/ol) 
Jll Lil j oils UllaP \y>\ cJt^» 4JUl JjJjjVj C~Us ^JL^> litj 

(ijlj y\ at jj) <Ui Jl3 cJLi ^%JU<e? CJtj tUJl C««&*«ix » jj Cut jt 

(939/56) Sayyidina Jabir bin Abdullah 4^> related to us that 
Sayyidina Umar bin al-Khattab 4§& had told him "once (while 
fasting) I was strongly seized with desire and kissed (my wife). 
Thereafter, 1 went to the Prophet Hi and said to him: O 
Messenger of Allah Hi! 1 have committed a grave mistake 
today. I have kissed (my wife) while keeping fast'. The Prophet 
Hi said: 'Tell me, if you take water in your mouth and rinse it, 
(will it spoil your fast)?' 'No,' it will not,' I replied. 'Then', 
observed the Prophet Hi, 'What harm can be caused (by mere 
kissing)?' " (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: From it, we not only learn that kissing alone does 
not make a fast void or impair it but, also, the general rule that 



454 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



what really nullifies the fast is eating, drinking or coition and jsut 
as the mere putting of a thing to eat or drink in the mouth which as 
one would say, is a prelude to eating or drinking does not detract 
from the value of a fast, in the same way a fast is not spoiled or 
nullified by acts like kissing and embracing which are only the 
preliminaries of sexulal couplation. However, if a man fears that he 
might not be able to control his passions, it will be advisable for 
him to abstain from such things while fasting. 



NAFL FASTS 



The fasts of the whole of Ramadan are among the fundamental 
duties of Islam which, like Salah and Zakah must be observed by a 
Muslim aspiring to be a faithful bondsman. But. apart from them, 
the Islamic Canonic Law has. also, provided for Nafl or 
supererogatory fasts, in the manner of other supererogatory forms 
of worship, and laid a particualr stress on them. The sacred Prophet 

used to exhort the poeple to observe supererogatory fasts not 
only by word but, also, by deed. At the same time, he took care to 
see that they did not exceed the limits of moderation and began to 
pay the same attention to supererogatory fasts as to the obligatory 
ones, but showing due respect to the Divine Commands, kept the 
obligatory duties and supererogatory observances in their proper 
places and maintained the distinction between them. 

Zakah of The Body 

(940/57) It is related by Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of 
Allah iHl said: "There is a Zakah of everything (on paying 
which it becomes clean), and the Zakah of the body is fasting." 

(Ibn Majah) 

Abundance of Supererogatory 
Fasts in The Month of Sha'ban 

% 6 s 1 (S \ f ■ / s s 

i ✓ , J j, s s ^ >s # ^ ^ * X , } ' X ' ' y * ' ^ 



456 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 




(941/58) Sayyidah Ayshali if* iui narrated that the practice 
of the Prophet Hi (about supererogatory fasts) was that, 
(sometimes), he began to fast successively, without a break, till 
we thought that he will not leave off any, (sometimes) he did 
not fast and passed his days continuously without fasting till we 
thought that now he will never keep fast. (She added): 'I never 
saw that the Prophet $fe fast for the whole of a month except the 
Ramadan and I never saw that he kept more supererogatory 
fasts in any month except that of Sha'ban." (In some other 
versions of the same Tradition it is mentioned that he fatsed 
(nearly) for the whole of Sha'ban)." (Bukharand Muslim) 

Commentary: The first part of the above Tradition shows that 
there was no fixed principle of the holy Prophet lH about 
supererogatory fasts. Sometimes, he fasted uninterruptedly for days 
on and, sometimes, remained contiuously without a fast, the object 
being that it did not become difficult for the Ummah to follow his 
example and there was enough latitude for everyone to take pattern 
by whatever of his practice or course of conduct that suited his 
circumstances. The other part tells that the Prophet observed the 
whole month's fasts, regularly and from first to last, only in 
Ramadan which have been prescribed as obligatory duty by God. 
In Sha'ban, indeed, he kept more fasts than in any other month 
except Ramadan. 

Six Fasts After Ramadan 



Messenger of Allah sgl said: "Whoever observed the fasts of 
Ramadan, and, after it, observed six supererogatory fasts in the 
month of Shawwal 1 , it will be equal to fasting forever (i.e., 



Commentary: If there occur only 29 days in Ramadan, God, by 
His Mercy, gives the reward of 30 fasts, after including the 6 
O. The tenth month of the Islamic year, on the first day of which the festival of 
Eid is celebrated 




through out the year). 



(Muslim) 



Book of Fasting 



457 



supererogatory fasts of Shawwal, the number of fasts becomes 36. 
In accordance with the benevolent principle of the Almighty of 
gtiving ten times reward on every good deed, ten times of 36 
becomes 360, and there are, in any case, less than 360 days in a 
year, accroding to the Islamic Calendar. By this account, anyone 
who keeps 6 supererogatory fasts in the month of Shawwal, after 
observing the fasts of whole of Ramadan, becomes deserving of 
the recompenese that is on 360 fasts. From the point of view of 
reward and recompnese, therefore, it is equal to fasting throughout 
the year. 

Three Supererogatory Fasts 
In a Month Are Enough 

liU- i_£.Up i-J'j-^J j^ij j3j ^lai'j ji-i J*^ JS^J ^ 

(—^jjjJ 5}j ^ i-Xr j ji CiljV&~ ^S^s- j 

jiJ? a|T ydJl ^ ji" ^ alii ^> ^»lJ( ^\lp ^> ^U?^ tf*- 

^Iji > ^ ^ s> jd Jr J i% c >; 

(943/60) Abdullah bin 'Amr bin al-Aas 4& narrated that the 
Prophet Hi said to him: "I have heard that you have made it 
your practice to fast during the day and offer Nafl prayers 
throughout the night. Is it true?" "Yes, Messenger of Allah Ifjl, 
he replied. "I do so." "Give it up", observed the Prophet OB*. 
"Keep the fasts as well as leave them. In the same way, pray in 
the night as well as sleep for your body, too, has a claim on you. 
(You have no right to tax it to excess and ignore its legitimate 
demands). Likewise, your eyes have a claim on you. (You must 
sleep and give them rest). Likewise, your wife has a claim on 
your guests and visitors, also, have a claim on you. (Listen), 
whoever fasts continually, does not, in a way, keep fast at all. 



458 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



To keep three supererogatory fasts every month in equivalent to 
fasting throughout the year. You should, therefore, fast only 
three days in a month and complete one (recitation) (of the) 
Qur'an in a month (in Tahajjud)." (Abdullah bin Amr 
narrated that) he submitted: "I possess greater strength than that. 
(Please allow me more)". The Prophet &p said: "Then follow the 
practice of Prophet Dawood in fasting, that is keeping fast 
on one day and eat on next (i.e., fast on alternate days), and 
complete one (recitation of the) Qur'an in Tahajjud in seven 
nights). Do not exert yourself in excess of that." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: Sayyidina Abdullah bin 'Amr bin al-'Aas 4§& had a 
great ardour and enthusiasm for worship. It was his regualr habit to 
fast during the day and offer Nafal prayers in the night during 
which he copmleted one recitation of the Qur'an. When the Prophet 
IH learnt about it, he urged moderation as the above Tradition tells. 
He told him that his body, his family and his friends, too, had a 
claim on him which should not be disregarded. At first, he advised 
him to keep 3 supererogatory fasts and complete one recitation of 
the Qur'an in Tahajjud in a month, but when he submitted that he 
could endure more without any serious harm, the Prophet lH 
allowed him to fast on alternate days, in the manner of the Prophet 
Dawood $s§l, and complete one recitation of the Qur'an in the 
nightly Nafl prayers in a week. 

Evidently, the restirction was imposed by the Prophet HI not 
because there was anything wrong in worshipping much but solely 
out of kindness and affection in the same way as children are told 
not to carry a heavy load. Hence, when Abdullah bin 'Amr 
pleaded that he was capable of more than that, the Prophet Hi 
permitted him to fast on alternate days instead of 3 days in a 
month. We, further, learn, on the authority of Tirmizi, that the 
Prophet lH had, later on, allowed to complete the reictation of the 
Qur'an only in 5 days, and, to some other companions, he had even 
granted the permission to complete it in 3 days.l 

JU& jJLy 4^p £Ul JL> ^fd» J\ ft 'Jb t/"U ) 

O. It is reported in Jama-ul-fuwayid from Musand Ahmad and Tabarani that the 
Prophet «t2t had given this permission to Sa'eed bin Munzar Ansari <l* Jii 



Book of Fasting 459 

cs'lj ulii aJjS jiJLjj aIIp iJJi JL> Jji Ji-'j 4-^** ^i-^J 
aLu ijii l!_J jJj>«X)j lio bj \jj alii; lil^j Jli £~&p 

aLgS- ^£~o iJLft S,Yj„ 'y>£- Jj»?ti <UjJlij 4Pj dill ^_w2P 

31 "J^\ *}j Jli iiT yah ^JaS Jr 4 *JJ' Jjij Id JUS 

(944/61) Sayyidina Abu Qatadah 4fe> said that a man came to 
the Prophet &Sl and asked him how he fasted. He was angry at 
what he said, and when Sayyidina Umar 4fe observed his anger 
he said: 

"We are satisfied with Allah as ^ <UJb 

Lord, with Islam as religion and \ '- ' " ' "' 

with Muhammad as Prophet III. fUb s'yu llj jl^JLij bJo 

We seek refuge in Allah from the ' ' - \u ' r 

" ■_ jap 9 <UJ' ■_■ jap - w» 

anger of Allah and from the anger ; J - ; « 

of His Messenger ^1." .aJ^^ 
He kept on repeating these words till his anger calmed down, 
then asked. "Messenger of Allah iHfe what is the position of one 
who observes perpetual fast?" He said, "May he not fast or 
break his fast! " or he said, "He has neither fasted nor broken his 
fast." He asked. "What is the position of one who fasts two days 
out of every three?" The Prophet said, "Is anyone able to do 
that ?" He asked what was the position of one who fasted every 
second day and was told that was the fast Dawood $HsQ\ 
observed. He asked what was the position of one who fasted 
one day out every three, and the Messenger of Allah iH said. "I 
wish I were given power to observe that." Then he said, "The 
observance of three days' fast every month and of Ramadan 



460 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



every year is a perpetual fast. I seek from Allah that fasting on 
the day of Arafah may atone for the sins of the preceding and 
the coming year, and I seek from Allah that fasting on the day of 
Ashura may atone for the sins of the preceding year." (Muslim) 

Commentary: Some points need to be explained. Someone asked 
the Prophet III how he kept the (optional) fasts and he was 
displeased with that question just as a teacher is with a student's 
improper question. He should have asked about himself that how 
he should observe optional fasts. Some of the practices of the 
Prophet Hi were exclusive to him and beyond other people. 

Sayyidina Umar 4& observed his displeasure and tried to make 
amends on behalf of the Muslim body. He then asked about 
optional prayers (Salah). 

The Prophet H did not approve of anyone keep fast everyday. 

He himself suggested that for the general Muslims it was 
enough to keep the fasts of Ramadan and three optional fasts each 
month. They would fetch reward for thirty fasts; and hence they 
would be like permanent fasting. 

He also recommended the fasts on the days of Arafah and too 
on the days of Ashura. 

The fast on the day of Arfah 10th of Zul Hajjah) is for those 
who do not perform Hajj. For the pilgrims the approved worship 
on that day is the standing at the plain of Arafah, the offering of 
Zuhr and Asr together in brief. They must not offer the sunnah of 
Zuhr. If they fast on that day, it would be inconvenient to them, 
hence it is not preferred that they fast on that day. (In fact, one 
hadith disallows them). The Prophet H showed through his 
conduct too that one must hot fast; he drank milk on the plain of 
Arafah on the 9th Zul Hajjah while he was riding a camel so that 
everyone may observe that he was not fasting. 

Those who do not perform the Hajj are recommended to fast on 
this day and obtain blessings and mercy. Similarly, on the Id day, 
they are required to make the sacrifice. 

The fast on the day of Ashurah is important because it was 
obligatory before the fasting of Ramadan became obligatory. When 
fasting is Ramadan was prescribed the command to the fast on the 
Ashura was rescrinded. We will see the Ahadith later on. 



Book of Fasting 



461 



Practice of The Prophet sm 
Concerning Three Fasts in a Month 

(945/62) Sayyidah Hafsah if* *»i related to us that there are 
four things which the Messenger of Allah ill never omitted; (i) 
the fast of 'Aashura 1 ; (ii) the fast of the yii'^ra of Zul-Hajjah 2 
(i.e., from the 1st of Zul-Hajjah to Yaum-ul-'Arafa i.e., the 9th 
of Zul-Hajjah), (iii) the three fasts of every month; and (iv) the 
two Rak'at before Fajr. (Nasai) 

Commentary: What it shows is that though the four things were 
not oblitgatory, the Prophet Hi observed them regularly. 

4JUi J^J 6^' i-iJl* cJL- dJl5 l^il AjjJLmI^ oiUw (^in/lV) 

(946/63) Mu'azah Adawiyah narrated "I asked Sayyidah Ayshah 
i^if. iin 'Did the Prophet iiH fast on three days every month?' 
'Yes', she replied. 'He fasted on three days every month'. 1, then, 
asked, 'In which part of the month (and on what dates)?' 'He did 
not care in which part of the month he fasted,' she replied." 

(Muslim) 

Commentary: In some Traditions it is stated that the Prophet HH 
used to keep fast on three days in the beginning of every month 
while, in others, that he did so on the 13th, 14th and 15th of it. In 
some other reports, again, fasting on 3 days in a week is 
mentioned. But, as it is disticntly indicated in Sayyidah Ayshah's 
statement, none of these was his regular practice. The Prophet iH 
often, had to travel and, then, there were so many other things 
which did not make it possible for him to have any fixed days for 
Nafl fasts. Moreover , if he fasted regularly on certain days or 
O. Denoting the 10th day of the month of Moharrum. 

©. The name of last month of the Islamic year on the tenth day of which month 
is the festival of Eidul Adha. 



462 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



dates, it would not have been easy for his followers, with divergent 
circumstances, to take after him in this regard, and would have, 
further, given rise to the misunderstanding that these fasts, too, 
were among the essential duties of the Faith. In fine, for reasons 
like these, the Prophet Hi did not abide by any particualr days or 
dates. It was the best and wisest course for him but as far as the 
Companions were concerned, he, often, exhorted them to keep the 
three fasts of the month on the 13th, 14th and 15th of the lunar 
dates. 

Fasts of Ayyam-ul Beed 

6 jJiS- t ^i*-J ij^S- 6 jZ*£- CJu p+fli *Ul <ULb j£-J< J* iw~W 

(947/64) Abu Zarr Ghifari 4^> narrated that the Prophet all said 
to him: "O Abu Zarr! When you keep the three monthly fasts, 
keep them on the 13th, 14th and 15th(ofthe month)." 

(Tirmizi, Nasai) 

Jlij VjLs- VjJis- oj-i* jpL^\ f'ypj U^iU 

(^l-Jl j 5jb y\ Si jj) y>lJl i^jA 

(948/65) Qatadah bin Milhan related to us that the Prophet iS 
used to tell us to fast on Ayyam al-Beed^ i.e., on the 13th, 14th 
and 1 5th of the month, and he said that to fast on these three 
days of the month was equal in value to fasting forever (i.e., 
throughout the year). (Abu Dawood and Nasai) 

Commentary: The Traditions reproduced above show, firstly, that 
the faithful bondsman who observes 3 supererogatory fasts every 
month will merit the reward equal in value to fasting on all thirty 
days of the month, and secondly, that it is better to observe the 
fasts on the 13th , 14th and 15th of the month. 



O. Meaning days of the month during the nights of which the moon is at its 
brightest, i.e., the 13th, 14th and 15th of the month accroding to the lunar 
calendar. 



Book of Fasting 



463 



The fast of 'Aashurah 

In some of the preceding narratives the virtues of the fast of 
'Aashurah and the speical care the Prophet Hi took to observe it 
have been mentioned in passing. The Traditions that follow 
appertain specifically to it and, also, deal with the historical 
significance of that day. 

^JUoj aIIp <Djt ^^U? Jj-1>3 p$ J 1 ^ fr'jj^^ f y. ^j^ 1 
4Ju1 J j-jj JUS <U j-^i J?ti9 ' (^i* <L«Wa3 <U j3j j (3 

aJJi Jj-1>3 tr* 1 ^ ts'j'j t}^' (S^* 

(949/66) Ibn-i-Abbas 4|b narrated that when the Messenger of 
Allah Hi came to Madinah he found that the Jews fasted on 
Yaum Al-Aashurah, i.e., the 10th of Moharrum. He enquired 
from them what was the significance of the day (in their 
religious tradition) that they fasted on it. They replied: 'It is a 
very great day with us. On it, the Lord had delivered Musa 
and the Children of Israel from the enemy and drown the 
Pharosal and his army, and Musa used to fast on this day 
as a mark of gratitute to the Almighty, and we, too fast on it as 
his loyal followers.' The Prophet JH thereupon remarked: 'Musa 
has a greater claim upon me than upon you.' He, then, 
fasted on that day himself and instructed his followers to do the 
same." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: One can imagine from the above Tradition that the 
sacred Prophet Hi began to observe the fast on the day of 
'Aashurah only when he had come to live in Madinah, after the 
Migration, though it is clearly stated in Sayyidah Ayshah's ibi ^ j 
1^* narrative, quoted, again, in Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim 
that the Quraysh of Makkah fasted on the day of 'Aashurah even 
during the days of Ignorance and the holy Prophet H, also, kept it 
in Makkah, before the migration. Later when the Prophet 0 
migrated to Madinah, he kept that fast there, too, and ordered his 



464 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



followers to act likewise. 

In fact, the day of 'Aashurah commanded much reverence 
among the Quraish, also, in the days of Ignorance. The covering of 
the House of Ka'bah was changed on that day and the Quraish 
fasted on it. Perhaps some reports of the sayings of Sayyidina 
Ibrahim and Sayyidina Ismail regarding the day of 
'Aashurah had reached the Quraish and it was the custom of the 
holy Prophet ill to join in the good things the Quraish did owing 
to their affinity with the community of Ibrahim He, 
consequently, participated in the Hajj and, also, kept the fast of 
Aashurah with the Quraish but did not enjoin it upon others. Later, 
when the Prophet came to Madinah and saw the Jews observing 
the fast of 'Aashurah and learnt from them that it was the blessed 
day on which God had drownned Pharoah and his people and 
delivered Sayyidina Musa and his followers from them, and, 
accroding to reports mentioned in Musnad Ahmad etc., the Ark of 
Nuh SS^l also, had, rested on the Mount of Ararat on that very day, 
he took a greater interest in the fast, and also, ordered the Muslims, 
in general, to fast on that day. In some Traditions it is stated that 
the Prophet lH enjoined it with such force and emphasis as is, 
generally, done in case of an obligatory or near-obligatory duty. 
Thus, it is related in Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim, on the 
authority of Rubbi'ah bint Mu'awwiz and Salmah bint Aku, that on 
the morning of 'Aashurah, the Prophet H send word to the Ansars 
living in the settlements of Madinah that those who might not have 
eaten or drunk anything up to that time should fast on that day 
while those who had eaten or drunk something shou, from that 
time abstain from it for the rest of the day and behave like fasting 
men. 

These reports have induced many a legist to conclude that in 
the beginning the fast of 'Aashurah was Wajib i.e., essential or 
binding but later when the fasts of Ramadan were prescribed, its 
obligatoriness was annulled and its position became that of a 
supererogatory fast about which we' have already seen the Prophet's 
Hi saying "I hope that by its auspicousness the sins of the previous 
year will be removed." Even after it, the Prophet iH> continued to 
attach the greatest importance to it after the fasts of Ramadan. 



Book of Fasting 



465 



<£j*zi <UJl J-p ^\ cJlj U JlS ^Lp jjI (<\o ./YV) 

si") 3s- S3** 3 ' 3 s ' 3 6 3 ' | . ^ ✓ ^ 

^g-i lAV} ^1 j j-ilP ^ jj ^jJhUa "ill a^lp ^ <UUa3 ^ ^U^? 

(950/67) Abdullah bin Abbas 4fe narrated "I did not see that the 
Prophet iHl showed much concern for the fast of any day of 
virtue and excellence save of the day of 'Aashwah and of the 
blessed month of Ramadan." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: The purport of the above Tradition is that it was 
felt by Abdullah bin Abbas <^> from the practice of the Prophet Hi 
that among the supererogatory fasts, he attached the greatest 
importance to the fast of 'Aashwah" 

^LLp <UJt aUi J^j 'J^ J is ^Lp Ji aJJuJp ^p (<\ o WiA) 
J4iJl fUjl 5lT (ill aOp JU J_^3 Jill ^'jUJ'j 

* 3 y 3 * ^ * 9 %' * 3 9 " * * * tf * 3 3 ' 3 } J* 1 ' 9 

J ^s jj ^ J-iJi ^UJi oU (Js J la* £-»l=)t ^jJi Lw> <dJi frUji 

(95 1/68) It is related on the authority of Abdullah bin Abbas 4§l> 
that when the Messenger of Allah HsHfe made it his principle and 
custom to observe the fast of 'Aashurah, and, also, bade the 
Muslims to do the same, some Companions $p said to him: "O 
Messenger of Allah III! The Jews and Christians celebrate this 
day as a festival (and, in a way, it has become their national and 
religious characteristic and when we keep fast on that particualr 
day a resemblance is created between us and them. Can no 
alteration, then, be made in it so that the question of resemblace 
did not arise)?" The Prophet iH replied: "God willing, when the 
next year comes we will fast on the 9th." "But", adds Abdullah 
bin Abbas 4^b, "The Prophet $H died before (the arrival of) the 
month of Muharrum of the next year." (Muslim) 

Commentary: The decision to make a change in the date of the 
fast of 'Aashurah could not be acted upon in the Prophet's Hi 
lifetime but the Ummah recieved the guidance from it that such a 
similitude and assoiciation should preferably be avoided. 



466 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



The resolve to keep fast on the 9th of Muharram could mean 
two things, both of which have been explained by the 
commentators. Firstly, that the Prophet iH and, with him, the 
Ummah will observe the fast on the 9th instead of the 10th of 
Muharrum, and, secondly, that they will fast on the 9th in addition 
to the 10th of Muharrum, and, thus, their conduct will become 
different from that of the Jews and Christians. A majority of 
theologists, however , have preferred the latter view and held that, 
in addition to the day of Aashurah, fast should, also, be kept on the 
9th of Muharrum, and if it may not be possible due to some reason 
to fast on the 9th of Muharrum then it should be done on the 1 1th. 

Nevertheless, since in our time the Jews and Christians do not 
observe fast on th day of 'Aashurah, i.e.. the 10th of Muharrum, 
and, in truth, they do not follow the lunar calendar at all, the 
question of similitude and partnership has, in our view, ceased to 
have a relevance. It should, therefore, not be necessary, now, to, 
keep fast on the 9th or 1 1th of Muharrum. 

The Fast of Arafah 

(i£X» jsJt »\ j j) jiill iu *Ui l^u 5JJ ^l-ij hli ^(~a> 

(952/69) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger 
of Allah said: "There are no days on which Allah likes better 
to be worshipped than the ten days of Zul-Hajjah. Fasting 
observed on each of these days is equivalent to a year's fasting, 
and salah during each of these nights is equivalent to salah 
during Laylatul Qadr." (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: We have explained in a previous Hadith that these 
refer to the nine days of Zul Hajjah because it is forbidden to fast 
on Id day which is on the tenth. 

t i , i 6 » > t - - * - 



Book of Fasting 



467 



(953/70) It is related by Abu Qatadah 4& that the Prophet il 
said: "I confidently expect from God that the fast of the day of 
'Arafuh (i.e.. the 9th of Zul-Hujjah) will be an atonement for the 
sins of the previous year and of the subsequent year." (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: Form the other sayings as well as the practice of the 
sacred Prophet it appears that this exhortation for the fast of 
Arfah is not for the pilgrims' who are camping in 'Arafat on the 
day ofArafah for performing the Hajj. For them, the right course is 
not to fast on that day. 

Observation: Some people doubt such tidings which promise 
great reward. They should not do so especially when the Hadith is 
authentic. 

The Fast of 15th of Sha* ban 

pL>j ds- ih\ JL> Jjl J^jj JlJ JlS ilp iJJl ^e>] ^ip 'J* ( <\ o i/Y ^ ) 

t 3 i- tf ^ ^ S , % 3 f. s 3%3*''ss3'' 3 3 * f ' 3 ' " ' 

Jj4 \j»j*0J \yy& jLJLi uuij$\ 4-LLJ CJlT lil 

/ s ( s ^ 3 s ' ' 3 & 3 * * * 3 * si & 6 " 3 ^ ft* 3 

VI 4J ji^li jAxjL* 'ja VI JjiJ Om\ s-U-Ul j-U-iJl S-'J^*! ^ 

^Ik. J* Vi lis" VI jb^ Vi Jj j^li 

(954/71) It is related by Sayyidina Ali 4fe that the Messenger of 
Allah iH said: "When the 15th night of Sha'ban comes, on that 
night offer Nafl prayers in the presence of the Lord and keep 
fast on that day for, in that night, soon after sunset, the special 
mercy of Allah descends on the First Heaven and He proclaims, 
'Is there a bondsman who begs forgiveness from Me that I may 
forgive him? Is there a bondsman who begs sustenance from Me 
that I may grant him sustenance? Is there a bondsman in 
distrress who begs good health and well-being from Me that I 
may bestow good health and well-being upon him?' In the same 
way, God calls different kinds of needy people to supplicate to 
Him for their needs at that time so that He may grant their 
petitions. From sunset till dawn, in that night, the Mercy of the 
Lord calls His bondsmen in a like manner." (Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: On the basis of this report the pracitce obtains 
among the religous-minded Muslims everywhere to keep fast on 
O. Meaning the pilgrims to the House of Ka'bah for carrying out the Hajj. 



468 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



the whole, feel that, from the point of view of documentary 
evidence of transmission, it is a very weak kind of report. About 
one of its narrators, Abu Bakr bin Abdullah, the doctors of formal 
criticism of the Traditions have even gone to the extent of saying 
that he used to concoct reports. 

Only this solitary report is found in the standard compilations 
about the fasts of the 15th of Sha'ban, but as regarads prayer, 
suppliction and repentance in the night of the 1 5th of that month, a 
number of other Traditions have, also, been related. 

Though the line of narrators of none of these is reliable, as 
judged by the criterion laid down by the scholars of the Traditions, 
the number of such narratives is quite large and these have been 
related on the authority of different Companions, and, as such, 
some scholars like Ibn-is-Salah are disinclined to hold them as 
wholly unfounded. 

Supererogatory Fasts on Particular Days 

In the forgoing Traditions, Muslims have been urged to keep 
supererogatory fasts in some particular months of the year and 
some specific dates of the month. In the same way, they have also 
been exhorted to fast on certain days of the week. Guidance, in this 
regard, is, also, available from the practice of the sacred Prophet Hi. 

Joy* ^Loj iUi J** aUi J^iij Jli JlS i'jjj* o o/v r ) 

(955/72) It is relared by Abu Hurayrah 4^> that the Messenger of 
Allah 111 said: "Deeds are presneted (before) God on (every) 
Monday and Thrusday, and I want that I am fasting when my 
deeds are presnented." (Tirmizi) 

(956/73) It is related by Sayyidah Ayshah if* <3ii that the 
Messenger of Allah Hi kept fasts on Monday and Thursday." 

(Tirmizi and Nasai) 



Book of Fasting 



469 




(957/74) Abu Qatadah narrated that (once) the Prophet ®> 
was asked about fasting on Mondays, and he replied: "I was 
born on Monday and it was on Monday that the revelation of the 



Commentary: It shows that Monday is a most propitious day. It 
was on it that the sacred Prophet iH, was born and the revelation of 
the Word of God began. To fast on it, naturally, is highly 
commendable and praiseworthy. 



lasted on a Monday was that the deeds of men were presented to 
Allah on it and he wanted to be fasting when it took place, and the 
other was the feeling of gratitude at the two outstanding favours of 
Allah his own birth and the commencement of the Revelation 
which, indeed, are a blessing for the entire mankind. 

(^'L-Jl j ol j j) ijujyl\ fy/j}a*pL*j All* iiJl 

(958/75) It is related on the authority of Abdullah bin Masud 4s& 
that seldom it was that the Prophet £H did not keep fast on a 
Friday." (Tirmizi and Nasai) 

Commentary: It shows that the Prophet 0 general!}, fasted on 
Fridays. But from other Traditions we learn that he forbade it for 
the reason that people did not, owing to the blessedness and 
superiority of that day. single it out for the supererogatory fast and 
its night for keeping vigil. 



(959/76) It is related by Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of 
Allah said: "Do not single out the night of Friday among the 
nights for prayer, and, similarly, do not single out the day of 
Friday among the days for fasting except that a Friday falls on 



Qu r' an to me began.' 



(Muslim) 





470 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



the date on which anyone of you habitually keeps a 
supererogatory fast. (In that case, there is no harm in keeping a 
supererogatory fast on a Friday)". (Muslim) 

Commentary: It was quite possible that affected strongly by the 
exceptional auspeciousness of a Friday, people who had a flair for 
perfection began to show excessive solictitude for keeping a 
superereogatory fast on it and devoting its night to prayers, and, 
thus, something which God had not prescribed as binding or 
essential got elevated to that position. Hence, the Prophet 
disallowed it. The injunction, however, is of an administrative 
nature and its purpose merely is that the supererogatory fast on a 
Friday and the spending of its night in devotions did not become an 
additional ritual. 

tf^'y^/^'} i&\ ^J*fi i&\ J_^j Jlf cJlSlJtJlp jP(<n ./YV) 

tii^'ij J^i^3 

(960/77) It is related on the authority of Sayyidah Ayshah & 

that the Prophet ^ (also did so that he) fasted, in one 
month, on Saturday. Sunday and Monday, and. in the other, on 
Tuesdav. Wednesday, and Thursday. (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: We have learnt, already, from Sayyidah Ayshah's 
ajji own narrative that the holy Prophet $§* did not follow a 
fixed routine about the three supererogatory fasts of the month. 
What the above Tradition denotes simply is that it was. also, his 
practice that in one month, he fasted on the first three days of the 
week. i.e.. Saturday. Sunday and Monday, and. in the next, on the 
three coming after them. i.e.. Tuesday. Wednesday and Thurday. 
About Friday, it has perviously been stated in the Tradition related 
by Abdullah bin Mas'ud 4© that the prophet W> often kept fast on 
it. "Thus, apart from the day and dates the fasts on which enjoy an 
instrinsic superiority, the Prophet took care that his 
superoragatory fast fell on every day of the week so that people 
could know that all the seven days were the days of worship. 



Book of Fasting 



471 



Days on Which Supererogatory 
Fasts Are Prescribed 

There are certain days in a year on which it is forbidden to 
observe fasting. God is the Absolute Monarch, the Supereme 
Being, the Knower of all things. He declared Salah to be the 
worship of highest order and yet forbade the offering up of it at 
some particualr hours like those of the rising, setting and declining 
of the sun. Likewise. He proclaimed fasting to be a particualrly 
favoured form of worship but. at the same time, prohibited it on 
certain days. We are but to cany out His Commandments. It is not 
for us to reason why. 

aU\ J-* AiS\ Sj^j J 15 tfj-JWJL, ^ '{j* cm/VA) 

(961/78) Abu Sa'eed Khudri 4^e> narrated that the Messenger of 
Allah ^ has forbidden the fast of Yaum-ul-Fitr and of the day 
of sacrillce (of animals) (i.e.. Yaiimal Adhu) (Bukhari and Muslim) 



(962/79) Sa\yidina Abu Hurayrah 4fe said, thai the Messenger 
of Allah disallowed fasting on the Eid Al-Adha and the 
Eid-Al-Filr. (Muslim) 

J, jU- -uJi ol^i Jil jA'y j\ XyS- {J> ^ ( \ n r/A • ) 

(963/80) Abu Ubayd Ibn Azhar ( I aba'ee) narrated "I offered the 
Eid prayers behind Dinar bin Khattab ^fe>. He led the service, 
and. at the conclusion of it, delivered the sermon in which he 
said: "The two days of Eid are such that on them the Prophet 
has forbidden fasting. Of these, one is the day of your breaking 
fasts (after the whole of Ramadan) and the other is the day of 



472 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



eating the flesh of the animals sacrificed by you. 



(Muslim) 




®m said that "Ayyam ul-Tashriq (i.e., the 1 1th. 12th and 13th of 
Zul-Hajjah) are the days of eating, drinking and remembering 



Commentary: In the two aforementioned narratives of Sayyidina 
Abu Saeed Khudri and Sayyidina Umar 4»> it is explicitly forbidden 
to fast on the days of Eidul Firt and Eidul Adha. and, in Sayyidina 
Umar's account, it is. further, indicated that the fast of Yaumul Fin- 
is forbidden because God has proclaimed it to be the "Day of 
breaking Fast. i.e. of abstraining from fasting, and eating and 
drinking after Ramadan, and, thus, to fast on this day is to act 
against the wish and purpose of Allah and the fast of Yaumul Adha 
is forbidden because the pleasure of the Lord is that the bondsmen 
ate. like beggars at His door, the flesh of the animals sacrificed by 
them as a feast from Allah, and. he. of course, is a most arrogant 
and ungrateful bondsman who deliberately keeps fast on the day of 
general feast of God. Since the 1 1th and 12th of Zul Hujjah are the 
days of the sacrifical offering of animals, the same rule will, also, 
apply to them. 

From Nubaisha Huzali's report we. again, learnt that the 
Prophet ^ has declared all the days of Tashriq to be the days of 
feast from the Lord and these include the 13th of Zul-Hajjah as 
well. Thus, fasting is prohibited on all the four days, from the 10th 
to the 13th Zul-Hujjah. Now, to fast on these days will be a sin, not 
worship. 

A Supererogatory Fast Can be Voided 

A heavy penalty has to be paid for voiding a fast of the month 
of Ramadan without a cogent reason. But a supererogatory fast can 
be broken before time without incurruing a penlaty or the need to 
make amends for it. The Prophet has done it himslef, 
occasioanlly. and, also, informed others that it was permissible. 



the Lord." 



(Muslim) 



Book of Fasting 



473 



6li a^p illl JU ^Jl ^Ip dJl5 J-iJlP jp ( <n o/A Y ) 
G GJ& >^ li jj uw p lit ^ Jll i tdil j^jlc. Ji Jlil 

(965/82) It is related by Sayyidah Ayshah if* -an that one day 
the Prophet life came to my apartment and asked, 'Is there 
anything to eat in your house?" 'Ther is nothing at this thime,' I 
■ replied. The Prophet lH said, 'Then I shall keep fast today.' 
Later, when on another day the Prophet came to my 
apartment, I said to him, 'Today (someone) has sent me Hais 1 as 
a gift.' 'Do eat it'. The Prophet &§l replied, 'Let me see it. I had 
formulated the intention to fast today.' He, then ate a portion of 
it and did not keep fast.' (Muslim) 

Commentary: It shows, firstly, that the intention for a 
supererogatory fast can be formulated during the day also, and, 
secondly, that a supererogatory last can be voided if one changes 
one's mind after the formulation of intention. 

ljs>U cj l£j> ^ ^\ f'ji Ui cJU JjSa ^^(11 VAT) 
<ul«j jp ^jjX* ^1 j ^Ip iiJt ^J-p aJJI J^-»j JJ* C«lJbfi3 

£ r £\ l^J JtfS 2UjUo CuTj 0^k3! JLflJ aU\ Jj-»j^ *^ ^4 

Ipjjaj ^iT ^1 u-T^iu ^ Jll "/dill Uli> 

(966/83) It is related by Umm Haani bint Abi Talib if* &\ 
"On the day of the Victory of Makkah (when the Prophet ill 
was in Makkah), Fatimah if* M came and sat on the left 
side of the Prophet lH while 1 was sitting on his right. In the 
meantime, a little girl brought something for the Prophet ^ and 
handed it over to him. The Prophet Hi drank a little of it, and. 
then, passed it on to me, and I, also, drank a little of it, and, after 
it, I told the Prophet lH that I was fasting and had voided the 
fast by drinking it. The Prophet lH enquired, 'did you want to 
make amends for any obligatory fast by measn of it?' 'No', 1 
replied, '(It was simply a supererogatory fast).' The Prophet 
O. A kind of sweetmeat perpared with dates and butter. 



474 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



thereupon, remarked, 'There is no harm if it was a 
supererogatory fast." (Abu Dawood, Tirmizi and Daarami) 

Commentary: It distinctly tellls that there is no sin in breaking a 
supererogatory fast before time. In another Tradition referring to 
the same incident it is stated that "a person who is keeping a 
supererogatory fast is free to complete it if he likes or to break it 
(before time) if he wants to do so for some reason." But in none of 
the two Traditions is it clarified whether another fast, on some 
other day, has to be kept as an atonement for it. The Tradition 
given below, however, contains the command for the expiatory 
fast. 

^Uk lli \ Jp y& U( oIT dill 3-iJlp cnv/Al) 

Q ^> y>i ^LtJLfi US' Ui <d!l Sy^ jk cili$ lw oUl^lii 

((^jUjJl eljj) 4Jt£a 'jA Ujj Caal J la <Ua bLTla aluy^j 

(967/84) Sayyidah Ayshah L^iii^ narrated "Both I and Hafsa 
1^*. in ^jsj were keeping a supererogatory fast when food was 
laid before us. We felt inclined to eat it and we ate it. After it, 
Hafsa ifrtf-ii^j said to the Prophet 'O Messenger of Allah! 
Both of us were fasting and (in that state) food was brought to 
us. We liked the food and ate it(and, thus, void the fast)." 'Keep 
an expiatory fast in place of it on some other day,' replied the 
Prophet III.' (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: It shows that when a suepererogatory fast is 
intentionally voided another fast should be kept to make amends 
for it. It is essential to do so, according to Imam Abu Hanifah ^ j 
<uU while Imam Sha'fee <uls- <oai "u^-j believes that it is only 
Mustahab. 



NATURE AND OBJECTS OF THE HAJJ 



Among the five principal tenets of Islam, the last is the Hajj or 
Pilgrimage to Makkah. 

What the Hajj denotes, briefly, is that the truthful Believers 
present themselves, on a fixed day, in the court of the Almighty, 
like His frienzied adorers, to express their fidelity to the legacy of 
His Friend, Sayyidina Ibrahim by emulating his example in 
every act and gesture, and to identify themselves with his sublime 
ideals and resplendent sentiments to the best of their ability. 

One aspect of the Glory of Allah is that He is the Allpowerful, 
the Absolute, the King of Kings, and we are His humble slaves. 
The other is that, in Him, all the attributes of Beauty and Elegance, 
which evoke the feelings of love and admiration, are assembled in 
their most perfect form, and, thus, He, alone, is Adored One, in the 
real sense. The former aspect of Might and Magnificence demands 
that the bondsmen appear before the Lord as the embodiments of 
humility and lowliness. The foremost practical duty in Islam, i.e., 
prayer (Salah), is typically representative of this state, and Zakah, 
too, is amply indicative of another feature of the unique 
relationship by demonstrating that the authority of the Lord 
extends over the wealth earned or acquired by the bondsmen as 
well. The latter aspect of Charm and Loveability requires that the 
attachment of the bondsman to God should be one of love and 
fervency. To some extent, this peculiarity finds its expression in 
fasting. To forego food and drink and to abstain from the 
grartification of carnal desires is among the degrees or stages of 
love. But the Hajj offers a complete manifestation of it. To wear an 
unsewn, shroud-like a garment instead of a stitched dress, to 
remain bareheaded and dishevelled, to refuse to have a hair-cut and 
to avoid pairing off the nails, combing the hair and applying oil to 



478 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



it and using perfume and taking a bath, and to utter the loud cry of 
Labbaik Labbaik (Here I am! Here I am!), and to walk round the 
House of Ka'bah, to kiss the Black Stone fixed in a corner of it, to 
embrace its walls and to weep and wail, and to go round about the 
hills of Safa and, Marwa, and then, to go out of the town of 
Makkha and stay sometimes in the wilderness of Mina, sometimes 
in the uninhabited region of Arafat and sometimes in the wasteland 
Muzdalifa, and after it, to throw pebbles, again and again, at 
Jamrat 1 which in fact, are the symbols of Satan — all these acts are 
commonly associated with those who are siezed with the sweet 
madness of love, and Sayyidina Ibrahim so to speak, was the 
founder of this glorious tradition. God took such a great liking to 
these deeds and actions of his that He made them the rites and 
ceremonies of the Hajj and the Umrah. 2 

The commandment enjoining, the Hajj was sent down, 
according to most reliable reports in 9 A.H. and the next year, only 
three months before his death, the Prophet Hi performed the Hajj 
with a very large party of the Companions which is, generally 
known as the Farewell Hajj. During it, the following verse was 
revealed to him at Arafat: 

This day I have perfected your 't\ -v<\ "\\ 



Though not expressly stated, it is included in the meaning of 
the above verse that the Hajj is the culminatiung tenet of Islam. 

If a bondsman is blessed with a correct and sicnere Hajj which 
is called Hajj Mabroor in the special terminology of the Shari'ah, 
and even if a particle of association with the Prophet Ibrahim 
and Muhammad HI is granted to him it will mean that he has, as 
one would say, attained the highest degree of felicity and obtained 
a boon than which there can be no greater gift or favour in this 
world. 



religion for you and completed 
My favour unto you. 

(Al-Maidah5:3) 




(f:° : flJJUJl) 



O. Denoting the three pillars at Mina. 

© Meaning the pilgrimage to Makkha at any time of the year other than that of 
the Hajj. 



Book o f Hajj 



479 



Obligatoriness and Superiority of The Hajj 

aJJi J>ij alp jii J^-j Jia t ,ii^P ^jili j-bJ( 

(968/1) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4^ related to us that one day 
the Messenger of Allah delivered a sermon in which he said: 
"O people! The Hajj has been enjoined upon you (and) so make 
efforts to perforin it." Someone asked: "Are we to perform the 
Hajj every year?" The Prophet l§l kept silent at the enquiry and 
did not give a reply till the questioner had put the same question 
thrice. The Prophet iH, then, remarked (with evident 
displeasure) : "If in reply to your question I had said. 'Yes: it has 
been made obligator) to perform the Hajj every year; it would 
have come to be prescribed like that. and. (then); you would not 
have been able to observe it." After it. the Prophet said: 
'Unless 1 give you an order about anything, do not try to take the 
order from me (and add to you duties by asking questions). 
People of the earlier communities were ruined because they 
asked too many questions from their Prophets, and. then, failed 
to obey the commands. Thus, (my advice to you is that) when I 
give you an order for anything, try your best to carry it out and 
when I forbid against anything, leave it." (Muslim) 

Commentary: In another Tradition referring to the same incident, 
and related on the authority of Sayyidina Ali 4fe>, it is indicated that 
proclamation by the Prophet of the obligatoriness of the Hajj 
and the aforementioned conversation with the enquirer had taken 
place upon the revelation of the following verse of .surah 
Aal-Imran: 

Pilgrimage to the House (of ^ ^jj, y. ^fj, Jj, Jjj 
Allah) is a duty men owe to / ^ , 

God those who can afford the 
journey. (Aal-lmran3:97) (<\v:T<o s s>* J t ) 



480 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



In this Tradition the name of the questioner has not been 
mentioned but in the account of Sayyidina Abdullah bin Abbas 
quoted in Musnad Ahmad, Daarami, and Nasai it is stated that he 
was Aqr'a bin Habis Tamini. He was among the Quraish who had 
embraced Islam after the Victory of Makkah, and. thus, did not 
have a full opportunity to receive guidance from the Prophet Hi. It 
was owing to it that he made the mistake of asking such a question 
and persisting with it when the Prophet did not give a reply. 

The Prophet's remark that if he had replied in the affirmative it 
would have become a duty to perform the Hqjj every year signifies 
that the qestioner should have realised that the command of 
obligatoriness of the Hqjj he had conveyed was enought to show 
that it was to be carried out only once in a lifetime. To make an 
enquiry after it could, also, have resulted in the Prophet's 
answering "yes" to it which would, of course, have been at the 
behest of God and, then, it would have become binding to perform 
the Hqjj every year and the Ummah consequently, would have been 
put to great hardship. 

Afterwards, the Prophet HH observed that a large number of 
people belonging to the ancient communities had been destroyed 
owing to the evil habit of asking too many questions. They added 
to their duties by making all sorts of enquiries from their Prophets 
fiLJ\ and, then failed to observe them. 

At the end, the Prophet $31 enunciated the principle "When I 
give you an order for anything, try your best to carry it out, and 
when I forbid you against anything, give it up." What it goes to 
show is that ease and toleration was the charactristic feature of the 
Shuri'ah brought by him and not severity and narraowness. One 
should sincerely try to observe it as best as one can for anything 
left wanting owing to human frailty or weakness is hoped that 
Allah will treat it with indulgenece and forgive it. 

Lj(j-A» jt ^J+i t)' g?H (*>J **N C-J j^Jl <ULj <UWjJ 



Book of Hajj 



481 



(969/2) It is related by Sayyidina Ali 4fe> that the Messenger of 
Allah lH said: "Anyone whom God has given enough to 
perform the Hajj. and he also, has a conveyance which can take 
him to the House of God, if he still fails to do so then it does not 
matter whether he dies a Jew or a Christian, and it is so because 
God has said: 

i * " ' ' " > , s $ * * 

(<\V:r Jl)*>C-->*3 | l£lJai-- > jj> cJJl £j>- ^Ul J)s- 4JJj 

Pilgrimage to the House (of Allah) is a duty men owe to God — 
those who can afford the journey." (Aal-e-Imran 3:97) (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: It imparts a most severe warning to those who do 
not perform the Hajj despite the fact that they possess the means to 
undertake the Pilgrimage, to die in such a state, according to it, is 
similar to dying as a Jew or Christian. It is comparable to the 
admonition which couples together the giving up of prayer and 
apostasy and polytheism as for the same class of transgressions. It 
is set forth, also, in the Qur'an: 

And establish prayer (and by * ^ ; ^ 

leaving it out) be not of those ' 

who ascribe partners unto Him. (^^"fJ^ 1 ) " -'JS, 
(Al-Rum 30:31) 

The Muslims who do not perform the Hajj though they are 
religiously obliged to do so have been compared, in this Tradition, 
to Jews and Christians and not to polytheists because it was the 
peculiarity of the Jews and Christians that they did not perform the 
Hajj while the polytheists of Arabia did so but they did not offer 
salah, and, hence, the habitual neglect of prayer has been 
condemned as the chracteristic of those who ascribe partners to 
Allah. 

Again, in support of the stern warning given in the above 
Tradition to those who do not carry out the Hajj although they can 
afford the journey reference has been made to the verse of surah 
Aal-Imran in which the prescribing of the Hajj as a duty has been 
proclaimed, i.e., 

Pilgrimage to the House (of Allah) ^j, * Vj, U Jjj 
is a duty men owe to God those who ' ~' - 
can afford the journey, £_lts-»l 
(Aal-e-Imran3:97) 



482 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



But it appears that the narrator stopped at reciting the first part 
of the verse while, in fact, the warning is based upon its latter part 
which reads: 

But if any deny faith (let him know that) Allah stands not in 
need of any of His creatures. (AaI-e-Imran3:97) 

(meaning that if, after this commandment, anyone adopts the 
attitude of the Infidels and fails to perform the Hajj even though he 
can afford the journey then God does not care. He is Independent 
of all His creatures). 

In it, those who possess the means and yet do not carry out the 
Hajj have been condemned as the deniurs of Faith and the 
admonition that God does not stand in need of His creatures has 
been administered to them which signifies that Allah is supremely 
unconcerned with what such ungrateful and defiant people do and 
in whatever state they die. 

u jia ^Lj JJ* J\ l\* Jis J>\ j*(\v./r) 

(970/3) Abdullah bin Umar narrated that a person came to 
the Prophet and asked: "What makes the Hajj obligatory?" 
"The wherewithal of the journey and the conveyance," replied 
the Prophet lH. (Tirmizi and Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: In the Qur'an those who can afford the journey has 
been laid down as the condition that makes the Hajj obligatory. 
The aim of the questioner, perhaps, was to seek an elucidation of 
the stipulation and the Prophet iH explained what it meant was, 
firstly, that a conveyance was available in which one could travel to 
Makkah, and, secondly, that there was enough money to meet the 
expenses during the journey. The jurists have, also, included the 
maintenance of persons who are dependent for their needs on the 
intending pilgrim which is self-evident. 

y* jJL-j dp iJJl JU> 4JJ» J}^ JlS JlS YySjb 'J} ^(nWi) 



Book of Hajj 



483 



(971/4) It is related by Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet ^ 
said: "Whoever perfomrs the Hajj and commits no lustful act 
during ti nor disobeys God (in any other way) shall return from 
it as pure and sinless as he was at the time of his birth." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: It tells that it anyone performs the Hajj and, during 
it, abstains from all lustful things and every other act of defiance to 
God which falls within the sphere of lewdness, his sins will be 
forgiven and he will return from it as spotless as he was when he 
had been born. 

j lS jbxJl al j j) 

(972/5) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4^e> that the Messenger of 
Allah iil said: From one Umrah to another (i.e., the two 
Umrah) become an atonement for the sins committed during the 
period intervening between them, and the reward on Hajj 
Mabroor (i.e., pure and untainted Hajj) is Paradise itself and 
nothing less." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

j^>J' ^jfu ^ , 4 J J i '^J J*^' cJ^sf 5 * ?J-^'j t>! 

3lj»«J| "it o( jj a jj^lJl J-^J 4*4*^ 
(^UJlj^jJlaljj) 

(973/6) It is related by Abdullah bin Mas'ud 4& that the 
Messenger of Allah said: "Perform the Hajj and Umrah 
again and again for both, the //«// and the Umrah, remove 
poverty and sins in the same way as the furnace removes the 
impurities of gold, silver and iron and there is no lesser 
recompense on a pure and sincere Hajj than paradise." 

(Tirmizi and Nasai) 

Commentary: It shows that whoever performs the Hajj or Umrah 
with sincerity of the heart takes a dip, as it were, in the Lord's 
River of Mercy and, as a consequence of it, the filthy effects of sins 
are washed away from him. Besides, in this world, too, the favour 
of God upon him is that he is relieved of poverty and indigence and 



484 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



prosperity and tranquility of the heart are bestowed upon him, and, 
again, the granting of Paradise in return for a pure Hajj is the firm 
and positive promise of Allah. 



the Prophet wgi said: "Those who make the Pilgirmage for the 
Hajj or Umrah are the guests of Allah. The petitions they make 
will be granted and if they seek deliverance from sins, their sins 



(975/8) It is related by Abdullah bin Umar 4^> that the 
Messenger of Allah said: "When you meet anyone who has 
performed the Hajj, greet him, shake hands with him and 
beseech him to pray for the forgiveness of your sins before he 
reaches his home for he is in the state that decision of 
forgiveness has been taken for him (and it is confidently 
expected that his supplication will be accepted). "(Musnad Ahmad) 

(976/9) It is related on the authority of Abu Hurayrah 4^> that 
whoever sets out with the intention of performing the Hajj or 
Umarh or for doing Jihad in the cause of Allah and dies in the 
way, the same reward is written down for him as is fixed for 
those who perform the Hajj or Umrah or carry out Jihad in the 
path of Allah." (Baihaqi) 

Commentary: This benevolent rule and principle has, also, been 
enunciated in the Qur'an which says: 




will be gorgiven. 



(Ibn Majah) 




Book ofHajj 



485 



And whoso forsakes his home 

with the intention of migrating i£> r^a jt^hj j*j 

towards Allah and His >,,{.*i.,,*i \ u 
Messenger, and death P flK>J **" 

overtakes him (in the way), his Jj) ^ ^jj j^j 

reward is then incumbent on f> s f> ,, ^ 

Allah. Allah is ever Forgiving, 0 ' ' : * .<^)C*-j l^iU' 
Merciful. (Al-Nisaa4:100) 

If anyone gets out of his house to do something for Allah but 
dies in the way then Allah gives him full reward for what he had 
intended. 



MIQA T IHRAM TALBIA 



Allah has proclaimed Ka'bah as the Qiblah of the faithful 
Believers and as His Own Bayt (i.e., House), and to make the 
pilgrimage to it and perform the Hajj, once in a lifetime, has been 
prescribed as a duty to God to all those who can afford the journey. 
He has, further, laid down some proprities for it one of which is 
that the pilgrims should not present themselves in their usual dress 
but in a mendicants robe which resembles the shroud and reminds 
them of the appearance they have to make before the Lord on the 
Day of Resurrection. No shirt, jacket, coat, sherwani, or trousers 
are to be worn; only a tahbund (a cloth sheet) is to be tied round 
the waist and a seamless sheet wrapped round the upper part of the 
body. The head has to be kept bare and no socks, not even shoes 
which cover the whole of the feet, are allowed. 1 There are, also, 
some other restirctions of a like nature the object of which is that 
the bondsman appeared in a condition that singinfied complete 
submission and indifference to wroldly comforts. But for the sake 
of the pirlgrms' convenience, it has not been enjoined that they start 
from their home wearing the Ihram 2 and observing the restristions 
that go with it. Were it so, the bondsmen would have been put to 
much difficulty. Till recently, pilgrims from many countries used to 
reach Makkah after travelling for months, and, even now, the 
journey for many of them, by land or sea takes several weeks. To 
abide by the rules and regualtions governing the state of wearing 
Ihram would, naturally, have proved very hard for most of them. 
So, some places have been marked out on different sides of the city 
of Makkah on reaching which a pirlgrim coming for the Hajj or 
O. It should be noted that these rules regarding Ihram are for men only. The 

women are permitted to wear stitched clothes, to cover their heads and to 

wear socks or shoes out of consideration for Hijab. 
©. Denoting the pilgrim's robe as described above. 



488 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



Umrah from a place lying beyond them is required to put on the 
Ihram. These are called Miqat. 

It should, moreover, be borne in mind that the assuming of 
Ihram does not simply mean the wearing of the two sheets but, 
after it, two rak'at prayer (salah) are, also, offered, and, then, 
Talbia is recied with a loud voice and in a full-thorated manner, the 
words of which are as follows: 



Ibbaik Allahumma labbaik; labbaik laa shareeka laka labbaik; 
innal-hamda wan nai'mata laka wal mulk; laa shreeka lak, 

(O Allah! Here I am! Here I am in Thy presence! Thou hast no 
partner! All praise is for Thee and from Thee are all blessings! 
To Thee alone belongs Power and Rule! Thou art without a 
partner!) 

After the recitation of Taliba, the pilgrim becomes Muhrim i.e., 
enters into the state of Ihram. The Pilgrimage begins with it and all 
the restrictions associated with Ihram come into force in the same 
way as a person offering prayer enters into the act of prayer on 
saying Takbir and the regulations prescribed for prayer become 
effective for him. 



(977/10) It is related by Abdullah bin Abbas 4$> that the Prophet 
Hi appointed Zul Hulayfa as the Miqat for the inhabitants of 
Madinah, and Al-Juhfa for the inhabitants of Syria, and Qarnul 
Manazil for the inhabitants of Najd, and Yalamlam for the 
inhabitants of Yemen; and these four Muaqifi are for the people 




Miqat 




(,»JL-.j^jUJUIjj) 




O. Plural of Miqat. 



Book ofHajj 



489 



who live in those places, and, besides them, for all those who 
come through them from other areas with intention of 
performing the Hajj or Umrah; and the people who are on the 
nearer side of these places (i.e., live between them and Makkah) 
shall put on Ihram on starting from their homes, and this 
procedure will go on like that until the inhabitants of the city of 
Makkah shall put on Ihram from Makkah. (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Jii J^i Jli (U^j ilJl Jb» Sy*) & jMr 'J- (1YA/1 \ ) 

(978/1 1) Sayyidina Jabir relates that he heard the Messenger 
of Allah ^ say: "Zul-Hulayfa is the Miqat for the people of 
Madinah and Juhfa is the Miqat for those coming by the other 
route, and Zaat-i-iraq is the Miqat for the people of Najd, and 
yalamlam is the Miqat for the people of Yemen." (Muslim) 

Commentary: In the narrative of Abdullah bin Abbas only 4 
muaqit are mentioned, Zul-Hulayfa, Juhfa, Qarnul Manazil and 
Yalamlam while in Jabir's narrative a fifth, Zaat-i-iraq is added for 
the inhabitnts of Iraq. There is, also, another minor variation in the 
two reports. In the former Tradition, Juhfa is described as the 
Miqat for the people of Syira, and, in the latter, for "those coming 
by the other route" which apparently, means that if the people of 
Madinah come by the other route i.e., through Juhfa to Makkah, 
they, too, can put on the Ihram from it. Some commentators, 
however, have held that the people of Syria are meant by the 
people "coming by the other route." In that case, only the difference 
of expression will remain in the two accounts. Anyhow, all the five 
Muaqit are positively marked out and universally accepted. Below 
we will describe them in a little detail: 

(i) Zul Hulayfa: which indicates the borderline of the city of 
Makkah for those coming from the side of Madinah is situated only 
at a distance of 5 miles from Madinah. It is the farthest Miqat from 
Makkah, being two hundred miles away, or, rather, two hundred 
and fifty miles by the present route. Since the inhabitants of 
Madinah bear a special affinity with Islam, the Miqat for them has 



490 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



been fixed at the greatest distance. They have a greater claim to be 
in the vanguard of those who strive in the path of Allah and 
observe the duties prescribed by Him. 

(ii) Juhfa: is the Miqat for people coming from the Western 
areas like Syria. It was a settlement near Rabigh which has, now, 
become non-existent but it is well known that it was situated near 
Rabigh which is a hundred miles from Makkah near the coast. 

(iii) Qarnul Manazil: Serves as the Miqat for those coming 
from the side of Najd. It is the name of a hill, about 35 miles to the 
east of Makkah; on the road leading to Najd. 

(iv) Zaat-ul-Iraq: is the Miqat for the people coming from the 
side of Iraq. It is situated about 50 miles to the north-east of 
Makkah, on the road leading to Iraq. 

(v) Yalamlam: is the Miqat for the people coming from the 
side of Yemem. It is a famous hill among the hills of Tahama and 
is situated about 40 miles to the south-east of Makkah, on the road 
that joins Yemen with it. 

As both the aforementioned Traditions show, the sacred 
Prophet lH had determined these five places as the Miqat for their 
own inhabitants as well as for those coming from the Haj'j or 
Umrah from areas lying beyond them. The legists are agreed that 
pilgrims coming from the side of any of the Muaqit must put on the 
Ihram on crossing them. 

The Robe of Ihram 

Vj jiii uffiiij jjl* Jb^: -/ju-i 

(979/12) It is related by Abdullah bin Umar 4& that once a 
person enquired from Messenger of Allah iH, "What clothes 
can a Muhrim wear?" The Prophet ^ replied, 'Wear neither the 
shirt nor the turban nor the trousers nor the cloak for keeping 
off the rain nor leather-socks except that anyone has no footgear 



Book of Hajj 



491 



to use in which case he can wear the leather-socks for the 
protection of feet after cutting (them) off from below the ankles, 
and also do not wear clothes that are scented with a saffron or 
vars." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: In this Tradition only a few clothes like the shirt, 
turban and trousers are mentioned which were in vogue during 
those days but the command applies to all the dresses that are or 
may be used in future by different peoples and in different 
countries for the purpose for which the shirt, turban and trousers 
etc., are worn. 

Saffron is a well-known substance while Vars is the name of an 
odiferous leaf of yellow colour. As both of these were used for 
scenting, the use of clothes to which saffron or vars is applied has 
been forbidden in the state of Ihram. 

The questioner wanted to know what clothes a Muhrim was to 
wear but the Prophet Hi told him what he was not to wear. This 
reply, in a way, contained the exhortation that the thing to be asked 
was not what kind of clothes should be worn by the Muhrim, but 
what was he to abstain from wearing for the effect of putting on the 
Ihram simply is that the use of certain clothes and things that are 
normally allowed becomes unlawful for people assuming it. The 
enquirer should, as such, have asked what kind of clothes and what 
acts were prohibited to a Muhrim. 

ail Jjij £w ilj^p J>\ (\K<I\X) 

(980/13) Abdullah bin Umar 4^ related to us, saying: "I heard 
Messenger of Allah ic|l forbidding women from wearing gloves 
during Ihram, and from using the vail to cover the face, and 
from wearing clothes scented with saffron or vars, and, besides 
they could wear coloured garments if they like, and they could 
wear ornaments if they liked, and, also, shirt and trousers and 
leather-socks." (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: It shows that the wearing of stitched clothes like 



492 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



shirt and trousers is disallowed only to men in the state of Ihram. 
Women are permitted to wear them owing to purdah and they can, 
also, wear leather-socks. Of course, they, too, are forbidden from 
wearing gloves and covering their faces with the veil but it does 
not mean that they kept their faces bare even before men with 
whom they were unacquainted. The Tradition only forbids regualr 
veiling of the face. In the presence of unrelated men they should 
screen their faces with cloaks eic. 

In Abu Dawood. it is quoted on the authority of Sayyidah 
Ayshah \#s- &\ "We, women, were in the company of the 
Prophet Hi during the Hajj, while in Ihram. (so because of Ihram 
we did not cover our faces with the viel). (But) when men used to 
pass by in front of us, we suspended our cloaks from our heads 
and, thus, observed the hijab, uncovered our faces when the men 
had moved away." 

From it, it is clear that women are forbidden from using the veil 
while in Ihram but they should screen their faces with the cloak 
etc. in the presence of strange men. 

Taking a Bath Before Ihram 

sljfa pL>j AW JU- ^\ ^ r, k>\ cub* Ji jJj jfi (^a \/\ i) 

(981/14) Zayd bin Thabit 4& related to us that he saw that the 
Prophet iH removed his clothes and took a bath for putting on 
Ihram. (Tirmizi and Daarami) 

Commentary: On the strength of this Tradition, the taking of a 
bath before assuming Ihram has been declared a Sunnah but it is, 
also, enough that one only performed Wudu for offering the two 
rak'at of Nafl for Ihram. In case one could not even offer salah and 
simply formulated the intention of putting on Ihram, it would also 
suffice and the Ihram would be in order. 



Talbia of Ihram 



Book of Hajj 



493 



(982/15) It is related by Abdullah bin Umar 4fe> that "I heard the 
Messenger of Allah iH reciting Talbia in such a condition that 
the hair of his head were fixed and arranged in order (as the hair 
of the head, generally, are after a bath). He was reciting Talbia 
thus: 

Labbaik Allahumma labbaik; laa shareeka laka labbaik; innal 
hamda wan nai'mata laka wal mulk; laa shareeka lak. 

(O Allah! Here I am! Here 1 am in Thy presence! Thou hast no 
partner! All praise is for Thee and from Thee are all blessings! 
To Thee alone belongs Power and Rule! Thou are without a 
patner). 

He was reciting only these sets of wordes in Talbia and not 
making any addition to them." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: Commentators remarked that God had invited the 
bondsmen to the Hajj through His Friend, Sayyidina Ibrahim 
as is, alos, mentioned in the Qur'an. Thus, as the bondsman recites 
Talbia after assuming Ihram he, so to speak, says in response to the 
call of Ibrahim $tM and the invitation of Allah that: 

"O Allah! Thou summoned me to Thy court and sent the call 
through Thy Friend. So, here 1 am in Thy presence, with all 
eagerness and submission." 



First Talbia of Ihram 

(983/16) Abdullah bin Umar 4^e> related to us, saying: "It was 
the practice of the Messenger of Allah to recite the Talbia of 
Ihram (after offering 2 Rak'at of prayer in the mosque of Zul 
Hulayfa) when he placed his foot in the stirrup of the camel near 



494 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



the mosque and the camel rose up with him (in the saddle)." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: There is a difference in the narratives of the 
Companions cjfe, over when and where the holy Prophet $H had 
recited the first Talbia of Ihram on the occasion of the Farewell 
Hajj. As we have seen above, according to Sayyidina Abdullah bin 
Umax's 4^> report, the Prophet £H mounted his camel near the 
mosque of Zul Hulayfa, after he had offered two Ra'kat of Nafl in 
it, and as the camel stood up with him, he recited the Talbia of 
Ihram for the first time, and, thus, became Muhrim from that time. 
But other reports have it that the Prophet iH recited the first Talbia 
after offering prayer in the mosque of Zul Hulayfa and before 
mounting the camel. In Sunan Abu Dawood and Mustadarak 
Haakim, the celebrated Taba'ee, Sa'd bin Jubayr, is quoted as 
saying "L enquired about this divergence from Abdullah bin Abbas 
4|s> and he explaied that the Prophet £H had recited Talbia 
immediately after offering the two Rak'at of Nafl in the mosuqe of 
Zul Hulayfa but only the few persons present near him, at that time, 
could know it. After it, when the Prophet Hi mountetd his camnel 
and the camel stood up, he again, recited it and it was his first 
Talbia after getting up on his mount and the people who heard it 
but had not heard the first Talbia imagined that he had recited it for 
the first time on mounting the camel. Later, when the camel had 
reached the place called Baida and the Prophet ill, once again, 
recited the Talbia those who had not heard the first two Talbia 
thought that he had recited the Talbia for the first time on reaching 
Baida. 

This should remove any misunderstanding regarding the time 
and place of the recitation of the first Talbia. of Ihran by the sacred 
Prophet. 

Talbia Should be Said With a Loud Voice 

&s> iJJt JL> Jjl Jli Jl5 iL>) If- eJtlJ! J> ffe- If (<\ A 1/ \ V) 

s * s 



Book of Hajj 



495 



(984/17) Khallad bin Sa'ib a Taba'ee related on the authority of 
his father, Sa'ib bin Khallad Ansari 4^&, that the Prophet Hi 
said: "Jibril came to me and conveyed the Command of Allah 
that 1 order my Companions to recite Talbia with a loud voice." 
(Mowatta Malik, Tirmizi, Abu Dawood, Nasai, Ibn Majah and Daarami) 

U <dl! J~p rtUl Jj-jj JlS J\3 Ji-.^ J^J^P ("U^ A) 

# * ' -- v 

(985/18) It is related by Sahl bin Sa'd that the Prophet H 
said: "When the faithful bondsman of Allah recites the Talbia of 
the Z/q/'/ or Umrah (and says, Labbaik AUahumma Labbaik) all 
the created things that are to his right and to his left, even the 
lifeless stones, trees or lumps of earth, also say Labbaik with 
him until the earth comes to an end from this side and from that 
side." (Tirmizi and Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: The Qur'an tells that everything that exists in the 
heavesn and the earth pays adoration to Allah and sings His 
praises, but the human beings do not hear it. In the same manner, 
the above Tradition shows that every object on the left and the 
right hand sides of the faithful bondsman joins him when he says 
Labbaik, though he cannot know about it. 

Special Supplication After Talbia 

i j e * ' ' > ' > * i > 
£ip -dJi JJp JjJi jp *L>\ ^ cjU Ji X£j9- Ji Yju* (S*CunM <\) 

Oliii^lj AisjJlj Ajtj^P j AJJ\ J Ll) AiJLj \S\ jlS" Aj\ jiJJoj 

(986/19) Umarah bin Khuzaymah bin Thabit Ansari related on 
the authority of his father "After the Messenger of Allah Wt had 
recited the Talbia (i.e., become a Muhrim on reciting it), he 
beseeched for His countenance and sought refuge in His Mercy 
from Hell." (Shafa'ee) 
Commentary: On the basis of this Tradition the theologists have 
shown preference for the supplication after Talbia in which Allah 
is implored for His good graces and for Paradise and protection 



496 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



from the punishment of Hell. There can, indeed, be no greater need 
or desire of a truthful bondsman than that he attained the favour of 
the Lord and gained entry into Heaven and secured protection 
against His wrath and against Hell. This is, therefore, the most 
suitable supplication for the occasion. After it, one can address 
whatever petition one likes to Allah. ' 

"Allahummah in-na nasaaluka rizaka wal jannata wa 
na'oozbika min ghazbika wan-nnar. 

(O Allah! I beg of Thee Thy good pleasure and Paradise. I, also, 
beg of Thee to spare me out of Thy mercy the Punishment of 
Fire. 



FAREWELL HAJJ 



There is a difference of opinion over the year in which the 
command prescribing the Hajj was revealed. The prevalent view, 
however, is that it was in 9 A. H., after the Victory of Makkah. The 
sacred Prophet did not himself, perform the Hajj that year but 
sent Sayyidina Abu Bakr <j^> as Amir Hajj, i.e., the leader of the 
Pirlgrimage to Makkah and the first Hajj was carried out under his 
leadership. Some important announcements were, also, made on 
that occasion one of which was that, in future, no apostate or 
polytheist would be allowed to perform the Hajj nor were the filthy 
pagan practices to be permitted. 

The Prophet Si, perhaps, refrained from performing the Hajj at 
that time because he wanted his Hajj to be so pure and perfect that 
there was not a single person participating in it who could defile it 
with rites and ceremonies of the Age of Perversion. It was to be a 
saga of light and virtue from the beginning to the end, presenting a 
true picture of his call and precepts. The Hajj of 9 A.H., under the 
guidance of Sayyidina Abu Bakr thus, was to serve as 
preparatory step to the Prophet's own Hajj in the following year. 

Anyhow, the Prophet £H decided to perform the Hajj in. 10 
A.H., which was the last year of his life and since he had recieved 
the indication that the period of his existence in the world and the 
mission assigned to him by Allah were drawing to a close, he took 
special care to make known his intention publicly so that as many 
Muslims as possible availed themselves of the opportunity of 
learning the rites and formalities of the Hajj and other precepts and 
commands of Faith by going along with him on the pilgrimage and 
having a share in the exquisite auspiciousness of his company 
during the journey. 

Thousands of Muslims collected in Madinah in response to the 



498 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



call. The 24th of Zul Qa'dah 1 was a Friday and the Prophet isH 
gave special instructions regarding the Hajj in the sermon he 
delivered on it and this magnificent party of pilgrims set forth from 
Madinah, after the Zuhr prayers, on Saturday, the 25th of Zul 
Qa'dah. The Asr prayer was observed at Zul Hulayfa where the 
Prophet Hi made the first halt. The Ihram, too, was to be worn 
from there. The night was spent at that placeand, on the next day, 
i.e., Sunday, the Prophet Hi and his Companions c^> put on the 
Ihram after the Zuhr prayer, and left for Makkah, reaching there on 
the 14th of Zul Hajjah. More and more pilgrims joined the party on 
the way. From 40,000 to 1,30,000 men are reported to have 
performed the Hajj with the Prophet What, however, is 
common to all the narratives is that there was a vast concourse of 
men and nothing but heads could be seen on all sides. 

During the Hajj, the Prophet 111 gave sermons on various 
occasions in which he made it plain that his time was near after 
which it would not be possible to obtain the knowledge of Faith 
directly from him. He took special pains to guide, instruct and train 
the people throughout the journey. 

Apart from the rites and regulations of the Hajj and the detailed 
methods of performing it, the Traditions relating to the event, also, 
contain some most important guidance regarding the different 
branches of the Shari'ah. 

In fact, so much was accomplished by way of teaching, 
preaching and propagation of Faith during the month-long journey 
as could, normally, not have been possible in several years.. This 
has led some front-rank leaders of the Ummah to infer that the 
most effective means to acquire the knowledge and blessings of 
Faith is companionship during a religious tour. 

We, now, proceed to quote first of all, the Tradition related on 
the authority of Sayyidina Jabir 4fe and Abdullah but as it is 
too long, we shall break it into parts for purposes of the 
Commentary. 



O. The name of the 1 ith month of the Islamic year, the 12th being that of Zil 
Hajjah in which Hajj is performed. 



Book ofHajj 499 

Details 

AiT ^ £ jitf 1 tSjj £ji p Jlp^l tijj £ji {g*\j j) 
CJLi lie ^1 jjU Jul ^Ap ^'j 

, f i. , 1 'if „ , 6 ' > . ' ;r . i. « . * 2 , , ' „ , , , ' , j , , t 

^jip <l^>- ^^Ip jj U yi^? ^ <ui l» isjJ? jjr^ 

a_1p iUl ^jL^j <UJl Jj~>>j jP ^j-^ cJUs ^4 <^s3 *~«s>&JUJt 

4-1* ^^U? Jj-'j o! J^* «4d (•^-'J 

4JJ1 Jj~^ pb (S' j***^ j*^" j - *^ ^4-^' (i^J 
AilJWli uIj' \^r'f*i ^Up Ji« J1«jj jiJLlij aIAp (>5 ^ 

^jJUai ^» j Oji^ i£ jiii-jlj ^^sP] Jl* ua^r ^JL^j aIIp <dJl 
fcj&b jit Aii^ ^) (JSiJli ajLlJ ^pj 4^*j ^pj 

Jl j ^ ^- J ^ £j ^ j( (fi Jl 

iiJl JU? Jjl J}^3 A ji ^ "-^ 



500 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 

» jJUjij tt'Jb j} f lis ^ j^J & j-^ j^Jjl ^1 

% Jjfe ji O 1 ^ cSi jrij f J*** Jfe ja 

js ^£r> ^ >>; 6^ ,ii 3 4* & ^ 4\ i'/i uta 

aJj Js&Ji £ Js^tf oj^- j iilt itytf Jl5j j ilj^ji 
aJL^ >jj iJLPj jssJ* ^ j AlJi «fl ^ j* J*J ^ 

Jji <tf Ol> ^ lla J15 JS3ti jrf l*S ^ oj^-j Or^tf ? >j 
jlT lit J*- uL*]l j* jrf Sj^Jl j* Jiii SjjJl 
J( Jlii iwxJ JiUlj ej^Jt j* jftj ?J^' j* ^'j^yi 

t^y-vt ^ sji^ij (^Lj iiji ^^Uj Jj' Jj-o^ t) 1 ^ (^*?- 

Utl3 Jbrji) (iJUj 4lip ^( ^Xji j^J\ j* Js> ^Jij 

^Ji cJ»> cis (Su j iiii ju Jjt *j jia 
j^- ^3 ^Jt^ii ^ l& jis JsJji^ ^ J*i Uj ; Jai Ji ^ dil jis 

iii ^ ij^Jj tfk j-uJi >J jii i ; u fa 4* iist 



Book of Hay 501 

ilji JL>. aJJ' Jj-^j Jt cr^" t)4^ ^ 

(la f'^" ffijfi'j (i^ <S* J^J c/^ 1 

^iJLl &*bpil ^ j>? ^ ll» (^'•^ i5? (i^ 

ilL»b«Ji Ujj JjJi-4 Xllis jJL«i liL^LLo ^j^' j^' 

J Jl ll J * * * ^ f J 3 s 3 & * ' ' 3 * " " * * 3* 3, 

^iP (t^jlj 4 J ^' *|4 jj (i^s? C-^y 

dl' IfAi J41J1 JL^i,i J\ ^U-U( J) U^i>: iiCUi 

J-^i JUi flit ^kJi JUi fi\ Ji J">C ; jii Jj oi^i 

c3Sjtj Jf^' Vjud\ c4*^j ^o i-. t Ji cJ 

J-isJoll ^I^Jl^«-L«J( ^ i\'ya&\ C£} p jlib ^liJl 
jj ^Jii yS\ liSlj Jji jiii flJbtjj aUaJ ejlTj ebiii iOl 



502 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



ir? J 1 ^' (*^ L5? J j?* U jAiS Lip t _ s laP' SAL ijJU jIs-jj 

J^kJ' ^jUia cJJt j^lila (U^ij 4llp <dJi ^^U? aJJi Jj-»j 
^UkiJlJ^P ^jj 'j*/*! f>»J ^^P ^-Iklll.Lp ju j\i 

La Uj-ii I jii « jlli j»£m* C-pJJ (Jj&J li-i ^jip JjLJI f^*i *^J^ 

(987/20) Jafar bin Muhammad, (the great drandson of Syyidina 
Husain bin Ali U-^t and porpularly called Imam Ja'far 

Sadiq). related to us on the authority of his father, Muhammad 
bin Ali', (known commonly by the name of Imam Muhammad 
Baqar), that 'some of us went to the Prophet's Companion, Jabir 
bin Abdullah He asked us to introduce ourselves (upon 
which everyone of us made himnself acquainted to him). When 
my turn came I said, 'I am Muhammad bin Ali bin Husain'. (He 
had grown very old and, also, had become blind). He placed his 
hand over my head (with affection), and then opened the upper 
button of my shirt, and. after it, the lower button, and then 
taking his hand inside the shirt, placed it over the middle part of 
my chest. I was quite young at that time, and (expressing his joy 
over my coming), he said, 'God bless you, my nephew! Ask 
freely whatever you want to aks! Meanwhile, the time of prayers 
(Salah) came. Sayyidina Jabir 4fe had wrapped a small sheet 
round his body which was so short that when he threw it over 
his houlders both of its ends came towards him. Though his 
mantle was hanging on the line nearby, (he did not think it 
necessary to wear it for the prayers, but led the congregation 

O. Muhammad bin Ali, i.e., Imam Baqar was born in 56 A.H. If he was even 14 
or 1 5 years old at that time of this meeting, Jabir <u* <Sii must have been over 
90. Sayyidina Jabir died at Madinah in 74 A.H. at the age of 94 years, and, 
according to reliable reports, he was the last of the Companions in Madinah. 
After his death, Madinah became bereft of the holy Companions. 



Book of Hajj 



503 



wrapped in the small sheet). When the prayer was over. I said 
to him, 'Tell me the details of the Prophet's Hajj (i.e., the 
Farewell Hajj) 1 , He replied, making a sign of nine with his 
lingers. 'The Prophet w* did not perform any Hajj for 9 years 
after coming to Madinah. Then, in 10 A.H., he had it announced 
that he intended to perform the Hajj that year. On receiving the 
information, a very large number of men thronged to Madinah. 
Everyone was eager to emulate his example, in the fullest 
degree, by accompanying him on the sacred journey. (When the 
day of departure arrived), the whole party left Madinah (under 
the leadership of the Prophet) and came to Zul Hulayfa and 
made a halt there for the day. Here an incident occurred (which 
was that) Asma, bint 'Umais L^iii^j, (wife of Abu Bakr 
Siddiq, who was also in party ), gave birth to a child. She 
enquired from the Prophet iHl what was to be done in those 
cirucumstances. The Prophet lH replied that she should take the 
bath of Ihram in the same condition, and bandage her private 
parts with a cloth as women do at such a time, and formulate the 
niyafl of Ihram. Afterwards, the Prophet offered the last 
prayer in the mosque of Zul Hulayfa (i.e., Zuhr), and mounted 
his camel, Qasawa, till when the camel reached Baida (which 
was a somewhat elevated plain with a flat surface near Zul 
Hulayfa), I looked around from the height and noticed that there 
were nothing but men, monted as well as on foot, on all sides, as 
far as the eye could see, and the Prophet was in our midst, 
and the Qur'an was being revealed to him, and he knew its 
reality and true significance. (Whatever he did was .thus, 
according to the Divine Will and Revelation), and our attitude 
was that we did what we saw him do. (So when the Prophet's 
III camel reached Baida), the Prophet recited the Talbia of 
Tawheed (i.e., Monotheism) with a loud voice: Labbaik 
AUahummu labbaik; labbaika laa shareeka laka labbaik; in-nal 
ham da wanna V mala laka wal mu Ik; laa shareeka lak. The 
Talbia which his accompanying Comapanions 4fe recited 
(indcluded a few more words), but though they recited it aloud, 
Prophet neither contradicted nor corrected them (but) he 
continued to recite his own Talbia (meaning that some of the 
Companions recited the Talbia which contained some 
additional words of veneration but since it was permissible, the 
O. Meaning the precise formulation of intention. 



504 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



Prophet £H did not check them. On his own part, however, he 
did not make any alteration in Talbia)' 

"Sayyidina Jabir 4fe went on to relate: 'In this journey our 
intention was simply to perform the Hajj. Umrah was not in our 
minds till we had completed the journey and reached the House 
of Allah (i.e., the Ka'bah) in the company of the Prophet *H. 
(On reaching there), the Prophet III carried out the Istilam^ of 
Hajr Aswad 2 (i.e., he placed his hand on it and kissed it and, 
then, he began the Tawafi) during which he did Ramaft (the 
first) three circuits and, in the remaining four, walked at his 
normal pace and in the normal way. (On completing the seven 
circutis of Tawaf), the Prophet life proceeded towards Muqam 
Ibrahim^ and recited the verse, 

Take Muqam Ibrahim as your f.,,, ,, u > .>'■ V 
place of worship, >^C^Wj 
(Al-Baqarah2:25) (Uo:XayJl) 

and, then offered prayer by standing at such a place that Muqam 

Ibrahim was between him and Ka'bah." (Imam Jafar Sadiq 

relates that), "my father used to tell that in those two Rak'at the 

Prophet recited the surah Qulyaa aiyyuhal kafiroon and Qui 

hu-wallahu ahad. He, then, again returned to Hajr Aswad, and 

once more, carried out its Istilamf* and, then, went out (for 

Sa'ee)~? towards the hill of Safa by one of the doors, and, on 

reaching close to it, recited the verse, 

i , t ' , i , * & * 
<dll jJvl£> ^ *Jj-^\j UiJaJl J) 

Lo! (the mountains of) As-Safa and Al-Marwa are among the 
Landmarks of Allah (Al-Baqarah2:158) 

After (reciting the verse), the Prophet Hi said: "I begin Sa'ee 

0. The act of kissing Hajr Aswad in each circuit of Tawaf. 

6. The Black Stone embedded in the wall of the House of Kabah. 

©. The ritual of going round the House of Ka'bah seven times, commencing 

from the Black Stone and having the Kabah on the left. 
O. Walking done at a rather brisk pace with short steps, with the chest thrown 

out and the shoulders moved in the style of a wrestler. 
©. A spot near Ka'bah. 

©. This Istilam was for Sa'ee. Just as Tawaf is commenced with Istilam, Is/Ham 
before Sa'ee is also sanctioned by the practice of the Prophet 

©. The ritual of walking at a brisk pace, seven times each way, the distance 
between the two hills of Safa and Marwa. 



Book ofHajj 



505 



from the very Safa mentioned in this verse by God.' So, he came 
to (the hill of) Safa and ascended it up to the point from where 
Ka'bah could be seen. He, then, stopped, and, with his face 
turned towards Ka'bah, occupied himself with the praise and 
golrification of the Lord. He said: Laa illaaha il-laahu wahdahu 
laa shareeka lahu, lahul mulki wa lahul hamdu, wa hua ala 
kulli shai-in qadeer, laa ilaaha il-lallaahu wahdahu anjaz 
wa'adahu wa nasara abdahu wa nasara abdahu wa hazamal 
ahzaaba wahdahu. (No one is worthy of worship save Allah; He 
is One and without a partner; His is the Kingdom and unto Him 
is due all praise and He hath power over all things. He hath 
fulfilled His promise (of granting ascendancy over Makkah and 
over the whole of Arabia and making His Faith supreme); He 
gave the fullest help to His bondsman, and He, and He alone, 
defeated the clans of polytheism and paganism). 

"The Prophet recited it thrice and entreated the Lord in the 
intervals separating the recitals. Afterwards, he came down (the 
hill) and proceeded towards (the hill of) Marwa. On reaching 
the lower part of the valley, he walked at his usual pace till he 
came to Marwa, and here, too, he did what he had done at Safa, 
and. as he reached Marwa, after completing the last round, he 
said to the Companions: "If 1 had thought of earlier what I 
thought later, 1 would not have brought the animals of sacrifice 
from Madinah and made the Tawaf and Sa'ee 1 have performed 
an Umrah. So, now, I tell you that those of you who have not 
brought the animals of sacrifice with them should put an end to 
their Ihram and make an Umrah of the Tawaf and Sa'ee they 
have performed." Suraqa bin Maalik enquired, 'O Messenger of 
Allah! Is the command for performing Umrah in the month of 
Hajj only for this year or forever?' The Prophet ill replied, 
entwining the fingers of one hand with those of the other, that 
Umrah had entered into Hajj not only that year but for all 
times." 

Commentary: For realising the significance of what the, sacred 
Prophet ill said at the conclusion of Sa'ee at. Marwa, i.e., those 
who had not brought the animals of sacrifice with them should 
regard their Tawaf and Sa'ee to be an Umrah and he would have 
done the same had he not brought the animals from Madinahh it is 
necessary to bear in mind that among the popular misconceptions 



506 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



of the Age of Perversion one was that it was strictly forbidden to 
perform Umrah in Shawwal, Zul Qa'dah and Zul Hajjah, which 
were commonly known as Ashhar Hajj, for the reason that the 
journey of the Hajj was undertaken during them. At the very 
outset, the Prophet Hi had made it clear that whoever liked could 
put on merely the Ihram of Hajj which in the special terminology 
of the Shari'ah was called Ifrad, or the Ihram of Umrah in the 
beginning, and, then, the other Ihram of the Hajj after performing 
the Umrah in Makkah, which was called Tamattu or a common 
Ihram for both the Hajj and the Umrah and formulate the Niyat of 
performing both of them with the same Ihram, which was called 
Qiran. On learning about it from the Prophet Hi, very few of the 
Companions £^> had, owing to their unusual circumstances, 
decided on Tamattu and assumed only the Ihram of Umrah at Zul 
Hulayfa, one of them being Sayyidah Ayshah <&' ^> 
Otherwise, most of the Companions 4sb had either put on the Ihram 
of the Hajj or of both, the Hajj and the Umrah. The Prophet Hi, 
himself, had assumed the Ihram of both, i.e., he had adopted the 
course of Qiran. Besides, he had brought the animals of sacrifice 
with him from Madinah, and the pilgrim who does so cannot end 
the state of Ihram until he has performed the Qurbani on the 1 0th 
of Zul Hajjah. Thus, the Prophet Hi and the Companions who, 
like him, had brought the animals with them could not remove the 
Ihram before the Hajj, i.e., before carrying out the sacrificial 
offering of the animals, but for the pilgrims who had not done so 
there was no such legal constraint. 

On reaching Makkah, it was felt more intensely by the Prophet 
Hi that for the eradication of the superstitious belief that to 
perform Umrah during the months of the Hajj was extermely sinful 
it was advisable to set, for everyone to see, a large scale example of 
acting in opposition to it, the only way to which was that the 
greatest possible number of Companions cj$p who had performed 
the Tawaf and Sa'ee with him put an end to the state of Ihram and 
to all the restirctions that went with it by deciding that the Tawaf 
and Sa'ee they had carried out was an Umrah and donned another 
Ihram for the Hajj at the appropriate time. But as the Prophet Hi 
had brought with him the animals of sacrifice such a course was 



Book of'Hajj 



507 



not open to him. That is why, he said that if he had realised in the 
beginning what he did latter on, he would not have brought the 
animals from Madinah and removed the Ihram, taking his Tawaf 
and Sa'ee to be an Umrah. But as now he could not do so himself, 
he was telling those who had not brought the animals with them to 
resolve that their 7awa/and Sa'ee were an Umrah and take off the 
Ihram. 

On hearing it, Suraqa bin Maalik, 1 who, till then, was under the 
imrpession that it was highly sinful to perform Umrah during the 
months of the Hajj, got up and enquired whether what the Prophet 

had said was meant only for the paritcular year or for all time. 
The Prophet all. in order to emphasise the point, joined the fingers 
of one hand with those of the other and declared that Umrah had 
entered into the Hajj in the like manner, and it could be performed 
during the months, and even in close proximity to the days of the 
Hajj. and the notion of its sinfulness was utterly wrong and based 
upon ingorance, and, further, that the command was not only for 
the time being but forever. 

To continue with the Tradition: 

"And And Sayyidina Ali 4fe (who had gone to Yemen for the 
collection of Zakah and other imposts at the order of the 
Prophet lH) arrived in Makkah, bringing some other animals 
for Qarbani by the Prophet all. He saw that his wife, Fatima 
Zahra if* &\ had taken off Ihram and become Halal [i.e.. 
come out of the restrictions prescribed for those adopting it] and 
was wearing coloured clothes, and, also had used collyrium. He 
thought it to be highly improper and expressed his displesure 
(and, according to the report quoted in Abu Dawood, said to 
her, 'who had told you to remome Ihram and become free from 
the attending restrictions?' Sayyidah Fatima if* replied 
'my father (i.e., the sacred Prophet) had given me the order (and 

O. He was the same person who, on the information supplied by his slave, had 
pursued the Prophet S when he was migrating to Madinah, in the hope of 
capturing him and winning the reward placed on his head, but as he had drawn 
close to the Prophet the legs of his mare had sunck into the ground. The 
mare, however, had come out safely as the Prophet & prayed at his request. 
Suraqa, then, returned to Makkah and remained true to his paganish creed till he 
had embraced Islam in 8 A.H., at the Victory of Makkah, along with the other 
inhabitatns of the town. 



508 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



I have done so in compliance with it)'. The Prophet then, 
asked Ali, 'What had you said when you formulated the Niyat of 
Hajj alone, as is done in Ifrad, or only of Umrah, as is done in 
Tamattu, or of both, as is done in Qirari)! 'I had formulated the 
Niyat thus', replied Ali. 'O Allah! I put on the Ihram of what Thy 
Messsenger has put on'. The Prophet iH> thereupon, explained, 'I 
had brought the animals of sacrifice with me (and owing to it, I 
cannot now remove the Ihram before the Hajj and you have 
formulated the Niyat of Ihram like that of mine). So, you are, 
also, to remain in the state of Ihram like me." 

(Jabir adds); "The total number of the animals of sacrifice the 
Prophet had brought with him and Ali 4§& had brought for 
him later was 100'. (In some traditions it is mentioned in detail 
that 63 camels had come with the Prophet $fl and 37 had been 
brought by Hazrat Ali 4is£> from Yemen). (Sayyidina Jabir 4^ 
related, further, that) "in accordance with the command of the 
Prophet lH, all the Companions wno not brought the 
animals of sacrifice with them removed the Ihram and cut short 
the hair of their heads after completing the Sa'ee of Safa and 
Marwa and became Halal and decided that the Tawaf and Sa'ee 
they had performed were an Umrah. Only the Prophet and 
the Companions who had brought the animals of sacrifice 
with them remained in the state of Ihram." 

Commentary: The Companions . $&> who removed Ihram on the 
adivce of the Prophet Hi did not shave off their heads but only 
cropped the hair because they wanted to earn the merits of shavin 
the head at the removal of the Ihram of the Hajj. 
To take up the Tradition again: 

"Then as Yaumul Tarwiya (i.e., the 8th of Zul Hajjah) dawned 
and everyone began to leave for Mina (and the Companions c$%> 
who had removed Ihram after the Sa'ee of Safa and Marwa and 
become Halal) assumed the Ihram of Hajj and the Prophet Wt 
proceeded towards Mina on his camel. On reaching there, the 
Prophet Hi and the Companions 4^ observed the Salah of 
Zuhr, Asr, Maghrib, Isha and Fajr in the mosque of Kheef), and 
stayed for some time at Mina after the Fajr prayers till when the 
sun rose, he left for Arafat, and he had ordered the tent of Sufi 



O. Meaning laying aside the restrictions. 

©. A kind of coarse cloth made of mixed cotton and wool. 



Book ofHajj 



509 



to be pitched for him at Namira* (the place from where the flat 
ground of Arafat begins). The people of his family of the 
Quraysh were sure that the Prophet Hfe will stay near the hill of 
Mash'ar-i-Haraam, as the Quraish used to do during the Age of 
Perversion (but he did not do so) and went beyond the limits of 
Mash'ari'-i-Haram to Arafat and saw that (according to his 
instructions( his tent had been pitched at Namira. He, thus, 
dismounted at the tent." 

Commentary: The ritualistic movements of the Hajj begin on the 

8th of Zul Hajjah which is called Yaumul Tarwiya. On its morning 

the pilgrims leave for Mina. While the pilgrims performing the 

Hajj by the method of Ifrad or Qiran are already in the state of 

Ihram, other pilgrims, too, put on the Ihram and proceed to Mina 

on the 8th of Zul Hajjah and stay there till the morning of the 9th. 

The sacred Prophet £H and the rest of the Companions 4$> who had 

brought the animals of sacrifice with them were in the state of 

Ihram at that time and the rest of the Companions who had 

removed the Ihram after performing Umrah assumed the Ihram of 

the Hajj on 8th of Zul Hajjah and the whole party of pilgrims left 

for Mina where it stayed for the day and proceeded for Arafat on 

the morning of the 9th after the sun had risen. 

Arafat is situated at about 6 miles from Mina and 9 Miles from 

Makkah. It lies outside the limits of Haram 2 . In that direction the 

area of Arafat begins where the territory of Haram ends. The 

tribals of Arabia who came for the Hajj went out of the limits of 

Haram to carry out the ritual of Wuqoof 3 at Arafat on the 9th of 

Zul Hajjah while the Quraysh who considered themselves to be the 

custodians of Ka'bah and called themselves the 'People of Haram' 

did not come out of those limits even for Wuqoof and carried it out 

O. It lies exactly at the point where the territory of Haram ends and from where 
the area of Arafat begins. The present mosque of Namira is situated at the 
border of Haram and it is said that its wall which is towards Makkah marks 
the dividing line between Arafat and Namira so much so that, God forbidding, 
if it collapses on the outer side, it will fall out of the territory of Arafat and in 
the valley of Nmira. 

©. The territory of Makkah, along with a certain defined territory on all its sides, 
is called Haram. 

©. The stay at Arafat between the declining of the sun from the meridian on the 
9th of Zul Hajjah and the dawn of the 10th of Zul Hajjah is called Wuqoof. It 
is the most important ritual ofHajj. 



510 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



within them near the hill of Mash'ar-i-Haram, in the territory of 
Muzdalifa. The regarded it a mark of eminence and distinction. In 
view of this family tradition, the Quraysh believed that the Prophet 
iil, too, would carry out Wuqoof near Mash'ari-i-Haram, but as 
the correct place of Wuqoof was Arafat, he gave the order, at the 
time of departure for Mina, that his tent should be pitched at 
Namira. 

To take up the Tradition again: 

'When the sun declined he (the Prophet HH) ordered for the 
saddle to be placed on his camel. The saddle ws (then) placed 
on the camel and he mounted it and came to the Valley (of 
'Orna) and from the back of the camel delivered a sermon in 
which he said: 

"O people! Your lives, your properties and your honour must be 
as sacred to one another as this sacred day, as this sacred month, 
and as this sacred town. Know it clearly that all the customs of 
the Days of Ignorance are trampled under my feet. (I proclaim 
their end and annulment)." 

"This day the retaliation for all murders committed in the Days 
of Ignorance is cancelled (i.e., no Muslim shall now take 
vengeance for a murder committed during those days), and 
foremost of all the murder of a member of my own family, i..e. 
of the son of Rab'i bin Haris bin Abdul Muttalib 1 , forgiven. 
"This day all sums of interest are remitted (i.e., no Muslim shall 
now realise the interest on the money lent by him), and in this 
regard, also, 1 , first of all, announce the remission of the sum of 
interest owed to my uncle Abbas son of Abdul Muttalib. 
"And O people! Fear God in respect of the rights of your women 
for you have taken them as the trust of God in your hands and to 
derive satisfaction from them has been made legitimate for you 
by His Command. Your special claim on them is that they do 
not permit anyone whom you do not like to come into your 
house and to sit in your place or on your bed, but if they ever 
commit a folly admonish them with kindness, and their special 
O. Rab'i bin Haris was the cousin of the Prophet ^L. His infant son whom, 
accroding to the Arab custom, a lady of the tribe of Banu Sa'ad had taken 
home for suckling and fosterage was killed at the hands of the people of the 
tribe of Hzail in a tribal conflict. The family of the Prophet ^ was entitled 
by the ancient Arab custom to avenge his blood. 



Book of Hajj 



511 



claim on you is that you feed and clothe them to the best of your 
ability." 

"And I am leaving for you the provision of guidance. If you 
abide by it and remain attached to it you will never go astry. It is 
the Book of God (i.e., the Qur'an). 

"And, on the Day of Resurrection, it will be enquired from you, 
on behalf of God, about me (whether I had conveyed to you His 
Message and Commandments). So, tell me, what reply will you 
give?' 

"And the valley resounded with the reply from the assmembled 
host, 'By our Lord! Verily you have conveyed to us the message 
and commandments of God and left no stone unturned to guide 
as (along the Straight Path) through kindness and good counsel.' 

"Upon it, the Prophet Hi raised his index finger towards the sky 
and said it thrice: 'O Allah, I beseech Thee, bear Thou witness 
unto it." 

"After it, Bilal *£jk> gave Azan (at his command) and called out 
the Iqamah and the Prophet Hi led the Zuhr service. Then, Bilal 
4fe, again called out Iqamah and the Prophet HH led the Asr 
service." 

Commentary: It is known for certain that the day of Wuqoof at 
Arafat fell that year on a Friday. The Prophet Hi, first, delivered 
the aforementioned sermon, after the declining of the sun, and, 
then, led both the Zuhr and Asr prayers together, at the time of 
Zuhr, without an interval. In this Tradition, Zuhr is distinctly 
mentioned which shows that day, the Prophet Hi did not offer the 
Friday prayer, but the Zhur prayer and the sermon he delivered was 
not of a Friday prayer, probably, was that Arafat is not an inhabited 
area a town or village but a stretch of waste-land a dry, vacant 
region and the Friday service is held only in a populated place. 

The guidance the Prophet H§l imparted in the course of the 
sermon was most suitable for the occasion. After the sermon, he 
offered the Zuhr and Asr prayers simultaneously, without offering 
even two Rak'at of Nafl or Sunnah between them. There is a 
complete agreement in the Ummah over the point that on the day of 
Wuqoof Arafat these two prayers should be offered like that, and, 
in the same way, on that day the Maghrib and Isha prayers should 



512 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



be offered together at the time of Isha on reaching Muzdalifah. The 
Prophet Hl'had done likewise as we shall see later. It is the correct 
time and manner of offering those prayers on that day, perhaps, for 
the reason that the distinction of Yaumul Arafat that, on it, even 
the timings of those prayers had been changed by Allah came to the 
knowledge of everyone, and, also ,that the whole of the afternoon 
was left free for Zikr and Du'a which were the real religious duties 
for that dav and the bondsmen did not have to spare time for a 
prayer from Zuhr to Maghrib or even Isha. 

Alluding, towards the close of the sermon, to the fact that his 
death was near the Prophet iH said that he will be leaving for his 
followers a complete provision of guidance after which they will 
never go out of the right way provided that they remained true to it, 
and it was the Qur'an. 

It is clear from the foregoing what the Prophet HH had in mind 
when during the last days of his mortal illness he had wanted 
something to be written down by way of a testament and about 
which he had said "after it you will never be misled ". The sermon 
at the time of the Farewell Hajj distinctly shows that the Prophet 
lH wanted to dictate as his last wish resolute and unswerving 
adherence to the holy Qur'an. he had, already, indicated in the 
sermon how great was the golry and splendour of the Book of God, 
and since Sayyidina Umar 4^> knew it and the Almighty had, also, 
endowed him with the courage to speak out boldly at the 
appropriate time, he had said that they knew, as a result of the 
training and guidance received continuously from the Prophet £H 
how profound and everlasting was the worth and value of the 
Qur'an; so why should trouble be taken to dictate the will when the 
sacred Prophet was so ill and feeling so restless. They 
remembered and shall always remember what the Prophet had 
taught: Hasbuna Kitabullah (The Book of Allah is sufficient unto 
us). 

The Tradition goes on to say: 

"Then, (after the Prophet had offered the prayers of Zuhr and 
Asr without a break), he mounted his camel and came to the 
place of Wuqoof at Arafat and made the camel stand so as to 
face the large rocks and had the multitude standing in front of 



Book o f Ha jj 



513 



him and turned his face towards the Qiblah and remained there 
till the time of sunset came and the paleness (of the latter part of 
the evening), too, disappeared and the sun wholly passed below 
the horizon, and, then, left (Arafat for Muzdalifa) and made 
Usama bin Zayd 4fe> ride on his camel behind him until he came 
to Muzdalifah (which was about 3 miles from Arafat). On 
reaching there, the Prophet III offered the Maghrib and Isha 
prayers together with one Azan and two Iqamah (i.e., the Azan 
was called only once but the Iqamah for Maghrib and Isha were 
called out separately) and between the two prayers, also, he did 
not offer any Nafl or Sunnah Rak'at. After it, the Prophet lay 
down and remained lying till it was daybreak and the time for 
Fajr had arrived. At the dawn, he celebrated the Fajr service 
with Azan and Iqamah, and, then, came to Mash'ar-i- Haraam 
(which was a ridge within the limits of Muzdalifa and it still is 
like that with the difference that a building has been constructed 
there as a landmark). On coming here, the Prophet Hi stood 
facing the Qiblah and occupied himself with supplication and 
glorification of the Lord till it was broad daylight. Then, a little 
after sunrise, the Prophet ill left for Mina and now made Fadl 
bin Abbas ride on his camel at the back. He set off till, as he 
entered the Valley of Muhassar, he somewhat increased the pace 
of his mount, and, on coming out of it, proceeded along the 
middle path that led to the biggest Jamra (i.e., Pillar), and, then, 
on reaching the Jamra which is near the tree, he carried out 
Rami' against it. He threw seven pebbles at it and said 
Allah-u-Akbar at each throw. The pebbles were like the pebbles 
of Khazaf (i.e., of the size of a pea that could be held between 
the thumb and the index or middle finger for throwing). He 
threw the pebbles at the Jamra from the low ground (near the 
Jamra), and, on finishing Rami, went towards the place of 
Qurbani (i.e., where the animals are sacrificed), and carried out 
the Qurbani of sixty-three camels with his own hand and left the 
rest to Ali for performing the Qurbani, and, (thus), let him 
join in the Qurbani offered by him (i.e., the Prophet iH). Then, 
the Prophet HH ordered a piece of meat to be taken from every 
camel that had been sacrificed. All those pieces were cooked in 
a cauldron and both, the Prophet l|& and Ali 4^>, ate the meat 
and drank the broth. Then, the Prophet $fl proceeded to the 
O. The ritual throwing pebbles at Jamrat. 



514 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



House of Allah on his mount for Tawaf Ziyarar and offered the 
prayer of Zuhr at Makkah. At the conclusion of the prayer, the 
Prophet life went up to th members of his family (i.e., Bani 
Abdul Muttlib) who were drawing water from Zam Zam and 
giving it to the people to drink. He said to them, 'If there was 
not the danger that other people forcibly took away this service 
from you, I would, also, have joined you in pulling out the 
pitcher'. They, drew out a pitcher from Zam Zam and gave it to 
the Prophet from which he drank." 

Commentary: The principle rite of the Ilaij is Wuqoof Arafa, i.e., 
standing on th 9th of Zul Hajjah in the presence of the Lord in the 
table-land of Arafat, after Zuhr and Asr Diayers on the declining of 
the sun. The above Tradition show s how long was the Wuqoof the 
Prophet £H had performed. He had offered the Zuhr and Asr Salah 
soon after the time prescribed for the Zuhr began, and, then, stayed 
there till sunset. Afterwards, the Prophet iH left directly for 
Muzdalifa where, as we have seen, he offer the Maghrib and Isha 
services simultaneously. 

On that night, in Muzdalifa, the Prophet HH rested after the Isha 
til] Fajr and altogether omitted the Tahajjud though he never 
missed it even in a journey, probably because he had been very 
busy throughout the 9th Zul Hajjah. In the morning, he had 
travelled from Mina to Arafat where he, first, delivered the historic 
sermon, and, then, carried out the Wuqoof continously till Maghrib, 
and, immediately after that, jourenyed over to Makkah. Thus, from 
Fajr till Isha he had remained constantly occupied and on the 
move. On the next day, the 10th of Zul Hjjah he had, again, to keep 
busy. He had to travel, in the morning, from Muzdalifa to Mina, 
and, on reaching there, at first, to perform the Rami of the Jamrat, 
and, then, to carry out the Qurbani of as many as 63 camels with 
his own hand, and, afterwards, to go from Mina to Makkah for 
Tawaf Ziyarat, and, then, return to Mina. 

Anyway, as the schedule for the 9th and 10th of Zul Hajjah was 
so heavy and tiring, it was necessary to rest properly during the 
night between them at Muzdalifa. The body, too, has a claim and 
its resources are, after all, limited. In such congregations, in 
O. The ritual of circumambulation performed after the Qurbani has been done at 
Mina. 



Book of Hajj 



515 



particular, it is essential to make an allowance for one's physical 
needs so that the aspect of leniency may, also, be felt by the people 
and they can appreciate the temperate nature and moderate 
disposition of the Shari'ah. 

It is distinctly stated in this Tradition that the Prophet Hi had 
perfomred the Qurbani of 63 camels with his own hand. These 
were, perhaps, the camels he had brought from Yemen, he got 
sacrificed by him. The figure of 63 significant. The Prophet Hi, 
then was 63 years of age, and, thus, he made, an offering of a 
camel for every year of his life in thanksgiving. 

The Prophet Hi and Sayyidina Ali 4fe had the meat of the 
animals sacrificed by them cooked and they ate it and drank the 
broth. It shows that a person can partake of the meat of the animals 
offered by him in sacrifice as well as give it to Kinsmen to eat. 

On the 10th of Zul Hajj ah the Prophet H went ot Makkah, 
after finishing with the Qurbani, for Tawaf Ziyaral. It is better to 
perform Tawaf Ziyaral on the 10th of Zul Hajjah, after the 
fulfliment of the ritual of Qurbani, but it can, also, be delayed. 

From ancient times it had been the privilege of Bani Abdul 
Muttalib to draw water from the well of Zam Zam and offer it to 
the pilgrims. As the Prophet Hi came to Zam Zam, after carrying 
out Tawaf Ziyaral and saw his kismen performing the enviable 
task, he felt like taking a hand in it. But he thought that, then, all 
his Companions would, also, want to participate in it, in emulation 
of his example, and, in the upshot, the members of his family 
would be deprived of the time-honoured right. The sacred Prophet 
Hi, hence, expressed his wish for the sake of their encouragement 
and, also, explained why he had preferred not to join. 

The above narrative, as we have remarked already, contains the 
longest and most detailed account of the Farewell Hajj. Yet a 
number of events have been left out in it, including even the ritual 
of Halq ] and the sermon of the 10th of Zul Hajjah which are 
mentioned in other Traditions. 

In some other versions of the same Tradition it appears that the 
Prophet ill said: 

"I have performed Qurbani at this place but the whole area of 



O. Meaning the rite of shaving the head. 



516 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



Mina is the place of Qurbani. You can, therefore, perform 
Qitrbani at your place (i.e., where you are staying at Mina). 
(Similarly), 1 have carried out Wuqoof here (i.e., near the big 
rocks), but the whole of Arafat is the place of Wuqoof, and I 
have halted here (i.e., near Mash'ar-i- Haraam), but the whole 
of Muzdalifa is the place of halting. (One can stay for the night 
in any part of it)." (Muslim) 

'J> AlLls pJt->3 aIIp 4JJ1 JJfi ^1 'yxj J is y^r ^p ( <\ a A/ Y ^ ) 

(988/21) It is related on the authority of Jabir bin Abdullah 4^> 
that the Messenger of Allah lH had, in his Hajj, performed the 
Qurbani of a cow on behalf of his wives. (Muslim) 

yj\ {L>j $s> iUl JU> Jjl J^j '$"J*'J- Y) 
fjs-Jl {Jss-W o'j bM^bfj b£*Ab J-lijl 5' J 

(989/22) It is related on the authority of Sayyidina Ali 4l> that 
the Prophet Hi ordered me to supervise the disposal of the 
animals sacrificed by him and to give away their meat, hides 
and entrails in charity and to desist from giving anything out of 
them to the butchers (as their wages). He said: "I shall pay them 
for their services from my pocket)." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

S^Jl Jfc Jj> J\ pLj <Op & J*° 1 & 'J- O \ ' fy V) 

iii JjJbUt JjUj Jj*>UJb lPi pJ A^LLjykjj l J^> tijii Ji\ p UUji 

r& ^ J jU (tf •<! s ^ JfjUJVi i*Ufcbi ipS pi tiki ^tfi 

^bJl jrf iLJl jua iUt bl etJap'l* tiki jl^l Jlii 

(990/23) It is related on the authority of Anas bin Maalik 4fe 
that when the Prophet Hi came to Mina (from Muzdalifa, on the 
morning of the 10th of Zul Hajjah, he first went to Jamrat 
ul-Uqaha^ and performed the Rami of it, and, then, came to his 
tent and performed the Qurbani of the animals. After that, he 
O. Meaning the last Pillar. 



Book ofHajj 



517 



called the barber, and, first, brought the right side of his head 
before him and the barber shaved that side (of it). The Prophet 
Hi, then, called Abu Talha and gave the hair to him. He, 
then, brought the left side of his head before the barber and said: 
"Now, shave it also". The barber shaved that side (of the head) 
as well, and, then, the Prophet Hi gave the hair, again to Abu 
Talha and said: 'Distribute the hair to the people." 

(Bukhai'i and Muslim) 

Commentary: The incident of shaving of the head by the Prophet 
Hi had not been mentioned in Sayyidina Jabir's 4fe> prolonged 
narrative though it forms one of the main rites of the Hqjj that are 
to be performed on the 10th of 'Zul Hajjah. 

The corrrect way of Halq. as we learn from the above Tradition, 
is that, first, the right side of the head should be shaved and. then, 
the left. 

On this occasion the sacred Prophet sH> gave his hair to Abu 
Talha Ansari who was one of his devoted Companions. He had 
covered the Prophet Hi with his body, as with a shield, and taken 
all the arrows on himself during the assualt by the pagans of 
Makkah in the Battle of Uhud. Besides, he was particularly 
solictious of the comfort of the holy Prophet Hi and took a keen 
interest in entertaining his, i.e., the Prophet's guests in a kindly and 
generous manner. In fine, Abu Talha 4fe and his wife, Umm 
Sulaym (the mother of Anas were conspicuous for such acts of 
service and it was, perhaps, for that reason that the Prophet Hi had 
handed over his hair to him, and, also, had it distributed through 
him to others. 

It, thus, furnishes, a clear support to and justification for the 
institution of the preservation of the relics of holy men. 

Most probably, the "blessed hair" of the Prophet Hi which are 
said to be preserved at various places and about the genuineness of 
which reliable evidence is available are from among the hair 
distributed on the occasion of the Farewell Hajj. Some reports 
show that Abu Talha 4fe had given one or two hair each to the 
people. In this way. these would have come into the possessions of 
thousand of Companions J®, and their descendants would have 
taken the fullest care to protect and preserve the holy relic. Hence, 
there is nothing strange that some of the hair are still preserved at 



518 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



some place. But to proclaim any hair to be the "blessed hair" of the 
Prophet iH without an authentic proof if a very grave matter. 
Anyhow, whether false or geniune, to make it or its display a 
source of money- making is shameful in the extreme. 

j> J 15 *lip ill! Jut Jjt J^ij # ji* jil ^ (<\ <\ \/y 1) 

jjj./ifl.oltj Jl5 4JJ1 J j-lijli jj j . haj \j Ij]l5 Jjjj&U^ajI 

(991/24) Abdullah bin Umar «&> related to us that, d uring the 
Farewell Haj, the Messenger of Allah iH said: "Blessings of the 
Lord be on them who had their heads shaved here." Some of the 
people said: "O Messenger of Allah! Make the same prayer for 
those, also, who haw their hairs cropped." The Prophet Hfe, 
again, said: "Blessings of the Lord be on them who had their 
heads shaved here." When they repeated the request, the Prophet 
Wa said, at the third time, "And the blessings of the Lord be on 
them, also, who had their hairs cropped here."Bukhari and Muslim 

Commentary: to have the head shaved or the hair cut short out of 
habit or necessity is not an act of worship, but as the shaving of the 
head or the cropping of the hair in the Hujj or Umrct is an 
expression of servility and submission on the part of the bondsman, 
it constitutes a special form of worship and the rite should be 
carried out in the same spirit. Moreover, as there is a great display 
of servility and humbleness in having the head shaved than the hair 
cropped, it enjoys a superiority over it and. that was why, .the 
Prophet HsHfe gave preference to those who had their heads shaved in 
the prayer of mercy. 

j&\ f jj jJLj 4& aJJI JU ^Jl £la^ Jtf Sjft ^'j^C^Y/Y 0 ) 
Jil illJl J?'fi\} Cj\yJJ\ lUt jLi- ^ is£g ^UjJl JlS 

^j?JLi\'j k^^jij SJuiiiMji oG\jii (£Jfi ^'j?- ajuj\ 1§L» l^gJs ^JLt 

> * it,'' 

^ ilia i^Jl li J 1 ^ J^. h*rA^ ^ ts 5 * - £■>■'■■* (i^l 



Book of Hajj 



519 



Jju a.X..wL^ 4Ji uJ? cJwi jiip' *Jj-!jjj iiJi uls (JL» al; <£i J is 

^Ipi iij^jj ^ uli ii» ^ ^ jis Jii ul sib'i jjft jil 

jil ^ Uls yxjl fji t ^IJl jl3 <uJj1 ^ju <uLll-> <UI Ujs> cJCU 

^ " 3 ^ 3^3 3 5**' 3 ' 3 3 * " > * " " % 

J 13 j»ju IjJlS C**li Ji ^1 jianj (♦^"J ^ j^A), ^*>L> 'i^y 

£«l~j 'jA <1>'jS CJ&s laLUi ^Ulls JL^i( ^JJt 

(992/25) It is related on the authority of Abu Bakrah Thaqafi 4fe 
that the Prophet l§l delivered a sermon on the 10th of Zul 
Hajjah (during the Farewell Hajj) in which he said: 'Time has 
returned to its original state, as it was when the heavens and the 
earth were created. The year is only of full twelve months out of 
which four are sacred-three months in succession. Zul Qa'dah. 
Zul Hajjah and Muharram, and Rajah which falls between 
Jamadi-uth-Thaani and Sha'ban and is held in a greater esteem 
by the tribe of Muzar. Then, the Prophet said: "Do you know 
which month is this?" 'Allah and His Messenger knows best', 
we replied. So, he remained silent for some time, so much so 
that we thought he was going to give some other name to the 
month, (but) he said: 'Is it not the month of Zul Hajjah? 'Of 
course, it is Zul Hajjah', we replied. Then he said. 'Do you know 
what town is this?' We replied: 'Allah and His Messenger 
know best.' He, then, remained silent for some time till we 
thought he was going to give some other name to the town, 
(but) he said: 'Is it not Balda?' 1 'Of course , it is Balda'. we 
replied. Then, he said 'Do you know what day is it today?' We 
replied: 'God and His Messenger know best.' Upon it, he said, 'Is 
it not Yaum-im- NahrT After it, the Prophet sH> observed: 'Your 
lives are your property and your honour are forbidden to one 
another (i.e., it is not permitted to you to kill anyone unjustly or 
to lay your hand on anyone's property or honour; these are 
forbidden forever) as you consider it forbidden on this sacred 
day, in this sacred town and in this sacred month to kill anyone 
or to infringe on his property or honour.' After it, the Prophet 
O. Balda was one of the names of Makkah. 



520 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



$m said, 'Before long, in the Hereafter, you are to meet your 
Lord who will call you to account for your deeds. Now, listen, I 
warn you not to go so far astray after me that some of you begin 
to cut the throats of others.' After it, he asked them, 'Tell me 
have I conveyed the message of the Lord to you.' They all 
replied with one voice. 'Of course, you have.' (The Prophet lH, 
then, said), 'O Lord, I beseech Thee, bear Thou witness unto it.' 
After it, he said to the people, 'Let those present take this 
message to those absent. Many people who come to know of a 
thing from one who had heard it are more capable of 
remembering it than those who have heard it (directly)." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: In order to appreciate the Prophet's all remark that 
the time had returned to its original stale it needs be remembered 
that an erraneous custom among the poiytheists of Arabia was that, 
sometimes, according to their needs or convenience, they used to 
assume about a year that it consisted of thirteen months by making 
a month occur twice in it which threw the entire arrangement of 
time into months and years into disorder and make it unreliable. 
Thus, the Hajj which, according to their calculation, fell in the 
month of Zul Hajjah did. in fact, not fall in it. But after hundreds 
of years of rotation in the Age of Perversion it so happened that 
what, for instance, was the month of Muharrum in their view was 
also the month of Muharrum by the celestial arrangement and the 
month they considered to be Zul Hajjah. in fact, was Zul Hajjah. 
The same thing was stressed by the Holy Prophet in his sermon. 
He made it clear, through it, that the Zul Hajjah in which that Hajj 
was taking place was Zul Hajjah also by celestial calculation and a 
year considered of only twelve months and it was now going to be 
like that till the end of time. 

At the end of the sermon the Prophet &§l exhorted the Ummah 
not to fall a prey to internecine conflicts which were wholly 
opposed to the spirit of Islam. The Prophet had administered 
this warning to his followers on many onther occasions also 
perhaps because it had been revealed to him, in some measure, that 
Satan was going to be really successful in sowing the seeds of 
discord among them. 



PRINCIPAL RITUALS AND 
CEREMONIES OF THE HAJJ 



Almost all the rites and ceremonies of the Hajj have come to be 
mentioned in the Traditions regarding the Farewell Hajj. We will 
now see what his teachings and actual practice were in respect of 
each one of them, taken individually. 

Entry into Makkah and the First Tawaf 

The unique honour bestowed by Allah on the city of Makkah. 
by virtue of its association with the House of Ka'buh. demands that 
one enters it with proper attention and reverence, and, next to it. is 
the claim of the holy Ka'bah that its Tawaf is performed before 
everything else. The blessed stone, i.e.. Hajr Aswad which is 
embedded in a corner of the Ka'bah and bears a close association 
with Almighty and Paradise, then, requires that Tawaf should be 
commenced with its htilam. Such was the pracitce of the holy 
Prophet and this was what the Companions had learnt from 
him. 

is'jo til< oU i\ iL> 'f&i 5iT 'J>\ 1\ jis £iu ^ (i <\r/Y n> 

ij^ff ijX) "jA \jfr*yij J^"-^ LS^iJ J-T^J £r*^i 

(993/26) It is related by Nafi, the special attendent of Abdullah 
bin Umar that whenever Abdullah bin Umar 4fe> came to 
Makkah he spent the night at Zi Tuwa 1 before entering the town 
till at daybreak he took a bath and offered prayer (Salah), and. 
then, entered Makkah during the day, and when he returned 
O. The name of settlement near Makkah. 



522 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



from Makkah then, too, he spent the night at Zi Tuwa and 
departed from there in the morning, and Abdullah bin Umar 4fe 
used to say that it, also, was the practice of the Messenger of 
Allah lH. (Bukhari and Muslim) 

i& ^»jJ ill j*L>j <0s- *h\ Jjl J^ij l\ Jli ji^r ^ (<\ <\ i/Y V) 

(j^L^ailjj) IajjI j^JLaj liii (J-*j3 f'j^h! cr 4 ** - * j*^ ^^JbJiili j%i?tS\ ^\ 

(994/27) It is related by Jabir that when the Messenger of 
Allah Hi arrived at Makkah, first of all, he came to the Black 
Stone and carried out its Istilam, and, after it, performed the 
Tawaf from the right side of it(in such a way) that in the first 
three circuits he did Ramal and in other four, he walked at 
normal pace. (Muslim) 

Commentary: Every Tawaf begins with the Istilam of the Black 
Stone which denotes the act of kissing it or touching it with the 
right hand, and, then, kissing the hand or stretching the arms 
towards it with the palms turned in its direction, and, then, kissing 
the palms. Seven circuits round the House of Ka'bah are performed 
in each Tawaf. 

A peculiar kind of gait which gives the impression of vigour 
and strength is called Ramal. It is related that when, in 7 A.H., the 
Prophet iH came to Makkah for Umrah, with a large party of 
Companions, the Makkans remarked that the unfavourable climate 
of Makkah had told upon their health and make them weak. As the 
news reached the Prophet iH, he ordered that the first three circuits 
of the circumambulation should be performed in the style of Ramal 
so that the impression of the lethargy or enervation of the 
Companions might be dispelled. It appeared to Allah and He make 
it into a permanent practice. It is still observed and in the first three 
circuits of the initial Tawaf the pilgrim performing the Hajj or 
Umrah carries out, and, after which, the Sa'ee between Safa and 
Marwa is performed, walking is done briskly, in the manner of 
Ramal and, in the remaining four, at usual pace. 

J^-^i ji-j a^p iill J-p aJJi J)^ jJl Jli lyfjt ^ (<\ <\ o/ y A) 



Book of 'Hajj 



523 



(995/28) Abu Hurayrah 4fe narrated that when the Messenger of 
Allah lH came the first thing he did, after entering Makkah, was 
to go near the Black Stone and carry out its Istilam. After that, 
he performed Tawaf and, then, came to the hill of Safa and 
ascended it up to the point from where the House of Ka'bah 
could be seen, lie, then raised his hands (as one does while 
supplicating to the Lord) and occupied himself with prayer and 
supplication as long as he liked. (Abu Dawood) 

(996/29) Abdullah bin Abbas 4#& narrated that in the Farewell 
Hajj the Messenger of Allah ^ performed the Tawaf of the 
House of Ka'bah riding on a camel and in his hand there was a 
walking stick with a curved handle with which he carried out 
the Istilam of the 'Black Stone." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: In Sayyidina Jabir's ^fe narrative it is distinctly told 
about the Prophet's Tawaf that, after carrying out the Istilam of the 
Balck Stone, he proceeded towards the right and began the Tawaf 
in the first three circuits of which he did Rama! while in the 
remaining four, walked at normal pace. It shows that the Prophet 
•t^L had performed the Tawaf on foot. The above Tradition, quoted 
on the authority of Sayyidina Abdullah bin Abbas on the other 
hand, tells that the Prophet ill had done the Tawaf riding on a 
camel. There is. however, no contradiction between the two 
reports. On reaching Makkah the Prophet had performed the 
first Tawaf on foot which has been carried out after it, on his return 
to Makkah from Mina on the 10th of Zul Hajjah, was performed 
while he was seated on the camel in order that those who wanted to 
ask anything from him could easily do so. The camel, so to say, 
was serving for a platform at that time. Moreover, he might be 
wanting to show by his own conduct that, in special circumstances, 
TciM af cov\&, also, be performed by means of transport. 

(JL) iJJi JU Jj' Sj^j J 5 ! &'j&> cJ^ iiL ^(^v/r.) 



'524 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



(997/30) It is related by Sayyidah Umm Salmah if* "(in 
the Farewell Hajj) I informed the Prophet III that I was ill. (So, 
how 1 was to perform Tawaf)? The Prophet ls§l replied, 'Perform 
tawaf by riding in the rear of the people.' [, thus, performed 
Tawaf in that Manner, and, at that time, the Prophet III was 
offering prayer by the side of the House of Allah, and, in it, he 
was reciting Surah At-Tur." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

'jt IW^j ds- JU {Jl\ g> (Jr'yf- cJli liolP Wr \ ) 
Uij jJLj As- 4JJ1 JU> {gJ\ J>JLi clS UT Uli *i\ 
JLp aJJi <sT o0 J 1 * ^ cis c-lji ^_SCl*J Jlii ^Ci 

^ lT*" 6' J** J*&* f ^ 

(998/31) It is related by Sayyidah Ayshah If* *»i "(in the 
journey of the Farewell Hajj) we set forth from Madinah, in the 
company of the Messenger of Allah ^1. We all were talking of 
nothing but the Hajj till as we reached the place called Sarif 
(from where Makkah was only a short distance away), my 
monthly periods began. When the Prophet came in the tent 
and saw me crying he said to me, 'Perhaps your menses have 
started.' 'Yes', 1 replied. 'It is like that.' The Prophet said. 
'(There is nothing in it to cry about). It is one of those things 
which God has made necessary for the daughters of Adam (i.e., 
for all women), Perform all the rites of the Hajj like the other 
pilgrims but do not perform the Tawaf Ka'bah till you get 
clean, (i.e., the menses stop)'." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

(^J ,aJ, J J^b fll JJ) 

(999/32) It is related by Abdullah bin Abbas 4& that the Prophet 
Hi said: "The Tawaf of the House of Ka'bah is worship of the 



Book of Hajj 



525 



same class as prayer (Sa/ah), the only difference being that in 
Tawaf you are permitted to talk. So, whoever talks to anyone in 
Tawaf should talk only of good and virtuous things (and abstain 
from vain conversation)". (Tirmizi, Nasai and Daarami) 

j^Lj aIp Ab\ J^fi Jjt Jj^j C-i«-> Jll jj\ If ( \ . . . /TT) 
£al»-l>j Ijlk^JJ 0 jUS* (^iUJl {£^5 j^^ 1 ) U^'^-**** (S) Jj*i 

"i^J>~ [fy C^fj ^ ^ ^! (^y -1 ^ J ^ 

(1000/33) Abdullah bin Umar 4fe> related that he heard 
Messenger of Allah ^1 say: "To pass the hands over the Black 
Stone and Rukn-i-Yamaanfi is a source of the expiation of sins." 
He, further, related that he heard the Prophet all say: "Whoever 
makes seven circuits round the House of Ka'bah and did it 
properly (i.e., by showing due regard to rules and proprities), 
this act of his will be equivalent to setting free a slave." And he 
related that he, also, heard it from him, he was saying "when the 
bondsman will put down one foot and raise the other while 
performing the circummbulation, Allah will forigive one sin in 
recompense for each step and the reward for one virtuous deed 
will be written down for him." (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: The words Lp c_Jt 1% JUs are translated by us as 
"Whoever makes seven circuits." They could also mean: 

(i) Cirucumambulation the Ka'abah severn times, that would be 
49 circuits, or 

(ii) Circumambulation for seven successive days without break. 
Allah knows best. 

The Black Stone 

jljdl j i^U jjI j <j;i* jjl ol j j) Uilii Jit 

(1001/34) It is related by Abdullah bin Abbas 4& that the 
O. Denoting the south-west corner of The Ka'bah. 



526 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



Messenger of Allah said about the Black Stone: "By God! 
The Lord will confer a new life on it and raise it in such a 
manner, on the Day of Resurrection, that it will have two eyes 
with which it will see and a tongue with which it will speak and 
testify with truth about the bondsmen who will have carried out 
its Istilam." (Tirmizi, Ibn Majah and Daarami) 

Commentary: Apparently, Hajr Aswad is a piece of stone but it is 
vested with a unique spirituality and remembers everyone who 
does its Istilam. On the Day of Final Requital, God will raise it up 
as a seeing and speaking being and it will depose in favour of the 
bondsmen who used to perform its Istilam reverntially. 

J3**3 J-A j** ^4'3 **^3 {?■ cri^ 0 ' ' 

&JI ^jju? Jji ,J3^3 ^4'3 J*) y'J'j r 02 ^3 J**~ w -^ 3 ' 

(1002/34) 'Aabis bin Rabee' narrated "I saw Umar bin Khattab 
he was kissing the Black Stone and saying: '1 know for 
certain that thou art a stone (and there is no attribute of Divinity 
in thee). Thou canst neither benefit nor harm anyone. Had I not 
seen the Prophet ill kissing thee, I would never have done that." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: Sayyidina Umar 4fe> said it openly and for everyone 
to hear so that there remained no possibility of an ignorant or 
newly converted Muslim assuming that there was the attribute of 
God, head and the power to do good or harm in the Black Stone on 
seeing leading men of the Ummah like him kissing it. 

A point of fundamental importance that emerges from 
Sayyidina Umar's 4fe observation is that if a thing is venerated with 
the belief that it is the Command of Allah and the Prophet the 
veneration is justified, but if it is done out of the conviction that it 
has the power over good and evil then it, clearly, is a kind t»f 
polytheism and has no place in the Islamic scheme of things. 

Zikr and Supplication in Tawaf 

j> 1< y s 1> 

U3j \^^Yy^i\ <L*1^- lliJUl ^3 Ujj y\ jlSU Jjii ^JLjj 



Book of Haj j 



527 



(1003/36) Abdullah bin Sa'ib 4|*> related that he heard the 
Prophet £§1 recite the following supplication between Rukn 
Yamaani and Hajr Aswad (during Tawaf): 

"Rabbana uatina fid-duniya hasanataon-wa fil aakhirali 
hasanataon-wa-qina azaabun naar. " (Al-Baqarah2:201) 

(O Allah! I beg of Thee forgiveness and peace in this world and 
the next. O Lord! Give us good in this world and good in the 
Hereafter, and defend us from the torment of Fire). (Abu Dawood) 

U3j ill*- dljl ^ Uj'I l2»j e^T^j l^SAjl ^ 4-3l*Jj 

(1004/37) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4tk> that the Messenger 
of Allah H§l said: "Seventy angels are posted at Rukn-Yctmaani 
who say Amen at the supplication of the bondsman who makes 
this prayer near it: 

AUahumma in-ni as'alitkal 'afwo wal 'aafiyata fid-duniya 
wal-aakhira. Rabbana aatina fid-duniya hasanataon-wa fil 
aakherati hasanataon-wa qina azaabun naar. 

(O Allah! I beg of Thee forgiveness and peace in this world and 
the next. O Lord! Give us good in this world and good in the 
Hereafter, and defend us from the torment of Fire) (Ibn-e-Majah) 

Importance of the Halt at Arafat 

As we pointed out earlier, the stay at Arafat, on the 9th of Zul 
Hajjah, is the most important event of the Hajj. If a pilgrim is 
blessed with it even for a moment, he is blessed with the Hajj, and 
if, for some reason, he fails to reach there on the 9th or night 



528 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



following it, his Hajj is rendered void. There is some atonement or 
reparation for the omission of all the other rites of the Hajj, like 
Tawaf, Sa'ee and Rami but it is impossible to make amends for 
failure to carry out Wuqoof 'for whatever reason. 

<UJ( JJfi Jl5 JgtflUt ^ju Ji JJ~)\xs- If ( \ . . o/r A) 
jki>i\ ^jit" J4* 3Ju is_^ Ojii ^ ii^P ^AJi Jji (»JL^j aJIp 
J>j fa ^9 JJjUj isXJ ^ 

(1005/38) Abdul Rahman bin Ya'mar Duali narrated that he 
heard the Prophet lH say: "The most important rite of the Hajj 
(upon which depends its fulfilment) is the halt at Arafat. The 
pilgrim who reaches Arafat even during the night of Muzdalifa 
(i.e., between the 9th and 10th of Zul Hajjah), before daybreak, 
he has performed the Hajj and his Hajj has been carried out. 
(After Yaum-un-Nahr i.e., the 10th Zul Hajjah there are three 
days of stay at Mina. If anyone departs from Mina earlier after 
(performing Rami) only on two days (on the 11th and 12th), 
there is no harm in it, and if anyone stays there for an additional 
day and departs (after performing Rami) (on the 13th), there is 
no harm in it also. (Both of these are permissible)". 

(Ibni Majah and Daarami) 

Commentary: The performance of the Hajj being dependent on 
Wuqoof Arafa, latitude has been given to the pilgrims that in case 
they fail to reach Arafat on the 9th of Zul Hajjah, which is the real 
time for Wuqoof, their Wuqoof will be deemed to have been 
completed and Hajj accomplished if they manage to reach there in 
any part of the night between the 9th and 10th. 

After Yaumul Arafa there is Yaum-un-Nahr, on the 10th, on 
which the restrictions of Ihram come to an end with the 
performance of Rami against one Jamra, and Qurbani, and Halq 
etc.,. On the same day, Tawaf Ziyarat is carried out by going to 
Makkah. Among the rites of the Hajj, after it, is the throwing of 
pebbles at all the three Jamras by staying at Mina for two to three 
days. 



Book of Hajj 



529 



Jjjii^ Aii j ii^P ^ jiJi ii^ 4j iii jsi5 j* 'J^ (y 

(1006/39) It is related by Sayyidah Ayshah that the 

Messenger of Allah ill said: "On no other day God decides in a 
greater measure for release of His bondsmen from Hell than on 
the Day of Arafat (i.e., the decision for the forgiveness and 
freedom from Hell of sinning bondsmen is taken on the largest 
scale in the year, on the Day of Arafat). On that day, God comes 
very close to the bondsmen (present in Arafat) with His 
Attribute of Mercy, and feeling proud of them says to the 
angels: Do you see with what object these bondsmen of Mine 
have come here?" (Muslim) 

Jjl J^»j ft jlj' J> &\xis> jj i^Jt j£ (S . . V/i • ) 
iLii V j 'j&s *ij *i j yufi\ <u/jȣ>'jj jikLJi ^Yj U JiS ^L*} 
jt> Jji U^Ji J>J ^ ^ UJ "5) t_fb Uj ii^p ^? il. 

(1007/40) It is related by Talha bin Ubaidah bin Kareez, a 
Taba'ee that the Prophet Hi said: "Satan never feels more 
dejected, humiliated and crestfallen than on the day of Arafat for 
the simple reason that, on that day, he sees the Mercy of the 
Lord descending upon the earth (like a torrent of rain), and 
grievous sins being forgiven)." 

(Muwatta Imam Malik (by way of a Mursal) 

Commentary: When thousands, nay millions of people,- attired 
like beggars, assemble at Arafat on the 9th of Zul Hajjah, which is 
a special day for the descent of Divine favours, and beseech the 
Lord devoutly for forgiveness for themselves as well as for others 
and cry and bewail before Him, the boundless sea of compassion of 
the Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful Lord is aroused and He gives 
such extraordinary decisions of forgiveness in favour of erring 
bondsmen that the Devil feels extremely bitter and heart broken. 



530 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



Rami Jamrat 

In Mina there are three pillars, built at some distance from one 
another. These are called Jamrat. To throw pebbles at them, also, 
is a rite of the Hajj. Seven pebbles are to be thrown at every pillar 
on the 11th, 12th and 13th of Zid Hajjah. Manifestly, there is no 
virtue in throwing pebbles by itself but every act becomes an act of 
worship at the command of God, and servility, in its essence, 
denotes neither more nor less than that the orders, dicates and 
ordinances of Allah are carried out willingly and with good grace. 
Besides, when the bondsmen of God, with the conviction of His 
Power and Majesty firmly embedded in the mind and the cry of 
Allah-u-Akbar on the lips, throw pebbles, at His command, at 
Jamrat, believing that their target, in reality, are the satanic 
notions, desires and practices, and they are actually stoning 
sinfulness and perversion to death, the heavenly joy they 
experience defies all descriptions. In any case, to throw pebbles at 
Jamrat, in the name of God and at His bidding, is a Faith-sitrring 
event for those who know. 



Sa'ee between Safa and Marwa, and to circumambulate are (not 
things of sport) (but) aids to the intensity and fulness of the 



Messenger of Allah aH carried out Rami against Jamra Uqaba 
on the 10th of Zul Hajjah in the morning, and after that, he 
carried out Rami agtainst (all) the (three) Jamrat on the days of 
Tashriq} after the declining of the sun. (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: The same is the prescribed method of carrying out 
O. Meaning the 11th, 12th, and 13th of Zul Hajjah. 




remembrance of God. 



(Tirmizi and Daarami) 




Book o f Hajj 



531 



Rami. On the 10th of Zid Hajjah the Rami against Jamra Uqaba 
should be carried out before noon, and, on the subsequent days, 
when the sun has begun to decline from the meridian. 

dUof JS j^si uU^ ^JJ J* C~J1 

(1010/43) It is related on the authority of Abdullah bin Mas'ud 
4fe that he came to Jamra Kubra (i.e., Jamra Uqaba) for 
performing Rami and stood facing it so that the House of God 
(i.e., Makkah) was to his left and Mina to his right. After it, he 
threw seven pebbles at the Jamra and said AlIah-u-Akbar at 
each thorw. he, then, said, "In the same manner had the blessed 
one carried out Rami to whom Surah Al-Baqara (in which the 
commands and rites of the Hajj are given) was revealed." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: Sayyidina Abdullah bin Mas'ud remembered, in 
detail, how the sacred Prophet Hfe used to perform Rami, and he 
showed it to the people by doing so himself. 

'Js- '^'ji pL*>j a11\ J** ^\ cJlj Jli y\* (\ - \ \/i I) 

(1011/44) Jabir narrated "1 saw the Prophet all performing 
Rami, on the 10th of Zul Hajjah, seated on the back of his 
camel. At that time, he was saying: 'I do not know if I will 
perform another Hajj after it (and you will have an opportunity 
of learnig about it from me in future)'." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: When the holy Prophet reached Mina from 
Muzdalifa on his camel, he carried out Rami against Jamra Uqaba 
in the same state, i.e., in the state of being mounted so that people 
could see him performing the Rami and learn how it was to be 
done and make enquiries from him about the rites of the Hajj. But 
on the second and third days, he carried it out on foot. The rite, 
however, can be performed both on foot and mounted. 



532 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 

^L-j UIji ijJ: [gjL £if iii yJ> Jj\ j* JC> 0 * ^ 

c4}j s &*> Jj^ ^ p &&s> 1j S 1 *^- ^ Jf* 

(1012/45) Saalim bin Abdullah related about his father, 
Abdullah bin Uamr "his custom about Rami was that he 
threw seven pebbles at the first Jamra, and said Allah-u-Akbar 
at every throw, and, then, came down to the low ground in front, 
and stood there facing the Qibla and supplicating the Lord, with 
his hands raised, for a long time. After that, he, in the same way, 
threw seven pebbles at the middle Jamra, and said 
Allah-u-Akbar at every throw, and, then, came down to the low 
ground on the left hand side, and stood there facing the Qibla 
and beseeching the Lord, with his hands raised, for a long time. 
After that, he threw seven pebbles from the bottom of the valley 
at the last Jamra (i.e., Jamra Uqabah) and said Allah-u-Akbar 
at each throw but instead of staying near it, he returned. He used 
to say that 'I have seen the Messenger of Allah ill carrying out 
Rami in the same manner'." (Bukhari) 

Commentary: It shows that after the Rami of the first two Jamrat 
the holy Prophet m> stood near them and prayed to God for a long 
time, with his face towards the Qiblah, but turned immediately 
after carrying out Rami against the third Jamra. This is the 
Musnoon way but, unfortunately, few people know and follow it 
today. 

Qurbani 

Traditions regarding Qurbani have been discussed earlier. 
Here, however, we will take up one more. 



Book of Hajj 



533 



^liJai C~uj( J~«> OUli j»JL»j aIU illl ^JJfi <UJt J^j^J 

(1013/46) It is related by Abdullah bin Qurth 4® that the 
Prophet III said:"In the sight of Allah, the greatest day is 
Yaum-un-Nahr (the Day of Qurbani) (i.e., the 10th of Zul 
Hajjah), (meaning that like Yaumul-Arfa, Yaum-un-Nahr, too, is 
a day of utmost significance). After it is the day next to it, i.e., 
Yaumul Qarr (or the 1 1th of Zul Hajjah). (Thus, Qurbani 
should be carried out, as far as possible, on the 10th of Zul 
Hajjah or , at the latest, on the 1 1th. If it is performed after that, 
on the 12th of Zul Hajjah, the duty will be fulfilled but it will be 
wholly lacking in goodness)." The narrator, then, described an 
unusual thing he had witnessed. He said that, once, five or six 
camels were brought to the Prophet $H for Qurbani and every 
one of them struggled to get close to him so that it was the first 
to be killed as a sacrifice. (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: God has the power to endue not only animals but 
clay and stones as well with consciousness of events that are taking 
place around them. The five or six camels brought to the Prophet 
had been made aware by God how glorious it was to be offered 
by the sacred Prophet $H as a sacrifice in His path, and, therefore, 
each of them wanted to come near the Prophet Hi in order that it 
was slaughtered before the others. 

^ ^Lj 4& iJUl JU ^ I jJ Jt! ^ tft ^ UL» j£ 0 . <i l/l V) 
jJuJl ^Ull iXH ^Ls> ii« Asjj ^jj XilU jJu ykJtL y& p£ju 

\Yj*s\j \'y*4*i 'jj^ Jis (^uii f uli li^ ur jiii Jji j^>i » jlil 

(1014/47) It is related by Sayyidina Salmah bin Al-Akwa 4& 
that the Prophet iH said, "Those of you who make a sacrifice 
must not have any of it in their house after three days." The next 
year the people asked him whethere they should do as they had 
done the previous year, he said, "Eat, provide for others and 
store some up, for that year there was distress among the people 



534 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



and I wanted you to help them. 



(Bukhari and Muslim) 




(1015/48) Nubaysha 4fe reported that the Messenger of Allah 



lap said, "I forbade you to eat their meat for more than three 
days in order that you might have abundance (for charity). But, 
may Allah, has produeced abundance, so you may eat, store up 
and seek reward. These are days of eating, drinking and 



Commentary: We learn from the two foregoing hadith that we are 
allowed to eat and store up the sacrifical meat as long as we like. 
The second hadith concludes with the information that Allah likes 
His slaves to eat and drink during the days of Tashriq. However, 
we must keep up the remembrance of Allah during these days by 
extolling Him, declaring His praise and His unity. 

JLUJi Jjj a!}> #\ iiJi j JJJl if J M'Jf\ & ilri 

Tawaf Ziyarat and Tawaf Wada 

The chief aim of the rites of the Hajj and the way they have 
been arranged is the expression of reverence for and deep 
attachment to the House of God which is the distinctive mark of 
Milktt Ibrahimi. Circumambulation, as such, is the first rite of the 
Hajj. after arrival in Makkah, so much so much so that Tahayyatul 
Mas/id is not offered on entering Masjid-ul-Haraam} Tawaf is 
done first, and. then, two Rak'al of Sunna(-ul-Tawaf are offered. 

In common usage, the first Tawaf the pilgrim performs is called 
Tawaf Qudoom, the Tawaf he performs after having carried out the 
rites of Qurbuni and Halq is called Tawaf Ziyarat, and the last 
Tawaf that is to be performed before leaving Makkah for home is 
called Tawaf Wuda\ Thus, the rites of the Hajj begin and with the 
Tawaf of the House of Ka'bah. 




remembrance of Allah. 



(Abu Dawood) 



O. Denoting the area of worship within the sacred enclosure at Makkah. 



Book of Hajj 



535 



(<tsrl» jj! ji jb 4l j j) <U3 jjslii t£ JJ( £-~*dl 

(1016/49) Abdullah bin Abbas 4fe> narrates that the Prophet all 
did not do Ramal in the seven circuits of Tawaf Ziyarat, i.e.. the 
whole of Tawaf was done at usual pace. 

(Abu Dawood and Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: As we have seen, already, the pilgrim has to do 
Ramal in the first three circuits of the Tawaf he performs on arrival 
in Makkah. The holy Prophet Hi and his Companions had done the 
same during the Farewell Hajj, but when the Prophet Hi 
performed Tawaf Ziyarat on the 10th of Zul Hajj ah. on coming 
back to Makkah from Mina, he did not do Ramal, as the above 
Tradition tells. 

(1017/50) It is related by Sayyidah Ayshah 1^* in and Ibn 
Abbas 4fe that the Prophet deferred Tawaf Ziyarat (i.e., 
allowed to be deffered) till the night of the 10th of Zul Hajj ah. 

(Tirmizi, Abu Dawood and Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: It shows that the most appropriate day for Tawaf 
Ziyarat is Yaum-un-Nahr (i.e., the day of Eidul Adha) but the holy 
Prophet Hi has permitted that it can be done in the night, after the 
end of the day of the sacrificial offering of the animals, as well, and 
the Tawaf of that night will be reckoned to be as meritorious as the 
Tawaf of the 10th of Zul Hajjah. 

According to the Arab practice, the date of the night is the date 
of the day coming after it and every night is joined to the 
succeeding day. But for the rite of the Hajj it has been reversed for 
the sake of the pilgrims' convenience and the nights have been 
joined to the days preceding them. Thus, the Tawaf which will be 
carried out in the night, after the passage of the day of 10th of Zul 
Hajjah, will be regarded as having been performed on that day 
though it will be the 1 1th according to the established usage. 



536 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



(1018/51) It is related by Abdullah bin Abbas 4&> that (after 
performing the Hajj) people used to leave for their homes, (and 
they did not care for Tawaf Wada'). The Prophet isH observed: 
"None of you should leave for home till he had made his last 
appearance in the House of God (i.e., performed Tawaf Wada'). 
The woman who is unable to perform the Tawaf owing to 
menstruation is, of course, exempted." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: It shows that earlier the people did not perform 
Tawaf Wada' but started for their native lands after staying at Mina 
till the 12th or 13th of Zul Hajjah and carrying out the rites of 
Rami Jamrat etc. In the above Tradition, the Prophet Hi has 
stressed the importance and obligatoriness of this Tawaf. The 
legists, as such, have held Tawaf Wada' to be indispensable. 
Women, certainly, are free from the operation of the command if 
they are having their periods and can leave Makkah for home 
without carrying out Tawaf Wada'. Otherwise, for all pilgrims 
coming from a foreign land it is necessary to perform this last 
Tawaf with the intention of bidding adieu to the House of Ka'bah 
before starting on the return journey. It should be the final ritual in 
connection with the Hajj. 

(1019/52) It is related by Haris Thaqafi 4fe that the Messenger 
of Allah iH> said: "Whoever performs the Hajj or Umrah, his 
last appearance ought to be in the House of God and his last act, 
Tawaf." (Musnad Ahmad) 

lyiiu pljcAS # cS'jf-\ cJtS b^P *U( 4-iJtP ^ ( \ . Y . /o r> 
^kJ^b {X*>j As- iiji jLe Jjl J}ij ^&si( j Js'ja* c.'yfiti cMte 
j Up illi J~e> 4J» J^V, 'j cJl5 J4^Jb ; J-UJi^i j ci ji 



Book o f Hajj 



537 




(1020/53) Sayyidah Ayshah i^iii^j related to us that "(during 
the Farewell Hajj), I went to the place (called) Tan'eem and 
assumed the Ihrain of Umrah and carried out its rites like Tawaf 
and Sa'ee (during the last night of our stay in Makkah and 
during which we were to leave for Madinah), and the Prophet 
ill waited for me at Abtah (situated between Mina and 
Makkah). When I had completed the Umrah, he ordered the 
people to depart and came to the House of God for Tawaf Wada' 
and carried out the Tawaf 'and left Makkah for Madinah directly 
after it." (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: When Sayyidah Ayshah ^ *»i departed from 
Madinah, she had intended to perform the Tamattu Hajj, but as we 
have seen, her periods began as she was approaching Makkah and 
she could not perform any of the rituals of Umrah. She, 
accrodingly, gave up the idea of Umrah and put on the Ihram of 
Hajj on the 8th of Zul Hajjah, on the advice of the Prophet Hi, and 
performed the Hajj with him. 

When, on the 13th of Zul Hajjah, the Prophet iH returned from 
Mina, after carrying out Rami against Jamrat, he halted at Abtah 
and decided, to spend the night there. On the same night, he told 
Sayyidah Ayshah ^ &\ to go with her brother, Abdul Rahman 
bin Abu Bakr to Tan'eem, outside the territory of Haram, and 
assume there the Ihram for Umrah and return after performing 
Umrah. The same incident has been alluded to in the above Tradition. 

As she came back after performing the Umrah, the Prophet iH 
ordered the Companions to depart. All the pilgrims came to the 
House of Ka'bah from Abtah where the Prophet iH and his 
Companions c^> carried out Tawaf Wada' in the morning and left 
for Madinah immediately after it. 

This Umrah of Sayyidah Ayshah ^ &\ was to make amends 
for the Umrah she could not perform in spite of donning the Ihram. 

We learn, further, from the above report that Tawaf Wada' 
should be performed at the time of departure for home from Makkah. 



Hugging The Multazam 

The protion of the wall of the House Ka'bah between Ka'bah 



538 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



and the Black Stone, which is about two yards long, is called 
Mullazam. It is also among the observances confirmed by the 
practice of the sacred Prophet iH that, if possible, the pilgrims 
should pray to God by hugging it at the end of Tawaf. As the 
Traditions given below will show, the Prophet Hi had done so 
during the Farewell Hajj. 

s S 0 s s- 

* ' 3 ' 3 t" } 3 * ' s > * Is'* t ■> ~ t s / s 3 3 3 

£jl j^sr^l jlklijl aJJl. Jiii tVjk ^r* 

(Jaiilllj^j (^Jl flljj) <tijJl j»JLdj alii- 4JLJ1 ^^Lp iJS\ 

(1021/54) It is related by the Amr bin Shu'ayb. on the authority 
of his father, Shu'ayb, that he said: "1 was carrying out Tawaf 
with my grandfather. Abdullah bin Amr bin al-'Aas 4^s». when I 
saw some people hugging the House of Ka'bah. I, then, asked 
my grandfather to take me there so that I could, also, hug the 
House of Ka'bah like them. The grandfather remarked: "I seek 
the refuge of God against the accursed Devil!" (Meaning, 
probably, that if during Tawaf he hugged any portion of the 
walls of Ka'bah, without particualr regard to Multazam, it 
would be opposed to Sunnah and more pleasing to Satan than to 
God). "When my grandfather had finished Tawaf" related 
shu'ayb, "he came to the protion of the wall of Ka'bah which is 
between the gate of Ka'bah and the Black Stone (and is known 
as Multazam)and said to me: 'I swear by God that this is the 
place which the Prophet ilfe had hugged'." (Baihaqi) 
(In another version of the same Tradition, quoted in Abu 
Dawood, it is stated that Abdullah bin Amr ^> had hugged 
Multazam by placing his face and chest against it, with his arms 
spread to the full, and said: "I had seen the Prophet life carrying 
it out like that )." 

Commentary: It tells that the hugging of Multazam ought to be 
done at the end of Tawaf and the proper place for it is the portion 
of the wall of the House of Ka'bah between Ka'bah and the Black 
Stone. 



HOLY CITIES OF 
MAKKAH AND MADINAH 

Sanctity of Makkah 

Allah has declared Ka'bah His Bay! or House and owing to the 
same association, the town of Makkah in which it is situated is 
called Baldullaalnil Han/am, i.e., the Sanctified City of God. Or, 
in other words, just as, among all the houses in the world, Ka'bah 
enjoys a unique association with God, among all the towns, 
Makkah is blessed w ith a singular affinity with Him. On the same 
ground, again, the outlying territory on all sides of the town, for 
several miles, has been marked out as Haram i.e., worthy of 
respect, and extraordinary rules and proprieties are laid down for it. 
Thus, many things that are allowed all over the world are 
prohibited within it. such as, hunting, warfare, felling of trees or 
striking of them for leaves. All such acts are condemned as sinful. 

The territory of Haram was, first, demarcated by Sayyidina 
Ibrahim and. after him, the sacred Prophet redefined the 
boundaries. The whole area, as one would say, forms the courtyard 
of the Sanctified Town of God and commands the same respect as 
the city of Makkah. 

jU> Jjl Jji^ Jli JlS ^jjAift Sjt jj ^ Jpts, ^p ( \ . Y Y/o o) 

(AirU jjI t\ jj) \yL^> 

(1022/55) It is related by Ayyash bin Abu Rabia'h 4& that the 
Messenger of Allah ill said: "My followers will remain with 
safety and well-being as long as they show respect to the Haram 
and render the claim of reveence to it and will be destroyed 
when they cease to do so." (Ibn Majah) 



540 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



Commentary: It shows that the veneration of the House of God, 
the City of God, i.e., Makkah, and the whole of Haram is a mark of 
true devotion and loyalty to Him. As long as this virtue will be 
present among the Muslims, collectively, God will be their 
Protector and they will live with honour and security and when 
they will become devoid of it, as a whole, they will forfieit the 
claim to the benign care of the Lord and all sorts of calamities will 
start visiting them. 

Though owing to modern facilities of travel and some other 
reasons the number of pirlgrims has increased manifold, the 
standard of veneration has fallen and it is one ofthe reasons why 
the Ummah everywhere, has got deprived of the help and 
protection of God. 

Jit Jji ^y- j4* J^j^'j ^j*-"^' j^ - fjd JLOt lift 

(1023/56) It is related on the authority of Abdullah bin Abbas 
*1^> that, on the day of the Victory of Makkah, the Prophet 
said: "Migration has ceased from today but Jihad and Niyat 
remain. Start out, at once, when you are called up for Faith." 
The Prophet further, said: "God has granted sanctity to this 
town of Makkah from the day on which He created the heavens 
and the earth. (This sanctity will endure till the end of time). 
Even before me warfare was forbidden within it, and to me, 
also, it was allowed (only) for a short time of the day .Now it is 
forbidden, with the sanctity of Allah, till the Last Day, and, also, 
any other act which may infringe on the solemnity and 
sacredness of this place. In it, neither a thorn can be plucked nor 
a straw broken nor a bird or animal driven for game nor an 
article (dropped by anyone) picked up except by one who makes 



Book of Hajj 



541 



an announcement of it, according to law." (Upone it), (the 
Prophet's Hi uncle), Abbas, requested that Izkhar^ might be 
excluded from it as ironsmiths, often, used it and it was, also, 
needed for making roofs. The Prophet £§1, then, omitted it. 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: In it, two commands of the sacred Prophet HH are 
mentioned which he had, particularly, given on the day of the 
Vicotry of Makkah. The first was that "Migration has ceased from 
today", in order to understand which it is necessary to know that 
when, before the Victory of Makkah, the Pagans held sway over it 
and they were such inveterate enemies of Faith that it was not 
possible for a Muslim living there to follow his religion, the order 
was that anyone who embraced Islam in Makkah should, 
circumstances permitting, migrated from Makkah to Madinah 
which in those days, was the only sanctuary of Muslims and centre 
for teaching and learning the Islamic way of life in the world. In 
those special conditions, anyhow, Migration was a duty and 
possessed great merit and importance. But as, in the 8th A.H., 
Islam became supreme in Makkah as well, the need for Migration 
ended, and, hence, on the day of the victory of Makkah the Prophet 
lH proclaimed that Migration had "ceased". The announcement, 
naturally, caused much disappointment to those who had only then 
been favoured with the boon and blessing of Islam but were 
deprived of the opportunity to have a share in the propitiousness of 
Migration by the Commandment. As a redress to their grief and 
regret, the Prophet Hi observed that though Migration had come to 
an end, the door of Jihad and of the resolve to obey the Divine 
laws and readiness to make every sacrifice for the glory of the 
Word of God was open and everyone could attain the heights of 
virtue and felicity by means of those endeavours. 

The other proclamation made by the Prophet HH, on that day, 
was that the sanctity of the city of Makkah which had been coming 
down the ages was not merely traditional or the brainwave of an 
individual or group but stemmed from an eternal Command of the 
Lord. It had been enjoined by God that Makkah should be held in 
exceptional esteem and reverence till the end of the world. That 
0. A kind of aromatic grass. 



542 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



was why, even Jihad which was worship of a very high order was 
not permitted in it. It had been allowed only to him and that, too, 
for a limited time and the permission had ended with the expiry of 
those few hours and now no one could wage war within it till the 
Doomsday. 

(1024/57) Jabir 4® related that the Prophet H said: "It is not 
permitted to a Muslim to take up arms in Makkah." (Muslim) 



JL> aJJ' Jj^j ^ f ^ "/}5 t^ol^-t \$ 'J jist alii Jji iti'y$\ 

3 3' 3 ' ' } S3* 3^-3 is * S3 6 ^ f Ji 

ij j-aj'j ^3 alpjj <^b Asiw ^siJl ^jj l*Jl jiJLij aIJLp 4JLJ1 

J ^ 6 s s f s 3s \ €> s s s 

Vj bOl# ujCfl.l) Si* f JjJ'j iy?i ^3jj "AS bJl 

^ « * <2 3 } s " ^ / ' 1* s ' 7 * ^ <r s ' / % 3 s 

^ j C* <* j s 3 //J Jl / s* s 3 t 3 s s 3 £ s s ^ 

t_Jl*Jl JbabiJ! ^IJj (^^L; l^iiyo ^ jJ( Lgxi COlP A3j jl^Jl 

bi b w^lo jQil bt Jli Jli ? j'yU 33 JiSU ^Jji is>XSS 

(jii— ■ j i£jb«Jl a( jj) 

(1025/58) It is related on the authority of Shurayh Adawi 
that he said to 'Amr bin Sa'eed when (he was the Governer of 
Makkah during the reign of Yazid, and) was despatching the 
army (at his command) to invade Makkah (against Abdullah bin 
al-Zubair 4fe): "O Amir (i.e., leader)! Permit me to tell you of 
the proclamation of the Prophet ill had made (in Makkah) on 
the day following the Victory of Makkah. I had heard it with my 
own ears and my mind had preserved it and my eyes were 
seeing him when he gave utterance to it. He (i.e., the Prophet 
£Ho, first, praised the Lord, and, then said: 'God has declared 
Makkah and its outlying territories holy. The decision 



Book ofHujj 



543 



concerning its sacredness has been taken by Last day, to him it 
is forbidden to wage war, even to cut down trees, in it.' (The 
Prophet added): 'If anyone sees justification for war in the 
military operation carried out by me, tell him that God has 
permitted (it to) the Prophet lH, and He has not permitted it to 
thee, and to me, also, it was permitted (temporarily) for a short 
time of the day, and sanctity has retunred (to Makkah) after the 
expiry of that period of time, and now, there is no justification 
for it till the Day of Resurrection.' (With it, the Prophet &§l had, 
also, said that ) 'those who are present and have heard me should 
convey it to others'. (It is for this reason, O Amir, and in 
compliance with this command of the Prophet &§l that 1 have 
communicated it to you)." Someone asked what reply did 'Amr 
bin Sa'eed 4fe> give. Abu Shurayh 'Adawi 4& replied that Ami- 
bin Sa'eed said: "O Abu Shurayh! I know (about) these 
things more than you. Haram does not give protection to the 
rebel or to a person who runs away after killing anyone unjustly 
or doing harm to him (i.e., action can be taken against such a 
man even in Haram)". (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: The exploitation of Islam, for selfish ends, by 
unscupulous men, and the distortion of its laws and precepts during 
the first century marks a most painful chapter of its history. Abu 
Shurayh 'Adawi <*§e> who was a Companion of the Prophet lH, did 
his duty by speaking the turth in front of the Umayyad Governor. 
Amr bin Sa'eed and telling him plainly what the Prophet Hi 
had proclaimed. 

It is not mentioned in this Tradition whether Abu Shurayh 4fe 
had made any comment on the reply givne by Amr bin Sa'eed 4fe 
but in the account of the same incident quoted in Abu Dawood it is 
added that he had observed: "When the Prophet iH had said it on 
the day of the Victory of Makkah, I was present while you were 
not, and he had ordered us that those who were present should 
communicate it to those who were absent. 1 have carried out the 
command of the Prophet lH and transmitted it to you." 

The above remark implies that those before whom the sacred 
Prophet b|I had made the proclamation were in a better position to 
appreciate its meaning and purpose. 



544 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



i~J-\j aUi (j^;! A-Ulj J 15* liilj ^JLi) aIIp <UJl 

d4>U ^Jl; £Jr f\ 'J\ VjJ j Jjl Jl ill j> jt 

(1026/59) It is related by Abdullah bin 'Adi 4|s> that he saw that 
the Messenger of Allah $H was standing on top of Hazawrah^ 
and, addressing Makkah, he was saying: "By God! Thou art the 
best place on God's earth and most beloved in His sight. Had 1 
not been forced to leave thee and migrate I would never have 
done so." (Tirmizi and Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: It emphasises that Makkah is the best and most 
sacred place in the world. It is the most beloved town in the sight 
of God. It could, indeed, not have been otherwise for if the House 
of Ka'bah not situated in it which is the fore most seat of His 
epiphany and the eternal Qibla of the Believers and around which 
the Prophet Hi, himself, used to curcumambulate and facing which 
he offered his prayers (Salah)! 

(jjX» jsJl at jj) <-Os* 

(1027/60) It is related by Abdullah bin Abbas that the 
Messenger of Allah addressing Makkah, said: "What a holy 
city thou art and how much do 1 love thee! Had my community 
not driven me out, I would never have left thee and gone to live 
at any other place." (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: It is not clear from the aforementioned Tradition 
when had the Prophet ^ spoken these words. But as reards 
Abdullah bin Abbas's <$k> narrative the commenators believe that it 
had taken place when the Prophet 0 was returning after the 
Victory of Makkah. 

Glory of Madinah 

It is the practice of the Scholars to relate the merits of Makkah 
O. The name of a low hill in Makkah. 



Book ofHajj 



545 



in the chapter of Hajj and follow it with merits of Madinah, we 
emulate that practice. 

ills- Juip Jjt J 1 ^ ~*f** J* 0 * YA/1 \ ) 

^ s s s ^ ^> ^ \ ^ 3. * 6 

(1028/61) Jabir bin Samurah 4fe narrated that he heard the 
Prophet III say: "God has given the name of Taabah to 
Madinah." (Muslim) 

Commentary: AH the three words, Taabah, Teebah and Tayyabah 
denote sanctity and charm. God named Madinah, Taabah and made 
it like that. The joy and serenity it imparts to the soul is not 
equalled by any other place in the world. 

(1029/62) It is related by Abu Sa'eed Khudri that the 
Prophet ^ said: "Sayyidina Ibrahim $M had marked out 
Makkah as Haram, and 1 declare Madinah as Haram. The entire 
territory between the mountain passes on the two sides of it is 
worthy of respect. Blood must not be shed in it nor arms taken 
up against anyone nor trees struck for leaves except for the 
fodder of animals." (Muslim) 

Commentary: It shows that like Makkah, Madinah, too, is 
deserving of respect and everything inimical to the spirit of sanctity 
and reverence is forbidden within its limits but the commands for it 
are not exactly the same as for the Haram of Makkah as is evident 
from thisTradition as well. In it, while striking the trees for fodders 
is allowed in Madinah, it is prohibited in Makkah. 

& s 3 s 3 s s ^ j ' ' ' 3 3 " ' ' * } 3 * ' ' » ' ' s s 3s 



546 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



ft li^i jt \Zi* ti £j£ 4\ l# j H j£ U-\ d£ 

(1030/63) It is related by Sa'd bin Abu Waqas 4§& that the 
Messenger of Allah Hi said: " I declare the territory of Madinah 
between the mountain ranges on both the sides of it as Haram 
and enjoin that not even its thorny trees be cut down nor the 
animals living in it killed for game." (He added that "in spite of 
the scarcity of certain necessities of life) Madinah is good for 
the people and if they knew how blessed this town is (they 
would never leave it because of a difficulty or inconvenience). 
Whoever leaves it of his own accord, God will send, in his 
place, a bondsman who will be better than him, and whoever 
will bear the hardness of life patiently and stay in it, 1 shall 
intercede for him on the Day of Judgement and give evidence in 
his favour." (Muslim) 

Commentary: Intercession to get sins forgiven and evidence that 
he is a righteous believer patiently bearing hardship in Madinah. 

s *■ s 6 s i i< y ^ £ ' ' jt " 

'j^dd Jli ^L>j a^p JJJi JL> 4JJ1 3! Y£jk [^\ ( \ .nm> 

(1031/64) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4& that the Prophet H 
said: "Whichever of my followers will endure patiently the 
hardship of Madinah, I shall plead, on his behalf, on the Day of 
Judgement." (Muslim) 

J\ a* tjbr o^sJl Jj( j\j \i\ J-uJl jlT JV5 ijJy> 'J} 'J. ( \ . r Y/n o) 
ujjpii uij cl^ipi it} uITjUp ^ii j <—£iij <-jiJ>j 

4-lsuu3 4) jjj jjfi\ I^PJb JlS £j iii 4lL j i£iJ ^IpiU JjLj ^Ui) 

( ( JLw.9(jj) jiJlu-^Jb 

(1032/65) Abu Hurayrah 4^> related to us that it was the custom 
of the people (of Madinah) that whenever they saw the first fruit 
of the season on a tree, they presented it to the Prophet iH$k. The 



Book of 'Hajj 



547 



Prophet a§l accepted it and prayed: "O God! Grant abundance in 
our ful'its and crops, and grant abundance in our city of 
Madinah. and grant abundance in our Sa'a and Mudd. O God! 
Ibrahim was Thy chosen bondsman and Thy Friend and 
Messenger and I, too, am Thy slave and Messen ger 
He had implored Thee for Makkah, and 1 make the same 
supplication to Thee for Madinah, and with addition." The 
Prophet |§l would, then, call some litle child to him and give 
him the fruit. (Muslim) 

Commentary: Abundance in crop and fruits, apparently, denotes 
that more and more of them were produced, and abundance in 
Makkah. that it nourished and there was the favour of Allah on its 
citizens. Sa'a and Mudd are grain measures and what the 
supplication here means is that a Sa'a or Mudd of foodgrains 
sufficed for more people or days than it usually did. 

The supplication of Sayyidina Ibrahim alluded to in this 
saying has, also, been mentioned in the Qur'an. When he had 
settled his small family in the uncultivable valley of Makkah, 
Sayyidina Ibrahim f$sB\ had prayed: 

(Our Allah)! So incilne some hearts of men that may yearn 
toward them and provide Thou them with fruits in order that 
they may be grateful. (Ibrahim 14:37) 

Referring to Syyidina Ibrahim's suppliation as a precedent, 
the Prophet Hi used to beseech the Lord in the same vein for the 
people of Madinah. A distinct effect of it is that Believers all over 
the world have an indentical, or, rather / great love for Madinah 
than Makkah. 

The Prophet Hi has described Sayyidina Ibrahim SSBl "Chosen 
bondsman, Friend and Messenger of God while, for himself, 
he has used the words of "Slave" and "Messenger ", and omitted to 
say that he was, also, the Beloved of the Lord. This modesty and 
unpretentiousness was an essential part of his disposition. 

The offering of the first fruit of the season to a child contains 
the lesson that, on such occasions, preference should be given to 



548 



Mean ing and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



innocent children. 

j * * ' f > j**' ******* **f** " ' d % ** * 

(1033/66) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4fe that the Messenger 
of Allah iH said: "The Hour (of Doom) Shall not be until 
Madinah has thrown away its vicious elements as the furnace of 
the ironsmith removes impurities from iron." (Muslim) 

Commentary: It shows that before the occurrence of the Last Day 
Madinah will be purged clean of all the people with despicable 
beliefs, ideas or morals. 

(1034/67) It is related by Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger 
of Allah iil said: "Angels are stationed at the roads leading to 
Madinah. Plague and Dajjafi cannot come into it." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: In some Traditions it is said about Makkah as well 
that Dajjal shall not enter it. It is, perhaps, because of the 
auspiciousness of the prayers made by Sayyidina Ibrahim and 
the sacred Prophet iH for the two cities. 

jA ^Lj till JU till Jj^j JlS Jl5 J>\ ji- (\ . TWVA) 
(tf JU jsJlj JUl?-I al jj) 

(1035/68) It is related by Abdullah bin Umar that the 
Prophet Hi said: "Whoever can strive that death comes to him 
in Madinah should do so (and) die in it. I shall intercede for 
those who die and are buried in Madinah." 

(Musnad Ahmad and Tirmizi) 

Commentary: It does not lie in the hands of anyone to die at the 
place of his choice. But he can wish and pray and, to some extent, 
try for it. For instance, one can go and take up permanent residence 
where one wants to die and the chances are that he will die there. 
O. The Imposter 



Book of Hajj 



549 



The object of this saying is that whoever wants to attain the good 
fortune of dying in Madinah should make an effort for it, as far as 
he can. God, indeed, helps those who strive with a sincere heart. 

tt*2tA Jlii ^liJ( ^ J^-j ^Akli iy>uJb jis*J _^3j LlJbr 

Sj( J jjr^i JlS ciiu jJj dp iJJi Juf> J] 1 J^ij Jlii 

^Lj Up Jjbi jL* Jji j^3 jiil Jji ^? j^iii oiji uji iJl» 

(Su y oi j j) 01 ^ dJj ifw 

(1036/69) It is related, by way of Irsal, on the authority of 
Yahya bin Sa'eed (a Taba'ee) that (once) the Messenger of Allah 
iH was sitting in the graveyard of Madinah where the grave (for 
the burial of a dead body) was being dug. A person looked into 
the grave and remarked, "It is not a good resting-place for a 
Muslim." The Prophet lH said: 'You uttered a very wrong thing 
(i.e.. a Muslim died in Madinah and was blessed with burial in 
it and you say that it was not a good resting-place for him)." 
The man replied: "Messenger of Allah 111! I did not mean that 
(i.e.. I did not say that death and burial in Madinah were not 
good), but what I had in mind was martyrdom in the path of 
God (i.e., it would have been better had brother not died in bed 
and was buried in the grave but had been killed in the cause of 
Allah and his dead body lay in the field of Jihad)." The Prophet 
s§l observed: "Though it is not equal to martyrdom (i.e., the 
place of martyrdom, undoubtedly, is very high but to die and be 
buried in Madinah. also, is a great blessing), there is no place on 
the face of the earth where it may be more pleasing to me to 
have my grave." (Malik) 

Commentary: The purport of the above Tradition, evidently, is 
that notwithstanding the superiority of martyrdom and the fact that 
to die in bed can never be the same as dying in the field of battle 
for a noble cause, to die in Madinah and be buried in it, also, is a 
means of great felicity and the Prophet Hi desired it for himself. 

[After mentioning the sayings concerning the superiority of 
Madinah, Imam Bukhari brings the chapter to a close with the 



550 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



following supplication of Sayyidina Umar 



"O Allah! Bestow upon me 



martyrdom in Thy path and the ^ 35 



good fortune to die and be 



beloved Messenger (i.e., 



buried in the holy city of Thy - • ^ 




Madinah)." 

The circumstances attending this supplication have been related 
by Ibn Sa'd with full documentary evidence. He says that Awf bin 
Maalik Ashja'ee saw in a dream that Sayyidina Umar 4^> had been 
martyred. On hearing of it, Sayyidina Umar wistfully remarked, 
"How can I attain martyrdom when I live in the Peninsula of 
Arabia (all of which has become the House of Islam) and 1 do not 
take part in Jihad personally and the bondsmen of the Lord are 
always surrounding me?" He, then, said by himself, "Why can I not 
attain martyrdom? If God desires, He will bless me with martyrdom 
even in this situation." After it, Umar made the supplication 
upon which his daugher and the Prophet's wife, Sayyidah Hafsah 
i^p <oji ^>j, asked, "How can it be that you are killed in the path of 
God and your death, also, takes place in Madinah." "If God wills," 
replied Sayyidina Umar "both the things can happen." 

It is, further, mentioned in the various accounts of the above 
incident that people were surprised at the strange and seemingly 
impossible supplication of Sayyidina Umar When, however, 
Abu Lulu fatally stabbed him in the Mihrab 1 of the Prophet's Hi 
Mosque, they knew how Sayyidina Umar's 4fe> entreaty was 
destined to be accepted]. 

Superiority of Masjid Nabawi 



The Prophet ill had laid foundation of Masjid Nabawi 2 in 

Madinah, after Migration. It was here that he regualrly offered his 

prayers (Salah) and it, also, served as the centre of his glorious 

mission and of all of his efforts and endeavours in the cause of 

Faith. God has conferred greater eminence and distinction on it 

than on any other place of worship except Masjid al-Haraam. As 

O. Denoting the principal place in the mosque where the Imam stands when he 

leads the congregation. 
©. Meaning the Prophet's Mosque in Madinah. 



Book ofHajj 



551 



authentic Traditions have it, the reward on a prayer offered in it is a 
thousand times greater than in any other mosque. 

£ ju> iut J*? Jjt jj^j jii ji i'jijk^^ (\ . rv/v . > 

(1037/70) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4&> that the Prophet H 
said: "A prayer in this mosque of mine is better than a thousand 
prayers in all the other mosques excluding Masjid al-Haraam. 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: In this Tradition a prayer in Masjid Nabawi is 
declared to be superior to a thousand prayers in any other mosque, 
save Masjid al-Haraam of Makkah, but it is silent on the worth 
and merit of a prayer in Masjid al-Haraam. the sayings given 
below, however, make it clear. 

(1038/71) It is related on the authority of Abdullah bin Zubayr 
4fe that the Messenger of Allah said: "A prayer (Salah) in 
this mosque of mine is superior except Masjid al-Haraam, and 
a prayer in Masjid al-Haraam is superior to a hundred prayers 
in this mosque." (Musnad Ahmad) 

jU ja {L>j &s> till JU aJLI^ Jji} Jl5 Jli^ J*0 -n/V!) 

- i .*!. " 2 'f ' > ; 'i ' 'i'';4.r- 'i ' ' j "T ' . > ' ' : 

(Jt-.jVl^i^ilj-UljJU^Ialjj) JliJl 3 *fjjj olJbiJl 

(1039/72) It is related by Anas that the Messenger of Allah 
said: "Whoever offers 40 prayers in succession, without a 
break, (in this mosque of mine), for him shall be decreed 
Paradise and deliverance from Hell and from Punishment and, 
in the same way, from Hypocrisy." (Musnad Ahmad and Tabaiani) 

Commentary: Some acts lead to exceptional results owing to their 



552 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



pleasureableness in the judgement of Allah. In the above Tradition, 
glad tidings are given on offering 40 prayers (Salah) consecutively 
in Masjid Nabawi that about such a bondsman it is written down 
that he is free from the taint of Hypocrisy and liberation is granted 
to him from Hell and from every kind of chastisement. 

^U^j^iUl J-^Jj' Jj^J J 1 * Jtf5jO*t^(S*0 • 1 • /VT ') 
jtSjUJlaljj) 

(1040/73) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4fe that the Messenger 
of Allah life said: "The place between my house and pulpit is a 
garden among the Gardens of Paradise and my pulpit is upon 
my Pond of Kausar." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: What the phrase, "my pulpit is upon my Pond of 
Kusar", apparently, signifies that as in this world, the sacred 
Prophet life imparted guidance and conveyed the message of God 
from his pulpit, in the same way. in the Hereafter, from the pulpit 
that will be installed on the Pond of Kausar, he will offer goblets 
of benevolence and mercy to those who have accepted the Divine 
Guidance. Hence, whoever was deisrous of drinking the water of 
Kausar on the Day of Resurrection should step forward and accept 
the Call that was being given from the Prophet's pulpit and make it 
his spiritual sustenance in the present existance. 

AssulJt j £l>Jl 4^L~» isli Jll "it Jl^i ili '/pLj 

(1041/74) It is related by Abu Sa'eed Khudri & that the 
Messenger of Allah said: "There are only three mosques in 
the world, and no other mosque, to which a journey can be 
made. Masjid al-Haraam (in Makkah), Masjid Acjsa (in 
Jerusalem), and this mosque of mine (in madinah)." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: It shows that the distinction that people are 
permitted to travel for worshipping in them is possessed only by 
these three mosques. Otherwise, it is forbidden to undertake a 



Book ofHajj 



553 



journey specifically for offering one's prayers (Salah) in any other 
mosque in any part of the world. 

It should be noted that the above Tradition appertains only to 
mosques and it has nothing to do with travelling for other 
legitimate worldly or religious needs like trade, education, 
preaching and propagation of Faith, and profiting from the 
company of godly men. 



VISITING THE GRAVE OF THE PROPHET 



Though visiting the Rawdah of the sacred Prophet Hi is not a 
part of the Hajj, it has been a regualr practice from the olden times 
that when Muslims, particualrly from distant lands, come for the 
Hajj they, also, take the opportunity to pay a visit to the Prophet's 
HI tomb in Madinah. Thus, in all the standard collections of the 
Traditions, narratives regarding the visiting of the grave of the 
Porphet HI are given at the end of Kitab-ul-Hajj (The Book of 
Pilgrimage), and we shall be following the same practice here as 
well. 

(1042/75) It is related by Abdullah bin Umar 4& that the 
Messenger of Allah Hi said: "Whoever performed the Hajj, and, 
then, paid a visit to my grave, after my death, is like those who 
came to see me in my life-time." (Baihaqi and Tabarani) 

Commentary: It is, generally, accpeted as true in the Ummah that 
the holy Prophet HI, in fact all the Divine Prophets, are alive in 
their luminous graves altohough there is a difference of opinion on 
the nature of this existence. It, again, is established by irrefutable 
evidence and confirmed by the repeated experience of the chosen 
bondsmen of Allah that the Prophet Hi hears the Salaam (i.e., 
Salutation) of those who address it to him on visiting his grave and 
responds to it. In that way, to visit the Prophet's JH grave, after his 
death, and make on'es respectful saluation to him is a form of 
calling at him and saluting him directly and a source of good 
fortune one ought to try to the utmost to avail oneself of. 



556 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part IV 



y^faj^&\Jjp&\ ja ja j>\ ^ ( \ . tr/vi) 

(1043/76) Itis related by Abdullah bin Umar ^ that the Prophet 
Hi said: "Whoever paid a visit to my grave, my intercession 
became due for him." (Ibn Khazeemah, Daar Qutni and Baihaqi) 

Commentary: We have already seen the Traditions, earlier 
denoting that a person cannot, in the real sense, enjoy the fruits of 
Faith unless one's love for the Prophet HI exceeds his the love he 
has for anyone else in the world, save God even for his parents, 
wife and children and for his life, and the visiting of the Prophet's 
grave in Madinah is a natural consequence of his devotion. 

Moreover, the state of the believing heart of the pilgrim at the 
time of the visit, the renewal of the covenant of Faith, the feeling of 
sorrow and repentance at his faults and lapses, the surging forth of 
love for the Prophet Hi and its crystallisation into tears under the 
overwhelming blessedness of adjacency to the Prophet Hi — each 
of these things is so marvellously precious as to lead automatically 
to intercession by the Prophet ^ and even forgiveness by the 
Lord. Without fail, therefore, every truthful pilgrim to the grave of 
the Prophet JH will, lnsha Allah, be favoured with his intercession 
on the Day of Reckoning. Should a pirlgrim, however, feel none of 
these emotions, it would mean that his heart was devoid of the 
effulgence of Faith and the visit was a mere formality. 

When we examine, the Traditions exhorting the Believers to 
visit the grave of the Prophet Hi against the background of these 
advantages, we are induced to believe that whatever one may feel 
about the documentary evidence of their transmission 1 , from the 
point of view of their intrinsic meaning and purport they are wholly 
in accord with both the conceptional and practical design of Islam 
and no right-minded person will have any difficulty in agreeing 
that the visit to the holy grave of the Prophet Hi is immeasurably 
efficacious for the promotion of love and respect for him and an 
unfailing source of spiritual advancement. 

O. Shaikh Taqiuddin Subki has, in Shifa-us-Siqaam (written, according to him 
in refutation of Ibn Taimiya), quoted a number of Traditions 

(Continued on next page) 



Book o/Hajj 557 

. vL^a A-*^- c_Ssjl jj\ Jl 



Continued... appertaining to the virtues of visitng the grave of the Prophet <k^, 
foremost among which is the narrative of Sayyidina Abdullah bin Umar -oil 

we have just seen. After thoroughly discussing its various versions and 
analysing the documentary evidence of its transmission, Sheikh Subki concludes 
that it, at least, belongs to the class of Hasan, i.e., credible and satisfactory 
Traditions. On the other hand. Hafiz Abu Abdullah Abdul Hadi Hanbali, a pupil 
of Ibn Taimiyah remarks in Saarimul Munki, intended to be a rejoinder to 
Shifa-us-Siqaam, that all the Traditions mentioned in it are decidedly below the 
standard of reliability. But he, too, admits that the visitng of the grave of the 
Prophet is a virtuous act, and deserving of Divine reward. He, further points 
out that this was, also, the way of Imam Ibn Taimiyah and those who attribute to 
him what is in contrast with it utter a slander against him. Hafiz Abu Abdullah, 
again, has quoted a Salaam, i.e., a poem conveying one's compliments and 
greetings, composed by Ibn Taimiyah for the pilgrims to the grave of the Prophet 
which is full of the sentiments of love and reverence. 

The most balanced opinion about the grade of Sayyidina Abdullah bin 
Ulnar's -up in ^Jsj report, from the aspect of the chain of its narrators, in our 
view, is of Zahabi. Reffering to it, Mulla Ali Qaari writes in Sharah-i-Shifa "this 
saying has been related in different ways and there are proofs and verifications 
on the basis of which Hafiz Zahabi has pronounced it to be apparently worthy of 
belief." (-Mulla Ali Qaari: Sharh-i-Shifa, Vol. II. p. 149). 



559 



GLOSSARY 

MEANING AND MESSAGE OF TRADITIONS 



A'mal 
Ahadith 
Ahl Kitab 

Allahu Akbar 

Asr 

Azan 

Ansar 

Azl 

Aza) 

Bay'ah 

Bid'ah 

Rarzakh 



JWel 

J* 
Jj' 

£3* 



Du'a 


l« 


Eeman 




Eed 




Fajr 




Fard 




Gbusl 




Hijrah 




Hadith 




Hadith (Saheeh) 




Hadith (Da'eef) 




Hadith (Mursal) 




Hadith (Marfoo') 


Os 


Hadith (Mawdoo') 




Hadith (Qudsi) 




Hajj 


V 


Durood 




Chasht 




Hijab 




Halal 




Ha ram 





(pi of amal) deeds 
pi of Hadith. 

people of the Book. This term is used by the Qur'an for 
Jews and Christians who follow a revealed religion. 

Allah is the Greatest. 

the afternoon salah. 

the call to salah. 

Helper (s) People of Madinah who welcomed the Prophet 
i& and Muhajir from Makkah. 

coitus interruptus. 

eternity. 

covenant of allegiance, 
innovation. 

intervening period between death and resurrection 
whether m grave or otherwise. 

supplication. 

faith, belief in Islam. 

festival Day marking the end of month of fasting is eed 
ul-fitr (1st Shawwal) and day of sacrifice is edd ul-azha. 

the dawn salah 

absolute obligation, an enjoined duty. 

Bathing to remove legal impurity. 

migration. The Prophet's migration to Madinah 
marking the begining of the Islamic calendar. 

A saying, doing or practice, or silent approval of the 
Prophet 

a sound Hadith. 
a weak Hadith 

incompletely transmitted Hadith. 
Hadith traced back to the Prophet 0. 
an invented Hadith. 

That which Allah has said to the Prophet through 
inspirations or dream and he has retold it in his own 
words. 

pilgrimage. It is incumbent on every Muslim who has the 
ability to perform it once in his life time in the month of 
Zul Hajjah. 

a prayer for the Holy Prophet 3$ to the blessed by Allah, 
optional salah in the forenoon. 

veil worn or observed by women, seclusion of women, 
curtain. 

lawful. 

unlawful, forbidden. 



Isha 




night salah before retiring. 


lstidraj 




to give respite to a sinner to defer his punishment and let 
him innolue in more sins, so that he may be punished 
ultimately a severe punishment. 


Istikharah 




seeking guidance from Allah through salah to tackle a 
situation or deed in the right way. 


Istighfar 




to seek forgiveness of Allah. 


Istinja 




abstertion, cleansing of body after relieving oneself. 


Iqamah 




words of azan called to signal the standing up of the 
congregation for salah. An additional phrase is repeated 
twice and the words are called relatively quickly. 


Imam 


f W 


leader of the congretation. 


Ishraq 




optional salah a little after sunrise. 


Istisqa 


tit...-..J 


a prayer (through salah) for rain during drought. 


Iftar 




breaking fast after sunset during Ramadan. 


I'tikaf 




seclusion for the purpose of worshiping Allah. Men do it 
in the mosque and women at home. There are different 
kinds of it, for instance, the last ten days of Ramadan. 


In ram 




the state which a pilgrim assumes during Hajj and Umrah 
imposing certain restrictions on him. 


lddah 




waiting period for a divorced woman or widow after 

which sue may i cm ail y . 


lkhlas 




sincerity. 


Jihad 




war waged solely for the sake of Allah against enemies of 
Islam. 


(J (IVY Hill I tll-IYIIrflll 




brief expressions most comprehensive Ph meaning. 


lizvnh 

vl l /j j all 




the tax imposed on non-Muslims under state protection 
in Muslim countries. 


Jannah 


iwr 


Paradise. 


Jahannam 




i Jell 






kind of dish of meat, flour and spices. 


Kalimah 




(•vrtrACCinn p>vr\ri>ceir\r\ rif iof \ . . 1 . ■ 1 ti vti . It M 
U\pi CSStUIl, VXpi LSSlUil OI OCIICI •jJ^'J *Uk^t_* «UJ1 Jf I 4JI jf 


Khatim ul-Anhiva 




The Seal of Prophets, the last of Prophets. (Prophet 

MnhammnH ?%\ 


Kusoof 




Solar eclipse 


Khusoof 




lunar eclipse. 


Khutbah 




sermon. Friday or eed sermon delivered from the minbar 
ipuipuj. 


IV] u n a j i r 




The Companions of the Prophet i§4 who had migrated to 
Madinah during the Prophet's 0§t life time. 


Musaddiq 




he who confirms or bears witness to a truth. 


Muhaimin 




one who supervises. 


Maghrib 




sunset, the salah after sunset. 


Millar 




faith, religion, creed. 


IVIeezan 




scale. 


Miswak 




a piece of tree's branch or root used as tooth cleaner. 


Muqtadi 


if Jlsit 


the worshippers who follow the Imam in congregational 
salah. 


Mahr 




dower. 



561 



La ilaha illAIJahu 

Muhammadur 

RasoolAllah 

La'nah 

Laylatul Qadr 



Nikah 

Sunnah 

Salah 

Shari'ah 
Sawm 
Sahabah 
Sa'ee 

Sahr or Suhoor 
Satr 

Salaam 
Zakah 

Surah 

Ta'bud 

Tabi'ee 

Tawaf 

Sajdah 

raka'ah 

ruku' 

tashahhud 

tasawwuf 

takbcer 

tahleel 

tasbeeh 

rilawah 

tahajjud 

tayammum 
talbiyah 

tawbah 
Qiblah 

Zuhr 
I mm ah 

Nan 



.W*t»*iJl_lMl1l There is no God but Allah and Muhammad is the 

J Messenger of Allah. 



jjill ilJ Night of power, one of the odd nights in the last ten days 

of Ramadan when the Quran was revealed and which the 
worshipper has to search for. 

Marriage. 

the norm of the Prophet i&, his words and deeds. 

5^-0 prayer (five times a day), fajr, zuhr, asr, maghrib and 

isha. 

**> ji> sacred law of Islam based on Qur'an and sunnah. 

» y-e fasting. 

ijb<_« Companion of the Prophet M. 

^ seven rounds between Safa and Marwah at Makkah 

during the pilgrimage 

jjjw h yw meal taken before dawn to commence fasting. 

ji~> veil, parts of body that need be covered - for men from 
navel down to knee and for women from head to feet. 

fS-. greetings, peace. 

i'jZj .3tS"j purity, purification. A portion or value of property given 

in charity to the poor (as the due of Allah) each year by 
those who qualify the mimimum stipulated wealth. 

«jj-> chapter of the Qur'an. 

Xju absolute worship. 

^•jU one who has seen a Companion or conversed with one. 

jl je circumambulation of the Ka'baji. 

Sj*i~i prostration. 

(pi. raka'at) unit of salah made up of standing, bowing 
and two prostrations. 

£_ j£j bowing down in salah. 

JLfij the recital in the sitting posture in salah. 

i-ij-ai sufisim, adherence to sufism. 

to call out Allahu Akbar. 

JJ^i to say Vi *Ii V (There is no God but Allah). 

£— J to glorify Allah. 

to recite the Qur'an. 

•ij^fi optional salah late in the night on getting up from sleep 
font. 

I**-; dry ablution. 

<JU to recite Labayk: ^St^-i 1 < ^-J^-fUi ^_S_J 
3j y repentance. 

Uj the direction of the ka'bah which worshippers face in 
salah. 

j£> the noon salah when the sun begins to decline. 

1*1 a people or nation, community, who have received a 

message. 

JA additional, optional, supererogatory. 



562 



Qiyamah The Day of Resurrection. 

Sirat ^j-f a narrow bridge that all will have to cross after 

resurrection. 

Kawthar yjf the pond and the river by this name in Paradise. 

Zaqqoom fjlj a tree growing in Hell which is the food of the people of 

Hell. 

Ghassaq JO rubbish and impurity pouring of the bodies of those 

condemned (to Hell). 

Sufi Jj-f an adherent to Sufism, a saint who has reached the end of 

the path. 

Sufism see Tasawwuf. 

Zuhd having no love for the mundane benefits. 

Zikr remembrance of Allah. 

Wudu* j-S»j . ablution. 

Siwak same as miswak. 

waqf religious endowment. 

witr jij odd, the wajib three raka'at salah in the night after isha 

salah. 

wajib v^'j obligatory (slightly less than fard). 

Salatul Hajah AjtIwJi ijLe two raka'at salah to seek fulfilment of need. 

salat ul Khawaf jyJi i'jLe A particular way of offering congregational prayer in the 

battlefield. 

Salat ut Tasbeeh £>~Jt 3jJL» the salah of glorification, a four raka'at salah (optional) 

performed in a particular way. 

Sadaqah *i-Ue charity. 

Sadqatul fitr a charity given after completing fasting before salah of 

Eed ul-fitr. 

Janazah 5jbr funeral. 

Meeqat The place beyond which a pilgrim cannot proceed 

without having assumed the ihram. 

Rami the throwing of pabbles at the Jimar in Mina by the 

pilgrims. 

Jimar (pi. of Jamrah): three stone pillars at Mina at which 

pilgrims throw pebbles. 



563 

INDEX 

MEANING & MESSAGE OF TRADITIONS VOL. II 



A 

Abu Maalik Ash 'an: 21 

Abdullah ibn Abbas: 24, 50f, 60, 66f, 71f, 102, 
124, 132, 137, 149, 184, 203f, 212f, 225, 
243, 254, 269f, 284, 29 If, 302, 311 325, 
339, 346, 352f, 365^ 369, 397, 406, 414, 
430f, 446, 463f, 488, 523 f, 535f, 540, 544 

Abu Hurayrah: 26f, 36f, 44, 51, 58f, 64f, 71, 
88, 102, 121, 129f, 148f, 158, I64f, 169, 
174, 180f, 190f, 198, 206f, 224, 232, 238f, 
248f, 258f, 272f, 280f, 285, 294, 316f, 323f, 
34 If, 367, 378f, 391f, 396f, 401, 406, 4I2t; 
418f, 426, 432f, 438f, 449f, 455, 466f, 479f, 
484 1; 523, 527, 546 f, 55 If 

Ayshah. 29f, 43f, 49f, 6 If, 74, 104f, 136, 144, 
153, 17If, 205f, 216, 233f, 238f, 242f, 253, 
26 If, 281. 296, 306, 310, 317, 325f, 331, 
339, 345, 368, 382, 392, 405, 423 f, 428f, 
433, 440, 446f, 456, 468f, 473f, 492, 500, 
524. 529f 535f 

Abu Ayyub Ansari: 30, 46. 102. 238, 456 

Ali ibn Abu Talib: 30. 52f, 65, 107, 167. 176, 
228, 245. 263. 298f, 339, 374f, 467, 481, 
507f, 51 5f 

Abu Uwanah: 46 

Abu Musa Ash'ari 31. 194. 304. 322f. 332f. 
390 

Abdullah ibn Mughaffal: 32 
Abdullah ibn Sarjis: 32 

Abu Zarr Ghifari: 34. 77. 89. 107. 257f. 394. 
461 

Abdullah ibn Umar: 41, 52f. 641', 103. 124, 
141, 150f, 163f, 196f. 2131', 237f. 241, 278, 
285f. 295f, 316, 330f, 348f, 375, 385, 432f, 
440f. 482f, 490f, 518f, 525. 532. 548, 555f, 
557fn 

Abu Umamah: 44. 1 57, 229, 249, 392f, 420 
Abdullah ibn Zubayr: 49, 231. 551 
Abu Haiyah: 54 

Abdullah ibn Zayd: 55. 109f, 31 1 

Amr ibn Shu'ayb: 56, 139, 538 

Anas: 60, 99f. 107f, 113f, 138, 150f, 159, 166, 
202, 21 If, 282, 288, 294f, 319f, 333, 380, 
388. 395f, 404f. 425 f, 437f, 447f, 516, 551 

Abu Raff: 60 

Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-Aas: 61, 86, 95. 271, 
318, 354, 375, 379, 406, 421, 457, 538 

Abu Bakr: 75f, 175,226f, 361 

Ammar ibn Yasir: 76, 436 

Abu Sa'eed al-Khudri: 77, 99, 122, 136, 21 Of, 
241, 262, 280, 289, 320f, 326, 373, 396, 
440, 447, 451,470f, 545, 552 

Abu Darda: 84, 149, 260 

Abu Buraidah; 81 

Abdullah ibn Mas'ood: 91, 146f, 175, 192, 
197f, 214f, 222f, 320, 332f, 351. 384f, 470, 
483. 531 



Abu Umayr: 110,292 

AbuMahzurah: 114f 

Abu Usayd Sa'di: 134 

Abu Qatadah: 135. 166, 186, 258, 459, 469 

Abdullah ibn Arqam: 153 

Abu Mas'ood Ansari: 155, 162, 201, 400 

Abu Maalik Ash'ari: 158 

Abu Humayd as-Sa'idi: 1721', 196,222 

Abu Hanifah Imam: 182 

Abdullah ibn Abu Awfa: 210, 264 

Abdullah ibn Sa'b: 184 

Abdullah ibn Utbah: 187 

Abu Waqid al-Layth: 192, 293 

Abu Zubayr Numairi: 1$5, 231 

Alqamah: 197 

Abdullah ibn Maalik: 203 

Awn ibn Abdullah: 204 

Awf ibn Maalik: 257, 343 

Abdullah ibn Qubays: 242 

Abdul Aziz ibn Jurayj: 243 

Allah - His Hand: 248 

descent: 248 

face: 248 

sat on the throne: 248 
Amr ibn Abasa: 249 
Aadam. father of mankind: 274 
Aws ibn A*vs Thaqafi. 275 
Abdullah ibn Salaam: 276. 281. 397 
Abu al-Ja'd: 278 
Abdullah ibn Busr: 291 
Abdur Rahman ibn Samurah: 306 
Aamir Abdur Rami: 322 
Abu Burda: 332 
Abdullah ibn Ja'far: 334 
Aamir ibn Sa'd: 347 
Abu Marthad Ghanawi: 350 
Amr ibn Nazim: 351 
aamileen: 377 

Abdul Muttalib ibn Rabee': 380 

Abu Rati': 382 

Asma bint Abu Bakr: 392 

Abu Talhah: 404, 517 

Aas ibn Wail: 407 

Abu Munzir: 425 

Amr ibn al-Aas: 437 

Aamir ibn Rabi': 452 

Abu Ubayd ibn Azhar: 471 

Abbas ibn Muttalib: 510, 541 

Abu Bakrah Thaqafi: 519 

Aabis ibn Rabee": 526 

Abu Abdullah Abdul Hadi: 557fn 

Abdullah ibn Saib: 527 

Abdur Rahman ibn Ya'mar duali: 528 

Abdullah ibn Qurth: 533 

Abdur Rahman ibn Abu Bakr: 537 

Ayyash ibn Abu Rabia'h: 539 

Abu Shurayh Adawi: 542f 



564 



Amr ibn Sa'eed: 542f 
Abdullah ibn Adi: 544 
Abu Lulu: 550 

B 

Baqi, jannatul: 26 
Bilal: 62f, 96, 1081' :i7f, 290, 394 
Buraidalv. 96, 134, 241, 294, 352 
Bara: 188, 196f. 202, 299f 

c 

congregational salah: 40, I45f 
congregational, prolonging: 1651' 
call to prayer: I09f 

D 

devil, horns of: 101 
durood: 219f 
drought: 309 
dajjal: 548 

E 

eclipse: 303 

F 

fitrah: 46 
fuqara: 377 
fi sabilillah: 378 
Fatimah bint Qays: 389 
Fatimah bint Muhammad: 507 
G 

green branch on grave: 24f 
ghaarimeen: 378 

H 

Huzayfah: 45, 204, 21 I. 2561'. 266 

hadas. 63 

Hasan Basri: 140 

Hasan ibn Alt. 244 

Harith ibn Qabisah: 272 

Hamash ibn Abdullah: 298 

Hasan ibn Ali: 325 

Husain ibn Ali: 325 

Husain ibn Wahvvah: 329 

Hamza 340 

Hisham ibn Aamir: 348 

Hubshi ibn Junadah: 383 

Hamzah ibn Salamah: 446 

Hafshah: 461, 550 

Harith Thaqafi: 536 

I 

Ibn Umar (see Abdullah) 
Ibn Abbas (see Abdullah) 
Ibn Mas'ood (see Abdullah) 
Ibrahim. Prophet: 47, 326 
itikaf: 133 

Ibn Taymiyas: 175, 556fn 
lsa. Prophet: 257 
istikhara: 267f 

Ibrahim son of the Prophet. 303, 547f 
Ismail (Prophet): 326 
Ishaq (Prophet): 326 
ibnus Sabil: 378 
Ibn al-Firasi: 385 

Imam Baqar (see Muhammad ibn Ali) 
izkhar: 541 



J 

Jabir. 26, 31, 50f, 84. 1 19f, 126. 193. 158. 182 
189. 198f, 242, 267, 283 f, 290f, 298f, 321, 
327, 350, 4481', 489, 502f 507, 516. 522f, 
530f, 542 

Jibril: 44, 495 

.jihad: 541, 550 

janabat: 64 

Jabbar ibn Sakhr: 1 59 

Jabir ibn Samurah: 183f. 283, 290, 545 

Jubayr ibn Mut'im: 187 

Jawzi: 270fn 

Jundub ibn Abdullah: 301 

Ja'far Sadiq: 349, 502 

Juhfa: 490 

Ja'far ib Muhammad (see Ja'far Sadiq) 
K 

Kalimah: 62 
Ka'b ibn Maalik: 135 
Khallad ibn Rati': 170f 
Ka'b ibn Ujrah: 221 
Kharijah ibn Huzayfa: 241 
Ka'b Ahbaar: 276 
Khallab ibn Sa'ib: 495 

L 

Laqeet ibn Sabirah: 59 
limbs of sajdah: 203 

M 

Mu'ar: 30 
Misvvak: 43 f 
Millat Haniti: 47 
moustaches: 45f 
Mus'ab ibn Shaybah: 49 
Mustawrid ibn Shaddab: 59 
Mu'az ibn Jabal: 61. 165f, 189, 229. 327, 336f. 
366 

Maimoonali: 66 

Muhammad ibn Amr: 98 

Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Zayd: 1 1 1 

Muhammad ibn Ammar: 240 

Maalik ibn Huvvayrith: 121, 197 

Mu'awiyah: 123 

mosques, decoration of. I37f 

Mua'az ibn Abdullah al-Juhani: 184 

Ma'dan ibn Talhali: 208 

Mughirah ibn Shu'bah: 230, 250, 304 

Masrooq: 253 

Mu'azah Adawiyah: 261, 448. 461 
Mahmood Pasha: 303 
Muhammad ibn Khalid Sulami: 321 
Ma'qil: 327 

MujaddidAlf-Thani:334 
Maalik ibn Hubayrah: 346 
masaakeen: 377 
muvvallafatul quloob: 378 
marthad ibn Abdullah: 395 
Mu'az ibn Zuhrah: 442 
Muhammad ibn Ali: 502 
Mulla Ali Qari: 557fn 

N 

Nu'man ibn Basheer: 104, 155f 192, 293 



565 



Nubasha Huzali. 472, 534 
Naff: 521 

P 

Praise of Allah: 21 
patience: 23 

pilpit is on my pond, my: 552 

Q 

Quran: 22 
Qatadah: 104 

Qays ibn Abu Haazim: 165 
qiblah: 169 
Qabisah al-Hilali: 305 
Qatadah ibn Milhan: 462 
Qarnul Manazil: 490 

R 

relieving oneself, manners of: 28 

Rubaiyi: 60 

Raff ibn Khadeej: 105 

Rifaahibn Raff: 170,211 

Rabi'ah ibn Ka'b: 208 

riqaab: 378 

rayyan: 419 

Rabi' ibn Harith: 510 

S 

sadaqah: 22 

Salman Farsi: 27, 279, 415 
salal, wait for: 40 
Shabib ibn Abu Rooh: 42 
Shurayh ibn Hani: 45 
Sa'eed ibn Zayd: 57 
Samurah ibn Jundub: 71. 374 
Sayyar ibn Salaamah: 98 
Sa'd: 120 

Sa'd ibn Abu Waqqas: 126. 228f, 546 

Sharimeen: 378 

Sulayman ibn Yasaar: 190 

Sufyan Suri: 199 

Sa'd ibn Ubadah: 330 

Sulayman ibn Aamir: 402 

Sahl ibn Sa'd: 419, 438, 495 

Salman ibn Jabir: 441 

Suraqa ibn Maalik: 505f 

Saalim ibn Abdullah: 532 

Salamah ibn Akwa: 533 

tasbih: 22. 204 

tahmid: 22 

tahajjud: 45, 106. 179, 207. 235, 243f. 249f, 
263 

Thawban: 40, 230, 323, 386 

Talqq ibn Habib: 49 

talbiya: 124. 503 

Talq ibn Ali Hanafi: 202 

tahajjud: 420 

taraweeh: 420 

tariq ibn Shahab: 278 

Talhah ibn Ubaydah: 529 

Taqiuddin Subki: 556fn 

u 

Umar ibn al-Khattab: 29. 38. 76, 112f 125. 
191 f. 216. 252, 238. 33 If, 361. 370f. 386, 
453,459, 47 If, 512, 526. 550 



Uthman ibn Affan: 35, 53f. 89, 137 
Ubadah ibn Samit: 87, 180, 317 
Uqbah ibn Aamir: 90, 185,204 
Uthman ibn Abu al-Aas: 120 
Uthman ibn Ma'zoon: 133 
Umm Humayd Sa'idiyah: 142 
Umm Habibah: 236, 239 
Usama: 148 
Umm Sulaym: 160 

Umm Salamah: 246, 302. 328f, 375, 524 
Ubayy ibn Ka'b: 165, 243f, 424f 
Ummal-Fadl: 187 
Ubaydah ibn Abu Raff: 191 
Ubaydah ibn Utbah: 192 
Umar ibn Abdul Aziz: 205 
Umm Hani: 261,473 
Ubayd ibn as-Sabbaq: 280 
Ubaydullah ibn Abdullah: 293 
Uthman ibn Abul Aas: 325 
Umm Atiya: 338f 
Ubaydullah ibn Adi: 379 
Umarah ibn Khuzaymah: 495 

w 

Waliullah Shah: 19f. 47, 81f, 114. 143, 182, 

193,277.317,412 
wazifah: 22 

Wathilah ibn al-Asqa: 140, 344f 
Wabisah ibn Ma'bad: 159 
Wail ibn Hajr: 196f.203 
Y 

Ya'la 67 

Yazid ibn Khumair: 291 
Yalamlam: 490 
Yahya ibn Sa'eed: 549 

Z 

Zayd ibn Arqam. 32, 297 

Zakaria ibn Abu Za'idah: 49 

Zayd ibn Khalid: 90, 442 

Ziyad ibn Harith: 120 

Zaynab (Prophet's daughter): 338 

Zubayr ibn Awwam: 387 

Zaynab wife of Abdullah ibn Mas'ood: 403 

Zirr ibn Hubaysh: 424 

zikr: 430, 526 

Zul Hulayfa: 489 

Zaat- Iraq: 490 

Zayd ibn Thabit: 492 

Zahabi: 557fn